[122a - 46 lines; 122b - 41 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos

[1] Mishnah 122a [line 21]:

The words "Chateres Shel Gamal":

should be "Chatoteres Shel Gamal" (this is the Girsa of the Mishnayos)

[2] Rashi 122a DH Reis Lakish mi'Takifei d'Ar'a d'Yisrael Havah:

The words "d'Nishtake'ach Minei Talmuda"

should be "d'Lishtake'ach Minei Talmuda"

[3] Tosfos 122a DH Oros:

The words "v'Ein Tzrichim Lomar d'Nakat Aviv"

should be "v'Iy Nami Nakat Aviv"

[4] Rashi 122b DH ha'Mechashev b'Davar:

The words "Einah Lo Lifsol"

should be "Einah Machshavah Lo Lifsol" (SHITAH MEKUBETZES #3)

[5] Rashi DH Tana Didan:

The words "v'Ein Lo Mamash Or"

could be "v'Ein Lo Mamash ba'Or"


1)[line 20]חזיר של ישובCHAZIR SHEL YISHUV- domestic pig

2)[line 21]חזיר הברCHAZIR HA'BAR- wild boar

3)[line 21]חטרתCHATERES- (O.F. haldrobe) hump

4)[line 22]ועור הפרסותOR HA'PERASOS- there is an argument in the Gemara whether this means all of the hide below the lower knee or just the hide below the ankle

5)[line 23]ועור בית הבושתOR BEIS HA'BOSHES- the outer skin of the womb

6)[line 23]השלילHA'SHELIL- a fetus or a fully-formed (having developed for nine months — RASHI to Chulin 89b), live animal that is found in its mother's womb after her slaughter

7)[line 24]ועור האנקהOR HA'ANAKAH... (SHEMONAH SHERATZIM) (Based on Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan's "The Living Torah" and other sources)

(a)A Sheretz (a crawling pest, see Vayikra 11:29-38), even if it or a part of it is only the size of an Adashah (lentil bean), is an Av ha'Tum'ah (Chagigah 11a). It makes a person or object Tamei through Maga (contact), whether the Sheretz was touched willingly or unwillingly. The person who becomes Tamei by touching a Sheretz may not eat Terumah or Kodshim or enter the Azarah of the Beis Ha'Mikdash. However, he can immediately immerse in a Mikvah. After nightfall he becomes Tahor and may eat Terumah or Kodshim or enter the Azarah.

(b)HaSh-m showed Moshe all Sheratzim, so that he could distinguish between the Tehorim and the Teme'im. The eight Sheratzim that are Teme'im that are mentioned in the Torah are:

1.CHOLED - weasel [alt., a martin or an ermine (ARUCH), a rat (TARGUM, TOSFOS YOM TOV), mole or mole-rat (ARUCH), or field mouse (TARGUM YONASAN)]. According to the Gemara, it is a predatory animal that bores under the ground and undermines houses.

2.ACHBAR - mouse; some sources appear to include also the rat

3.TZAV - toad (RASHI to Vayikra 11:29, Nidah 56a; this is also evident from the Mishnah in Taharos 5:1 which implies that it is similar in appearance to a frog — see Rishonim there). Alternatively, tortoise (ME'AM LOEZ, TIFERES YISRAEL to Taharos ibid.). According to the Septuagint it is the land crocodile (perhaps the monitor, see #5 below, KO'ACH; a Talmudic source (Chulin 127a) associates it with the salamander and snake). Others identify it with the ferret.

4.ANAKAH - (O.F. heri?on) hedgehog; alt., beaver (RADAK). (The Septuagint translates it as a mole, shrew mouse or field mouse.) Rabeinu Sa'adya Ga'on translates it as a gecko, which is up to five inches long with a soft speckled hide; "Anachah" denotes groaning and the gecko makes a groaning sound.

5.KO'ACH - a lizard (RADAK quoting RASHI) (the chameleon, according to the Septuagint.) From the translation of others it appears to be the monitor or monitor lizard, the largest reptile in the Holy Land, growing as long as four feet. Living on the coast, the Negev, and the Aravah, it eats rodents and reptiles (RADAK, RABEINU SA'ADYA GA'ON).

6.LETA'AH - (O.F. laiserde) lizard; alt., the white lizard, or the great gecko.

7.CHOMET - (O.F. limace) snail (RASHI) (alt., a lizard or the skink, a lizard with small legs of which there are four varieties in the Holy Land).

8.TINSHEMES - mole (Rashi to Chulin 63a) (alt., a large-headed lizard that burrows underground, probably a type of gecko)

8)[line 25]כחולדהCHULDAH- a rat, weasel or marten

9)[line 26]שעבדןSHE'IBDAN- that one tanned them, processed them into leather

10)[line 26]שהילך בהן כדי עבודהHILECH BAHEN KEDEI AVODAH- one walked on them enough to process them into leather

11)[line 29]עור אדם טהורOR ADAM TAHOR- mid'Oraisa, human skin is Tahor because (a) it is not flesh (Basar) and thus is not considered to be part of the Mes (RASHI (DH Devar Torah) (See Insights to Chulin 122:3); (b) only parts of the body that are similar to the bones in that they do not regenerate are considered part of the Mes and are Metamei. Skin regenerates and therefore it is not Metamei mid'Oraisa (TOSFOS DH Or, based on Nidah 55a)

12)[line 31]שטיחיןSHETICHIN- bedspreads

13)[line 37]אשוןASHUN- tough

14)[line 37]רכיךRAKICH- soft

15)[line 38]כל זמן שלא טענהKOL ZEMAN SHE'LO TA'ANAH- as long as it has not been loaded

16)[line 42]תיב לקבליTIV LE'KIVLI- sit opposite me

17)[line 43]הוה קתני להHAVAH KATANI LAH- he kept repeating it

18)[line 44]חדא הויא לך אמרתCHADA HAVYA LACH, [V']AMART- you had one thing [to say that we did not know,] and you have already said it

19)[line 44]תקיפי ארעא דישראלTAKIFEI AR'A D'YISRAEL- Reish Lakish

20)[line 45]לחסידי דבבלCHASIDEI D'BAVEL- Rebbi Zeira


21)[line 9]אל תקניטניAL TAKNITENI- do not weary me (with your arguments)

22)[line 10]בלשון יחיד אני שונה אותהB'LASHON YACHID ANI SHONEH OSAH- for I learned that it is the opinion of an individual (and not the accepted ruling)

23)[line 14]אבלוםAVLUM- (alt. Avlas, Ivleim, Ivleis — see DIKDUKEI SOFRIM #20) Avlas, in Cilicia, one of the places on the northern border of Eretz Yisrael

24)[line 16]כפר עיכוםKEFAR IKUM- according to the Girsa KEFAR AKO (DIKDUKEI SOFRIM #20) - a town near the port city of Ako (Ptolemais). While many non-Jews lived in Ako, Kefar Ako was a primarily Jewish town

25a)[line 20]חוץ למקומוCHUTZ LI'MEKOMO

(a)A Korban that was slaughtered (or any of the other three main actions involved in offering a sacrifice: Kabalas ha'Dam, Holachas ha'Dam, Zerikas ha'Dam — see Background to Menachos 2:18) with the intention of eating it or offering it outside of the area designated for it becomes disqualified, and may not be eaten or offered on the Mizbe'ach. This is learned from the verse that repeats the prohibition of Chutz li'Zemano, slaughtering a Korban with the intention of eating or offering it after its allotted time (Vayikra 19:7; see next entry).

(b)If a person intentionally eats from a Korban that was offered with the intention of Chutz li'Mekomo, he receives Malkus (lashes). If he eats from it unintentionally, he is exempt from bringing a Korban Chatas.

b)[line 21]חוץ לזמנוCHUTZ LI'ZEMANO (PIGUL)

(a)A sacrifice that was slaughtered (or any of the other three main actions involved in offering a sacrifice: Kabalas ha'Dam, Holachas ha'Dam, Zerikas ha'Dam — see Background to Menachos 2:18) with the intention of eating it or offering it Chutz li'Zemano (after its allotted time) becomes disqualified and must be burned.

(b)It is forbidden to eat or offer such a Korban, as the verse states, "v'Im He'achol Ye'achel mi'Besar Zevach Shelamav ba'Yom ha'Shelishi, Lo Yeratzeh, ha'Makriv Oso Lo Yechashev Lo, Pigul Yiheyeh" - "If [the person offering the sacrifice plans] to eat it on the third day, [the sacrifice] will not be accepted. It is considered Pigul (putrid, rejected) and it will not be counted in his favor" (Vayikra 7:18).

(c)If a person eats a k'Zayis of Pigul b'Mezid (intentionally) after Hasra'ah (being forewarned), he is punished with Malkus (lashes); the Lav for eating Pigul is learned from the verse of the Milu'im (Shemos 29:34). If he was not given Hasra'ah, he is Chayav Kares. If he eats it b'Shogeg (unintentionally), he must bring a Korban Chatas (as with all sins for which one is liable to Kares b'Mezid) (SEFER HA'CHINUCH Mitzvah #144.)

26)[line 24]רכובה הנמכרת עם הראשRECHUVAH HA'NIMKERES IM HA'ROSH- the part of the leg of the Behemah Dakah (small domesticated farm animals) below the lower knee joint, that is sold along with the animal's head

27)[line 29]תנשמתTINSHEMES- see above, entry #7:b:8

28)[line 33]גישתאGISHTA- thickness [of the skin]

29)[line 35]שטלאהSHE'TELA'AH- that one used as a patch

30)[line 40]לגבלL'GABEL- for kneading; (a) if a worker is hired to knead dough b'Taharah (ritual purity), he is expected to walk a distance of at most four Mil (approx. 3.8 km) to immerse his utensils in a Mikvah to purify them. If the Mikvah is situated at a distance more than four Mil, his employer must pay him for his extra time and effort to walk there (RASHI); (b) one who is traveling and wants to eat bread, he must walk a distance of at most four Mil to find a kneader who kneads dough b'Taharah (TOSFOS, citing the ARUCH)

31)[line 40]ולתפלהL'TEFILAH- (a) one who is traveling and has decided to stop at an inn to rest must continue to travel up to four Mil in order to find a synagogue in which to pray with a Minyan (RASHI DH ul'Tefilah, and as quoted by TOSFOS DH l'Gabal); (b) one must travel up to four Mil in order to find water for washing the hands before Tefilah, in accordance with the requirement to wash before prayer (Berachos 15a; Shulchan Aruch OC 92:4) (ARUCH; see, however, TOSFOS here, DH l'Gabal, and in Berachos 15a, DH a'Man, who argues with the Aruch's explanation based on his Girsa of the Gemara in Berachos 15a); (c) one must travel up to four Mil in order to find a Mikvah in which to immerse himself, in accordance with the requirement for someone who is Tamei with Tum'as Keri to immerse in a Mikvah before Tefilah (Berachos 22a, Shulchan Aruch OC 88:1, 240:1) (RABEINU CHANANEL; see Insights to Chulin 122:5)

32)[line 40]ולנטילת ידיםL'NETILAS YADAYIM - one must travel up to four Mil in order to find water for washing the hands before eating bread (TUM'AS YADAYIM)

(a)Normally, if Tum'ah touches part of a person's body, it make his entire body Tamei and he can only become Tahor by Tevilah (immersing) in a Mikvah. However,the Chachamim instituted that in certain cases a person's hands can become Temei'os without the rest of his body becoming Tamei, and he is able to be Metaher his hands through Netilas Yadayim or Tevilas Yadayim.

(b)Shlomo ha'Melech instituted (Eruvin 21b; Shabbos 15a) that if a person does not pay close attention to make sure that his hands did not touch what they were not supposed to, his hands are deemed to be Temei'os and he may not touch Kodshim until he washes them. The reason for the Gezeirah was "Yadayim Askaniyos Hen," which means that the hands are constantly "busy" and they touch things without intent. A person may have touched himself in a sweaty or otherwise unclean place, and touching Kodshim or Terumah in such a manner is a disgrace to their Kedushah and loathsome to those who must afterwards eat them (RASHI to Shabbos 14a). The Takanah of Shlomo ha'Melech was to consider the hands a Shelishi (see Background to Chulin 3:2 for a discussion of the different levels of Tum'ah) and to prohibit a person from eating Kodshim without Netilas Yadayim. Later, Beis Hilel and Beis Shamai decreed that the hands are Sheniyos and may not even touch Terumah before Netilas Yadayim (Shabbos 14a). This is one of the ordinances of the "Shemoneh Asar Davar" (Shabbos 13b-17b). These two decrees are known as the Gezeiros of "Stam Yadayim," i.e. it is not known for certain that the person's hands touched anything specific that made them Temei'os, but the Rabanan made them Temei'os anyway.

(c)There are other situations in which a person's hands could become Temei'os without the rest of his body becoming Tamei:

1.If a person's hands touch Sifrei Kodesh (Shabbos 14a; TOSFOS ibid. 14b DH Keivan;

2.If a person's hands touch a Rishon l'Tum'ah (Mishnah Yadayim 3:1);

3.If a person's hands touch a person who can only make clothing, but not people, Tamei. (An example of a person who can only make clothing but not people Tamei, is one who is touching Ma'ayanos ha'Zav (see Background to Nedarim 19:4), a Mishkav or Moshav (see Background to Zevachim 93:12), or one who is carrying a Neveilah (see Kelim 1).) (Mishnah Yadayim, ibid.);

4.If a person's hands enter a Bayis ha'Menuga, but his body does not enter it (ibid.).

(d)Although Yadayim that are Sheniyos cannot make Chulin Tamei, The Chachamim instituted that a person must wash his hands before eating bread that is Chulin. This is because of a "Serach Terumah" (in order to accustom those who eat Terumah to Netilas Yadayim — RASHI to Chulin 106a) and also because of Nekiyus (cleanliness; see TOSFOS ibid. DH Mitzvah). In addition, Netilas Yadayim is necessary before eating other Chulin foods besides bread if the food is wet (Pesachim 115a — because even Chulin food can become Tamei through a Sheni, such as hands that are Temei'os, because of the water on it).

(e)A person whose hands are Temei'os cannot touch Terumah or Kodshim, and cannot eat Chulin, until he is Metaher them either through Netilas Yadayim or Tevilas Yadayim.

1.Netilas Yadayim (Mishnah, Yadayim 1:1) involves pouring water on his hands from a utensil that contains at least a Revi'is of water. A person may be Metaher his hands by pouring less than a Revi'is of water on his hands from such a utensil if two conditions are met:

(i)The utensil must have contained at least a Revi'is when the first person to use the water in this cup used some of it for Netilas Yadayim.

(ii)When pouring less than a Revi'is on one's hands, one must rinse their entire hands twice each, and not just once each.

2.Tevilas Yadayim (Chagigah 2:5, also known as "Shetifas Yadayim," according to Rashi to Gitin 15b DH v'Achas b'Shetifah) involves dipping one's hands into a valid Mikvah or river (see Background to Chulin 31:15).