12th Cycle Dedication

ERCHIN 14 - Two weeks of study material have been dedicated by Mrs. Estanne Abraham Fawer to honor the twelfth Yahrzeit of her father, Rav Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Rabbi Morton Weiner) Z'L, who passed away on 18 Teves 5760. May the merit of supporting and advancing Dafyomi study -- which was so important to him -- during the weeks of his Yahrzeit serve as an Iluy for his Neshamah.

[14a - 49 lines; 14b - 49 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Gemara 14a [line 28]:

Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #9

[2] Gemara [line 28]:

"Beis Zera" בית זרע

The reference "Vayikra 27:16" is missing

[3] Gemara [line 40]:

The words "d'Tanya ha'Makdish" דתניא המקדיש

should be "d'Tenan ha'Makdish" דתנן המקדיש (RASHASH)

[4] Rashi 14a DH Hikdish... : ד"ה הקדיש

The words "Im Hikdisho" אם הקדישו

should be "Im Hikdishan" אם הקדישן (RASHASH)

[5] Gemara 14b [line 24]:

Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #14, as can be seen from Rashi DH "Lifreku" ד"ה לפרקו

[6] Gemara [line 27]:

The words "Tanu Rabanan b'Michsas" תנו רבנן במכסת

should be "Tanu Rabanan Michsas" תנו רבנן מכסת

[7] Rashi 14b DH Lifreku ד"ה לפרקו:

The words, "v'Lihadru la'Be'alim Agav Ar'aihu," ולהדרו לבעלים אגב ארעייהו mark the beginning of a new Dibur; see Shitah Mekubetzes #14

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1)[line 6]הגדולה שבכהונהHA'GEDOLAH SHEB'KEHUNAH- the most dignified daughter of Kohanim. The Mishnah (end of 14b) states that the monetary fine of Ones and Mefateh (see Background to Erchin 13:16) applies equally when the victim was the most dignified daughter of Kohanim (when the act causes much greater shame) and when the victim was the lowliest daughter of Yisrael.

2)[line 11]דלאו בני אחוזה נינהוD'LAV BNEI ACHUZAH NINHU- for they have no rights of ownership. That is, a Nochri has no inherited land in Eretz Yisrael, and the laws of Sedeh Achuzah apply only in Eretz Yisrael (RASHI and TOSFOS).

3)[line 13]בחולת המחוזB'CHOLAS HA'MACHOZ- (a) with the immediate area surrounding a city; (b) alt. the sand-plains of the coast (TIFERES YISRAEL)

4)[line 14]בפרדיסות סבסטיB'PARDESOS SABASTI- with the orchards and pleasure gardens of Sebastia (Sebaste), built by Herod on the site of the old Samaria (Shomron)

5)[line 15]זרע חומר שעורים בחמשים שקל כסףZERA CHOMER SE'ORIM BA'CHAMISHIM SHEKEL KESEF - he redeems the field in accordance with the fixed endowment value prescribed in the Torah, as explained below (PIDYON SEDEH ACHUZAH / SEDEH MIKNAH)

(a)A Sedeh Achuzah is a field that came into the possession of its owner's family after the conquest and division of Eretz Yisrael, at the time of Yehoshua bin Nun.

(b)If a person was Makdish (consecrated to the possession of the Beis ha'Mikdash) his Sedeh Achuzah, everyone has the right to redeem it from Hekdesh from that day until Yom ha'Kipurim of the Yovel year. If the Makdish redeems it, he must pay to Hekdesh an additional fifth (of the ensuing total, or a quarter of the original value) of the value of the field. If the Makdish does not redeem his field by Yom ha'Kipurim of the Yovel year, but rather it is not redeemed, or another person redeems it, it is given to the Mishmar of Kohanim who are on duty at that time (Vayikra 27:15-21).

(c)When redeeming a Sedeh Achuzah from Hekdesh, its "value" is determined according to the fixed endowment value stated in Vayikra 27:16, i.e. 50 silver Shekels for every parcel of land that is normally sown with a Chomer (1 Chomer = 1 Kur = 30 Se'ah or approximately 216, 248.9 or 432 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of barley seed (75,000 sq. Amos — see Background to Kidushin 60:17). However, fifty Shekels are given only if the field was redeemed at the beginning of a new Yovel cycle; the amount decreases proportionally with every year that passes until it is less than two years before the next Yovel. At that point, it is once again redeemed for fifty Shekels per Chomer (ibid. 25a).

(d)A Sedeh Miknah is a field that a person buys or inherits which is not an ancestral field (Sedeh Achuzah, see (a) above). It must be returned to its original owner on Yom ha'Kipurim of the next Yovel year (Vayikra 25:14-17).

(e)When a Sedeh Miknah is sold, the seller may not redeem it from the purchaser. Rather, it remains with the purchaser until the Yovel year, at which point it returns to its original owner (i.e. the person for whom it is a Sedeh Achuzah).

(f)If a person was Makdish (consecrated to the possession of the Beis ha'Mikdash) his Sedeh Miknah, anyone may redeem it from Hekdesh from the day that it became Hekdesh until the Yovel year. Even if the Makdish redeems it, he need not pay an additional fifth. If the field was not redeemed by Yom ha'Kipurim of the Yovel year, it is returned to its original owner (i.e. the person for whom it is a Sedeh Achuzah) (Vayikra 27:22-24).

(g)When redeeming a Sedeh Miknah from Hekdesh, its value is determined by the amount that a person is willing to pay to purchase such a field until Yovel, as the Gemara here describes.

6)[line 16]שדה מקנהSEDEI MIKNAH

See previous entry.

7)[line 30]תלמוד לומר "שדה"TALMUD LOMAR, "SADEH"- That is, the verse could have stated "me'Achuzaso," but instead it says "mi'Sedeh Achuzaso"

8)[line 41]חרוב המורכבCHARUV HA'MURKAV- a carob-tree that has been grafted

9)[line 41]סדן השקמהSEDEN HA'SHIKMAH- and a thick sycamore tree (Egyptian fig) that has been trimmed at least once

14b----------------------------------------14b

10)[line 12]טרשיןTERASHIN- rugged, stony ground

11)[line 25]מאן דמזבן ליה דקלא לחבריה קני ליה משיפולא ועד תהומאMAN D'MEZABEN LEI DIKLA L'CHAVREI, KANI LEI MI'SHIPULA V'AD TEHOMA- when a person sells a palm-tree to his friend he acquires all the ground below it, from the bottom of the tree to the depths of the earth

12)[line 28]בא מחמת טענהVA MACHMAS TA'ANAH- he comes with a valid claim. That is, after having owned a tree for three years, if a person claims that he originally bought the land that is under the tree along with the tree, his claim is accepted in Beis Din.

13)[line 27]"(ב)מכסת" מה בא ללמוד"(B')MICHSAS" MAH BA LILMOD?- what is "Michsas" coming to teach? The verse states, "v'Chishav Lo ha'Kohen Es Michsas ha'Erkecha Ad Shenas ha'Yovel" - "The Kohen shall calculate the amount of the worth on the basis of the years remaining until the Yovel" (Vayikra 27:23).

14)[line 40]שור המועדSHOR HA'MU'AD

See Background to Erchin 13:15

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