12th Cycle Dedication

ERCHIN 2 - Two weeks of study material have been dedicated by Mrs. Estanne Abraham Fawer to honor the twelfth Yahrzeit of her father, Rav Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Rabbi Morton Weiner) Z'L, who passed away on 18 Teves 5760. May the merit of supporting and advancing Dafyomi study -- which was so important to him -- during the weeks of his Yahrzeit serve as an Iluy for his Neshamah.

1)

LABELLING PROHIBITIONS (Yerushalmi Maaser Sheni Perek 5 Halachah 1 Daf 28a)

[דף כח עמוד א] משנה כרם רבעי מציינים אותו בקזוזות של אדמה ושל ערלה בחרסית ושל קברות בסיד וממחה ושופך.

(a)

(Mishnah): Kerem Revai (grapes that are the product of the fourth year of a vine) should be labelled with clumps of earth. Orlah (fruits that grew in the first three years of a tree are prohibited) should be labelled with clay. Graves should be labelled with lime by dissolving it into water and then pouring it on the grave).

אמר רבן שמעון בן גמליאל במה דברים אמורים בשביעית [אבל בשאר שני שבוע הלעיטהו לרשע וימות].

(b)

(R. Shimon ben Gamliel): When is it (that we label Revai and Orlah)? In Sheviis (when all produce is Hefker and anyone may enter a person's field to take it); but in other years (when the person entering is intending to steal), 'Feed it to the wicked man and let him die'.

והצנועין מניחין את המעות ואומר כל הנלקט מזה מחולל על המעות האלו:

(c)

(In those other years) the meticulous people would put down money and say, "Any produce gathered from here should be redeemed onto this money".

גמרא כרם רבעי כו'. זונא שאל לרבי מה ניתני כרם רבעי או נטע רבעי.

(d)

Question (Zuna to Rebbi): What's the correct text of the Mishnayos in this Perek - Kerem Revai or Neta Revai? (Do the laws apply to fourth year grapes of the vineyard or to the fourth year fruits of any young trees?)

אמר לון פוקון שאלון לרבי יצחק רובא דבחנת ליה כל מתניתא נפקון ושאלון ליה. אמר לון קדמיא כרם רבעי ותיניינא נטע רבעי.

(e)

Answer (Rebbi): Go out and ask R. Yitzchak the Great, as I have tested him in all of the correct texts of the Mishnah. They asked him and he answered, "The first (three) Mishnayos are Kerem Revai and the others are Neta Revai". (The laws of fourth year fruit apply to all fruit trees, but the laws of the first three Mishnayos of the Perek are only practically relevant to vineyards, as will be explained.)

ר' זעירא מקבל לסביא דהוון ביומוי דר' יצחק רובא דלא בחנון כל מתנייתא מיניה.

(f)

R. Zeira rebuked the elders who were alive in R. Yitzchak the Great's time, for not being careful to learn Mishnayos from him.

תני כרם רבעי מציינים אותו בקזוזות אדמה שהוא לשעה. ושל ערלה בחרסית בחיוורא שהוא יותר מיכן. ושל קברות בסיד דהוא יותר מיכן.

(g)

(Baraisa): Kerem Revai is labelled with clumps of mud as it is temporary. (Since it is only prohibited until it is redeemed, it is labelled with a sign that only lasts a short period of time.) Orlah is labelled with white clay that lasts longer (as the prohibition applies to fruits of the first three years of a tree). Graves are labelled with lime, which last longer (as their prohibition is permanent).

תני רבי תחליפא בן שאול אם היו יחידות תולה בהן אזני חביות.

(h)

Baraisa (R. Tachlifa ben Shaul): If there were just single vines (rather than a vineyard), he labels them by hanging on them gloves for holding barrels.

רבי זעירא בעי למה לי נן אמרין כל אחד ואחד לפי מה שהוא. כהדא דתני אילן של הקדש סוקרין אותו בסיקרא.

(i)

Question (R. Zeira): Why don't we say that each type of item labelled according to its nature (e.g. graves are labelled with lime since it is white like bones)? As we find in a Tosefta that a tree of Hekdesh is painted with red dye (reminiscent of the red line that circled the Mizbeach)...?

בתי עבודה זרה מפחמין אותן בפחמין. בית מנוגע נותנין עליו אפר מקלה. מקום הרוג בדם. מקום עגלה ערופה בחגורה של אבנים.

(j)

Houses of idolatry are marked in black from coals (indicating that it is supposed to be burned). A house with Tzora'as has ashes put on it (indicating that it is supposed to be broken down (until it is dust). A place where a murder victim was found is painted with blood (in order to measure the distance to the nearest city, for the law of Eglah Arufah. See Devarim 21:1-9). The place where an Eglah Arufah was killed is marked with a belt of stones (indicating that one may not cultivate the land there).

וחש לומר שמא אילן שהוא מנבל פירותיו הוא. ולא כן תני אילן שהוא מנבל פירותיו סוקרין אותו בסיקרא ומטעינין אותו אבנים ומבהתין ליה די עבד.

(k)

Question: (The Tosefta taught that a tree of Hekdesh is painted with red dye.) Perhaps we should be concerned that it is labelled that way because it is sick and its fruits fall off early? Doesn't a Tosefta teach that if a tree has a disease, they paint it with red dye (in order that people see and pray for it) and load stones on it to weaken it (as the fruits were falling off because was excessively blossoming - weighing it down limits the blossoming)...?

תמן דלא יתיר פירוי. ברם הכא דיעבד לכתחילה.

(l)

Answer: There, they dye it so that its fruits that are already grown do not fall off. Here, in the case of Hekdesh, it is dyed immediately (even before fruits have grown).

[דף כח עמוד ב] ר' יונה בעי ולמה לי נן מרין חוט בחוט של סיקרא זכר למזבח.

(m)

Question (R. Yona): Why not answer that for Hekdesh, only a line of dye is made, to be reminiscent of the red line that circled the Mizbeach?

כיי דתנינן תמן חוט של סיקרא חוגרו באמצע להבחין בין דמים העליונים לדמים התחתונים.

1.

As the Mishnah teaches (in Maseches Middos), 'A red line is made around the middle of the Mizbeach to differentiate between the upper and the lower applications of blood.

תני רבי חייא סוקרין עליו בסיקרא הקדש:

(n)

Baraisa (R. Chiya): They write the word 'Hekdesh' in red dye (on a tree of Hekdesh, which is not done to a diseased tree. Therefore there will not be any misunderstanding.)

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