THE CHURBANOS WERE IN MOTZA'EI SHEMITAH (cont).
(We asked that the last (full) year of Bayis Sheni was year six of Shemitah, so the Churban was in Shemitah, and not Motza'ei Shemitah.)
Answer #3 (Rav Ashi): Bnei Yisrael did not start to count the Yovel cycle until Ezra came from Bavel in the sixth year of Bayis Sheni;
"Betelas Avidas Beis Elaka... Ad Shenas Tartein l'Malchus Daryavesh" (construction of Bayis Sheni was stopped. It did not resume until the second year of Daryavesh. This begins the 420 years of Bayis Sheni);
"V'Sheitzi Baysah Denah... Shenas Shes l'Malchus Daryavesh" (it was finished in the sixth year);
"Va'Yavo Yerushalayim... Shenas ha'Shevi'is la'Melech." (Ezra came in the seventh year, i.e. the sixth year of Bayis Sheni.)
(Beraisa): Yisrael counted 17 Yovelos from entering Eretz Yisrael until the first Churban;
We cannot say that they began counting Yovel immediately, for if so the Churban would have been in the first year of Yovel. Really Yovel was "b'Arba Esreh Shanah Achar Asher Huksah ha'Ir"!
Question: (We said that the count began after seven years of conquest and seven of division.) What is the source that there were seven years of conquest?
Answer: Verses teach that when the Meraglim toured Eretz Yisrael, Kalev was 40 years old. He was 85 when the conquest was finished;
(Everything for) the Mishkan was built in the first year in the Midbar. In the second year it was erected and the Meraglim were sent;
It follows that Kalev was 78 when he entered Eretz Yisrael (after 40 years in the Midbar).
Question: What is the source that the division took seven years?
Answer #1: Since the conquest took seven years, also the division was seven years. (The Gemara does not explain the logic. Perhaps Hash-m caused that both should take the same amount of time, to show that the duration of the conquest was due to Hashgachah ("Pen Tihyeh ha'Aretz Shemamah v'Rabah Alecha Chayas ha'Sadeh"), and not due to the strength of the Kena'anim. Seven years makes this even more evident, since this is the most common number in the Torah concerning units of time. Ben Yehoyada explains (based on the Arizal) that the years of conquest are a Tikun for Rachel, and the years of division are a Tikun for Leah. These must be equal, just like Yakov worked seven years for each, and other parallels brought there.)
Answer #2: We must say that the division took seven years in order to explain how Yovel was 14 years after the Churban.
THE NUMBER OF PREPARED LAMBS
(Mishnah): We never have less than six checked lambs in the chamber of lambs, the amount needed for Shabbos and two days of Rosh Hashanah. (Sometimes these are three consecutive days);
There is no upper limit to the number we may have there.
We never have less than two trumpets and nine harps (to accompany Shirah). There is no upper limit;
There is only one (pair of) Metziltayim (cymbals. Tosfos Yom Tov - some say that this was a wind instrument).
(Gemara) Question: We need more than six checked lambs for the Temidim and Musafim of Shabbos and Rosh Hashanah!
Answer: Indeed, the Tana counts only Temidim. He teaches that we must always have six checked lambs;
"For Shabbos and Rosh Hashanah" is merely a way to remember (that we require enough for three days. This happens to equal the most consecutive days that one may not check);
The Mishnah teaches that there are never less than six lambs that have been checked four days before Shechitah. It is like Ben Bag Bag:
(Beraisa - Ben Bag Bag) Question: What is the source that the Tamid must be checked four days before it is slaughtered?
Answer: We learn from a Gezeirah Shavah. It says (regarding the Tamid) "Tishmeru Lehakriv Li b'Mo'ado," and it says "v'Hayah Lachem l'Mishmeres Ad Arba'ah Asar." Just like Pesach must be checked four days in advance, also the Tamid.
Support: It says "the amount needed for Shabbos and two days of Rosh Hashanah." It does not say "for Shabbos... "
THE NUMBER OF INSTRUMENTS
(Mishnah):... (At least) two trumpets... there is no upper limit.
Question: What is the maximum allowed? (The Gemara knew that there really is an upper limit of trumpets (Tiferes Yisrael - too many would drown out the other instruments). In the other clauses (that say this), there really is no upper limit.)
Answer (Rav Huna): Up to 120 are allowed. We learn from "v'Imahem Kohanim Ad l'Me'ah v'Esrim Machtzerim ba'Chatzotzeros."
(Mishnah): There is only one (pair of) cymbals.
Question: What is the source of this?
Answer (Rav Asi): "V'Asaf ba'Metziltayim."
Question: "Metziltayim" is plural. We should say that there are two!
Answer: Since both cymbals are used by one person to make one sound, they are counted like one.
(Mishnah): We never have less than 12 Leviyim standing on the Duchan. There is no upper limit;
The only time a minor may enter the Azarah for Avodah is when the Leviyim sing;
Minors may not play harps or lyres. They only sing, to enable a blend of different voices (their voices are higher).
R. Eliezer ben Yakov says, they do not count towards the 12 required Leviyim. They do not stand on the Duchan, rather, on the ground. Their heads are between the legs of the Leviyim on the Duchan; they were called Tze'irei (those who pain) ha'Leviyim.
(Gemara) Question: Why is 12 the minimum number of Leviyim?
Answer (Rav Papa): This is because we need at least nine harps, two lyres and one pair of cymbals - "Hu v'Echav u'Vanav Sheneim Asar."
MINORS MAY SING
(Mishnah): The only time a minor may enter the Azarah for Avodah is when the Leviyim sing;
Question: What is the source of this?
Answer (R. Yochanan): "Va'Ya'amod Yeshu'a Banav v'Echav Kadmi'el u'Vanav Bnei Yehudah k'Echad l'Natze'ach." ("Banav" is extra. It alludes to minors.)
(Mishnah): Minors may not play a Nevel or Kinor (lyre or harp). They may only sing.
Inference: Nevel and Kinor are different.
Suggestion: Our Mishnah is unlike R. Yehudah;
(Beraisa - R. Yehudah): The Kinor in the Mikdash had seven strings. We read "Sova Semachos Es Panecha" as if it said "Sheva";
In Yemos ha'Mashi'ach it will have eight strings. "La'Menatze'ach Al ha'Sheminis" refers to a harp of eight strings;
In the world to come it will have 10 strings - "Alei Asor va'Alei Navel Alei Higayon b'Chinor," "Hodu la'Shem b'Chinor b'Nevel Asor... Shir Chodosh."
Rejection: It is even like R. Yehudah. He agrees that they are different;
Kinor is called Nevel in the world to come, for it will have many strings and make many notes like a Nevel.
(Mishnah - R. Eliezer ben Yakov): They do not count towards the 12 required Leviyim...
(Beraisa): They were called So'adei (those who help) ha'Leviyim.
Our Tana calls them Tze'irei ha'Leviyim. Since their voices are so fine, they pain adult Leviyim who cannot sing so nicely.
LENIENCIES AND STRINGENCIES
(Mishnah): Each of the following has leniencies and stringencies:
Erchin, Sedeh Achuzah, Shor ha'Mu'ad that killed a slave, Ones or Mefateh (one who raped or seduced an unmarried virgin Na'arah), and Motzi Shem Ra.
Erchin has leniencies and stringencies. If one was Ma'arich the nicest (most valuable) Yisrael, or the worst, he pays 50 Shekalim;
Had he vowed his Damim, he would pay his value.
(Gemara) Observation: The Mishnah discusses one who was Ma'arich the nicest or worst Yisrael, but not a Nochri.
Suggestion: The Mishnah is unlike R. Meir, who says that a Nochri can be Ne'erach, but cannot be Ma'arich.