CHULIN 31-43 - Two weeks of study material have been dedicated by Mrs. Estanne Abraham Fawer to honor the Yahrzeit of her father, Rav Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Rabbi Morton Weiner) Z'L, who passed away on 18 Teves 5760. May the merit of supporting and advancing Dafyomi study -- which was so important to him -- during the weeks of his Yahrzeit serve as an Iluy for his Neshamah.

[31a - 53 lines; 31b - 49 lines]

1)[line 1]גידפי דמיפרמיGIDFEI D'MIFREMEI- cut (O.F. miniciedes - cut, minced) feathers [from the outside]

2)[line 1]כסויKISUY (KISUY HA'DAM)

See Background to Chulin 27:43.

3)[line 6]דמזמין ליה לעפר דכולה פתקאD'MAZMIN LEI L'AFAR D'CHULAH (PISKA) [PIKSA]- a) he would designate the soil of the entire valley [over which the bird was flyin by tilling it in order to loosen it] (RASHI, 1st explanation); b) he would verbally designate the [already loose] earth of the entire valley [over which the bird was flying] (RASHI, 2nd explanation) (see Insights]

4)[line 19]איזמל שאין לו קרניםIZMEL SHE'EIN LO KARNAYIM- a razor that does not have "horns" - sharp, protruding points

5)[line 21]מחטאMACHATA- a needle

6)[line 21]מבזע בזעMIVZA BAZA- it pierces and tears [the flesh]

7)[line 22]מחטא דאושכפיMACHATA D'USHKEFEI- a leatherworker's awl [which has a) sharp edges that are used to cut thread (RASHI); b) a wide tip, as opposed to a pointy one (RABEINU GERSHOM)]

8)[line 31]"וְזָבַחְתָּ שְׁלָמִים וְאָכַלְתָּ [שָּׁם, וְשָׂמַחְתָּ לִפְנֵי ה' אֱלֹקֶיךָ.]""V'ZAVACHTA [SHELAMIM] V'ACHALTA"- "And you shall slaughter Shelamim sacrifices and you shall eat [them there, and you shall rejoice before Hash-m your G-d]" (Devarim 27:7).

9)[line 34]מאן תנא דלא בעינן כוונה לשחיטה?MAN TANA D'LO VA'INAN KAVANAH LI'SHECHITAH?- which Tana is the one who does not require specific intent for Shechitah?

10)[line 35]אושעיא זעירא דמן חבריאOSHAYA ZE'EIRA D'MIN CHEVRAYA- a) Oshaya, youngest of the group [of students in the Yeshiva] (RASHI, 1st explanation); b) Oshaya Ze'eira, one of the group [of students in the Yeshiva] (RASHI, 2nd explanation, and RASHI to Daf 12b); c) Oshaya Ze'eira, of the city of Chevraya (TOSFOS to Daf 12b DH d'Min)

11)[line 36]לנועצה בכותלL'NO'ATZAH BA'CHOSEL- to imbed it in the wall

12)[line 40]וכולן ששחטו ואחרים רואין אותןV'CHULAN SHE'SHACHATU VA'ACHERIM RO'IN OSAN- and all of them (Cheresh, Shoteh v'Katan - see Background to Chulin 2:2a-c) who slaughtered, with others watching them

13)[line 47]נדה שנאנסה וטבלהNIDAH SHE'NE'ENSAH V'TAVLAH - a woman whose period of Nidus has ended, at which point she immersed in a river unwittingly, (a) by falling off a bridge; (b) by entering the river to cool off (NIDAH)

By Torah Law, a woman who has her period is a Nidah for seven days. It makes no difference whether she saw blood only one time or for the entire seven days. At the end of seven days, after nightfall, she immerses in a Mikvah to become Tehorah. (If she is the wife or unmarried daughter of a Kohen, she may again eat Terumah after she immerses.)

(The current practice is to consider all women who have a show of blood to be a Zavah (see Background to Menachos 89:6) and therefore they must have seven clean days before they go to the Mikvah.

14)[line 52]גל שנתלשGAL SHE'NITLASH- a wave of water that became detached [from the seabed and rode onto dry land]


15)[line 4]חרדלית של גשמיםCHARDELIS SHEL GESHAMIM - a large accumulation (at least forty Se'ah) of rainwater that is flowing down a slope (CHARDELIS / KATAFRAS)

(a)The Torah tells us that rainwater is Metaher (purifies) only when it is collected in a cavity, or "b'Ashboren," a fact that is learned from Vayikra 11:36, where the verse states that a "Mikveh Mayim" (an accumulation of water) purifies. While the rainwater is flowing (e.g. down a slope, known as Chardelis or Katafras), it cannot be Metaher. (RABEINU HAI GA'ON is Gores Hardelis, which is made up of "Har" - a mountain, and "Dalis" - "[the water] that it suspends.")

(b)There must be at least forty Se'ah of rainwater in a Mikvah in order for it to be Metaher, which is approximately equal to 288, 331.78 or 576 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions.

(c)If a body of collected water does not contain 40 Se'ah, but it is "connected" to a body of water in a different place that does contain 40 Se'ah via a column of flowing water (Nitzok), water running down a sloped surface (Katafras), or stationary moisture (Mashkeh Tofe'ach), it still is not considered a valid Mikvah (and one who immerses there remains Tamei).

(d)Spring water is Metaher both while it is flowing (Zochalin) as in a river, and when it is collected in a cavity.

16a)[line 5]ראשיןROSHIN- the head of the [detached] wave when it hits the ground

b)[line 5]כיפיןKEIFIN- the arches (i.e. the water in the middle) of the wave

17a)[line 10]מי שידיו טמאותMI SHE'YADAV TEMEI'OS - a person whose hands are Temei'os (TUM'AS YADAYIM)

(a)Normally if Tum'ah touches part of a person's body, it make his entire body Tamei and he can only become Tahor by Tevilah (immersing) in a Mikvah. However the Chachamim instituted that in certain cases a person's hands can become Temei'os without the rest of his body becoming Tamei, and he is able to be Metaher his hands through Netilas Yadayim or Tevilas Yadayim.

(b)Shlomo ha'Melech instituted (Eruvin 21b; Shabbos 15a) that if a person does not pay close attention to make sure that his hands did not touch what they were not supposed to, his hands are deemed to be Temei'os and he may not touch Kodshim until he washes them. The reason for the Gezeirah was "Yadayim Askaniyos Hen," which means that the hands are constantly "busy" and they touch things without intent. A person may have touched himself in a sweaty or otherwise unclean place, and touching Kodshim or Terumah in such a manner is a disgrace to their Kedushah and loathsome to those who must afterwards eat them (RASHI to Shabbos 14a). The Takanah of Shlomo ha'Melech was to consider the hands a Shelishi (see Background to Chulin 3:2 for a discussion of the different levels of Tum'ah) and to prohibit a person from eating Kodshim without Netilas Yadayim. Later, Beis Hilel and Beis Shamai decreed that the hands are Sheniyos and may not even touch Terumah before Netilas Yadayim (Shabbos 14a). This is one of the ordinances of the "Shemoneh Asar Davar" (Shabbos 13b-17b). These two decrees are known as the Gezeiros of "Stam Yadayim," i.e. it is not known for certain that the person's hands touched anything specific that made them Temei'os, but the Rabanan made them Temei'os anyway.

(c)There are other situations in which a person's hands could become Temei'os without the rest of his body becoming Tamei: 1. If a person's hands touch Sifrei Kodesh (Shabbos 14a; TOSFOS ibid. 14b DH Keivan; 2. If a person's hands touch a Rishon l'Tum'ah (Mishnah Yadayim 3:1); 3. If a person's hands touch a person who can only make clothing, but not people, Tamei. (An example of a person who can only make clothing but not people Tamei, is one who is touching Ma'ayanos ha'Zav (see Background to Nedarim 19:4), a Mishkav or Moshav (see Background to Zevachim 93:12), or one who is carrying a Neveilah (see Kelim 1).) (Mishnah Yadayim, ibid.); 4. If a person's hands enter a Bayis ha'Menuga, but his body does not enter it (ibid.).

(d)Although Yadayim that are Sheniyos cannot make Chulin Tamei, The Chachamim instituted that a person must wash his hands before eating bread that is Chulin. This is because of a "Serach Terumah" (in order to accustom those who eat Terumah to Netilas Yadayim - RASHI to Chulin 106a) and also because of Nekiyus (cleanliness; see TOSFOS ibid. DH Mitzvah). In addition, Netilas Yadayim is necessary before eating other Chulin foods besides bread if the food is wet (Pesachim 115a - because even Chulin food can become Tamei through a Sheni, such as hands that are Temei'os, because of the water on it).

(e)A person whose hands are Temei'os cannot touch Terumah or Kodshim, and cannot eat Chulin, until he is Metaher them either through Netilas Yadayim or Tevilas Yadayim.

1.Netilas Yadayim (Mishnah, Yadayim 1:1) involves pouring water on his hands from a utensil that contains at least a Revi'is of water. A person may be Metaher his hands by pouring less than a Revi'is of water on his hands from such a utensil if two conditions are met: (i) The utensil must have contained at least a Revi'is when the first person to use the water in this cup used some of it for Netilas Yadayim. (ii) When pouring less than a Revi'is on one's hands, one must rinse their entire hands twice each, and not just once each.

2.Tevilas Yadayim (Chagigah 2:5, also known as "Shetifas Yadayim," according to Rashi to Gitin 15b DH v'Achas b'Shetifah) involves dipping one's hands into a valid Mikvah or river (see above, entry #15).

b)[line 11]ידיו טהורותYADAV TEHOROS (TAHARAS YADAYIM: NETILAH / TEVILAH - Netilas Yadayim, washing the hands, with a cup; Tevilas Yadayim, dipping the hands into a spring or river)

See previous entry, (e).

18)[line 11]אינן בכי יותןEINAN B'CHI YUTAN - they are not in the category of "Ki Yutan" (HECHSHER / KI YUTAN)

(a)Foods may become Temei'im if they touch a source of Tum'ah only if they were wetted at some point in their history. Making foods wet in a manner that enables them to become Temei'im is called "Hechsher." From then on, even after they dry, they can become Temei'im. Wetting food with any of seven liquids, water, dew, oil, wine, milk, blood, and honey, can enable the food to become Tamei.

(b)The food can become Tamei only if the owner of the food was pleased that his food became wet. This is learned from the verse, "v'Chi Yutan Mayim Al Zera..." - "If water has been placed on seed and then the dead body [of a Sheretz] fell upon it, the seed is Tamei" (Vayikra 11:38). The word "Yutan" in the verse is written without a Vav, just like the word "Yiten" - "he places." However, according to the Mesorah, it is read "Yutan" - "it was placed." From this we learn that when water or other liquids fall on the food it is considered Hechsher only if their presence is desirable to the owner of the food (i.e. it is as though he himself applied them).

(c)It is necessary only for the owner to desire the liquid; he need not desire that the liquid come into contact with the food. That is, even if the owner desires the liquid for an entirely different purpose, if the liquid later comes into contact with food it will enable the food to become Tamei. On the other hand, if the owner only intended to dispose of the liquid it does not enable the food to become Tamei, since only liquids that are significant can cause Hechsher.

(d)It is only considered "Ki Yiten" when the liquid falls upon an object, with the will of the owner, that is detached from the ground.

19)[line 10]אמת המיםAMAS HA'MAYIM- an irrigation channel

20)[line 12]שיודחו ידיו, [ידיו] טהורות ופירותSHE'YUDCHU YADAV, [YADAV] TEHOROS- in order to wash his hands, his hands are Tehoros (the Girsa is from Machshirin 4:7 and Chagigah 19a)

21a)[line 13]טבל לחוליןTAVAL L'CHULIN- a person immersed himself in order to eat his Chulin food b'Taharah

b)[line 13]והוחזק לחוליןV'HUCHZAK L'CHULIN- and he had the intention of eating Chulin at the time that he immersed (and nothing of higher Kedushah)

22)[line 14]אסור למעשרASUR L'MA'ASER- he is prohibited from eating Ma'aser Sheni (see Background to Chulin 25:33)

23)[line 16]טבל ולא הוחזקTAVAL V'LO HUCHZAK- he immersed himself without intending to become Tahor, e.g. he washed himself in a river

24)[line 19]נפק דק ואשכחNAFAK DAF V'ASHKACH- (lit. he went out, checked and found) he checked into the sources and found the following Beraisa

25)[line 24]"... וְכֻבַּס שֵׁנִית וְטָהֵר.""V'CHUBAS SHENIS V'TAHER" - "and it shall be immersed a second time and it will become purified." (Vayikra 13:58) (NIG'EI BEGADIM - Tzara'as that infects clothing)

(a)The marks of Tzara'as for clothes consist of intense green or intense red marks that are at least the size of one Gris (a Cilician bean, approximately the size of a dime) (Nega'im 11:4).

(b)If Tzara'as is found on a garment, it is put into Hesger (quarantine) by a Kohen for a week. If the marks remained the same size, the garment is washed and put into quarantine for yet another week (ibid. 11:5).

(c)If, either when the Kohen first sees them or at the end of one week, the marks are seen to have increased in size, the garment is termed "Muchlat" and the entire garment is burned.

(d)If after the second week the Tzara'as has either remained the same or spread, the garment becomes "Muchlat" and the entire garment is burned. If the marks of Tzara'as remain but have faded somewhat, then only the part of the garment that bears the marks of Tzara'as is cut out from the garment and burned, and the rest of the garment is Tahor. A patch is sewn in place of the part that was removed. If Tzara'as returns to either the garment or the patch after the original Tzara'as has been removed, the entire garment is burned.

(e)Garments that are Muchlat (i.e. that contain Tzara'as that must be burned) are Asur b'Hana'ah.

26a)[line 25]תכבוסת שניהTICHBOSES SHENIYAH- the second Kibus of the garment (which is immersing it) after which it becomes Tahor (see previous entry, (d))

b)[line 25]תכבוסת ראשונהTICHBOSES RISHONAH- the first Kibus of the garment (which is washing it at the command of the Kohen - Vayikra 13:54), after which it is put into quarantine

27)[line 30]הלכה כסתם משנהHALACHAH KI'STAM MISHNAH- the Halachah follows the anonymously-authored Mishnah (When Rebbi authored the Mishnayos and encountered an opinion of one of the Tana'im that he ruled was the Halachah, he wrote the Mishnah anonymously, so that the scholars would regard it as the opinion of the majority, and act accordingly - RASHI to Beitzah 2b)

28)[line 36]מתעסק בקדשים פסולMIS'ASEK B'KODASHIM PASUL

(a)When one brings a Korban, the actions he is required to do must be done with specific intent, and cannot be done in a state of Mis'asek. Mis'asek refers to performing an action without intending to perform that action (see Insights to Chulin 13:1). For example, one lifted up or threw a knife and, by chance, the knife cut the Simanim of an animal in the manner of Shechitah.

(b)The Gemara derives that Mis'asek b'Kodashim is invalid from the verse, "v'Shachat Es Ben ha'Bakar" - "And he shall slaughter the bull" (Vayikra 1:5), which implies that he must have specific intent to slaughter this bull (for, otherwise, the verse should have said, "And he shall slaughter it").

29a)[line 45]החרשתCHERESHES- a female deaf-mute

b)[line 46]שוטהSHOTAH - (lit. a fool) a woman who is mad or deranged

(a)A person is classified as a Shoteh if he regularly, because of madness, destroys or loses that which is given to him, sleeps in a cemetery, goes out alone at night or tears his clothes (Chagigah 3b). According to the RAMBAM (Hilchos Edus 9:9), a person is a Shoteh if he regularly exhibits any form of irrational behavior.

(b)A Shoteh is exempt from performing Mitzvos, is not punished for his transgressions and is not liable for the damages that he causes. His purchases and sales are meaningless and are not binding.

c)[line 46]סומאSUMA- a blind woman

d)[line 46]שנטרפה דעתהSHE'NITREFAH DA'ATAH- a woman who has lost her mind

30)[line 47]פקחותPIKCHOS- healthy women