[118a - 37 lines; 118b - 38 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos
 Gemara 118a [line 7]:
The words "Yachol Lo Yehei Tamei" יכול לא יהא טמא
should be "Lo Yehei Tamei" לא יהא טמא
 Rashi 118a DH Yachol she'Ani Motzi יכול שאני מוציא:
The words "deshe'Im Naga Yad" דשאם נגע יד
should be "d'Im Naga Yad" דאם נגע יד
 Rashi (at the bottom of the page) v'Im Eino Inyan Lah ואם אינו ענין לה:
The words "mid'Cheivan d'Yitura" מדכיון דיתורא
should be "d'Cheivan d'Yitura" דכיון דיתורא
1)[line 1]הנוגע כנגד בשר מאחוריוHA'NOGE'A K'NEGED BASAR ME'ACHORAV- one who touches the hide in a place opposite where there is attached Basar that is Tamei
2)[line 3]ואמרי לה כדיV'AMREI LAH KEDI- (a) and some say it was [stated by a sage named] Kedi (MAHARSHAL to Bava Metzia 2a citing RASHI, possibly referring to Gitin 85b DH v'Lurchei #2, but see YOSEF DA'AS to Bava Metzia 2a); (b) and some say it was asked without a specific sage's name being mentioned (RASHI to Gitin ibid.)
3)[line 3]חסורי מיחסראCHASUREI MICHASRA- it is certainly missing [some text] (see Insights to Bava Kama 39:1:a)
4)[line 8]מעשה ידMA'ASEH YAD (YAD L'TUM'AH)
(a)Any inedible part of a food that is used to hold the food (e.g. the stem of a fruit or a marrow-less bone with meat on its end) is considered an extension of the food. The word "Yad" means "arm" or "handle." It may bring Tum'ah to the food if it was touched by something Tamei. If the food was Tamei and the Yad touched food that was not Tamei, the Yad transfers Tum'ah to the other food.
(b)A Yad does not combine with the food to make up the requisite Beitzah in order to receive Tum'ah (Uktzin 1:1; see Background to Chulin 117:31a).
5)[line 9]טמא ומטמא ואינו מצטרףTAMEI U'METAMEI V'EINO MITZTAREF- [even though it is not food, it can become] Tamei, and it can transfer Tum'ah [to food that is Tahor] but it does not combine [with food to make up the requisite Beitzah in order to receive Tum'ah] (see previous entry and Insights to Chulin 118:1)
6)[line 11]"וְכִי יֻתַּן מַיִם עַל זֶרַע וְנָפַל מִנִּבְלָתָם עָלָיו, טָמֵא הוּא לָכֶם""V'CHI YUTAN MAYIM AL ZERA V'NAFAL MI'NIVLASAM ALAV, TAMEI HU LACHEM"- "If water has been placed on seed and then the dead body [of a Sheretz] fell upon it, for you the seed is Tamei" (Vayikra 11:38).
7)[line 12]"וְכִי יָמוּת מִן הַבְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר הִיא לָכֶם [לְאָכְלָה, הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּנִבְלָתָהּ יִטְמָא עַד הָעָרֶב]""V'CHI YAMUS MIN HA'BEHEMAH ASHER HI LACHEM [L'OCHLAH, HA'NOGE'A B'NIVLASAH YITMA AD HA'AREV]"- "And if any beast, of which you may [eat,] dies; [he who touches its carcass shall be Tamei until the evening]" (Vayikra 11:39).
8)[line 13]להכניס ולהוציאL'HACHNIS U'LEHOTZI- to bring in [Tum'ah to the food] or to transfer [Tum'ah from the food to food that is Tahor]
9)[line 19]"... תַּנּוּר וְכִירַיִם יֻתָּץ, [טְמֵאִים הֵם; וּטְמֵאִים יִהְיוּ] לָכֶם""... TANUR V'CHIRAYIM YUTATZ, [TEMEI'IM HEM; U'TEMEI'IM YIHEYU] LACHEM"- "... an oven and a stove shall be broken (in order to make them Tehorim), [they are Temei'im; and they shall be considered Temei'im] for you" (Vayikra 11:35).
10a)[line 20]בזרעיםBI'ZERA'IM- with regard to Zera'im, seeds, i.e. the verse Vayikra 11:38
b)[line 21]בתנורB'SANUR- with regard to Tanur, an oven, i.e. the verse Vayikra 11:35
c)[line 22]בנבלהB'NEVEILAH- with regard to Neveilah, i.e. the verse Vayikra 11:39
11)[line 32]דיו לבא מן הדין להיות כנדוןDAYO LA'BA MIN HA'DIN LIHEYOS KA'NIDON- it is sufficient to give the Halachah learned from a Kal va'Chomer the exact status of the Halachah from which it was learned
12a)[line 7]מילתא דאתיא בקל וחומר טרח וכתב לה קראMILSA D'ASYA B'KAL VA'CHOMER TARACH V'CHASAV LAH KRA- the Torah troubles itself to write out explicitly that which can be learned from a Kal va'Chomer (see next entry)
b)[line 7]קל וחומרKAL VA'CHOMER
(a)In the Introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash to Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael lists thirteen methods that Chazal use for extracting the Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of them is called a Kal va'Chomer (an argument a fortiori, also known as "Din" in the language of the Gemara), by which a Halachic inference is made from a Halachah of lesser consequence to a Halachah of greater consequence, or vice versa.
(b)Unlike a Gezeirah Shavah (see Background to Zevachim 103:30), the Kal va'Chomer inference need not be received as a tradition from one's teacher, since it is based upon logic. And unlike a Hekesh (see Background to Menachos 78:4), it can be refuted based on logical grounds.
(c)When a Kal va'Chomer argument can be used to teach either a leniency or a stringency, we use the Kal va'Chomer to teach a stringency (see Rashi to Avodah Zarah 46b for the use of the term "Parchinan" (lit. "we ask") in the context of the application of a Kal v'Chomer).
13)[line 13]פיטמא של רמוןPITMA SHEL RIMON- the point of a pomegranate, which lies diametrically opposite its stem
14)[line 14]נץNETZ- the hair-like flower that surrounds the Pitma, and which is surrounded by the crown-like protrusion at the top of a pomegranate
15)[line 18]"[וְכִי יִפֹּל מִנִּבְלָתָם] עַל כָּל זֶרַע זֵרוּעַ אֲשֶׁר יִזָּרֵעַ, [טָהוֹר הוּא]""[V'CHI YIPOL MI'NIVLASAM] AL KOL ZERA ZERU'A ASHER YIZARE'A, [TAHOR HU]"- "[If their dead bodies (the dead bodies of the Sheratzim) fall] on any planted seeds that are to be planted, [the seeds remain Tahor]" (Vayikra 11:37).
16)[line 24]מקרא נדרש לפניו ולא לפני פניוMIKRA NIDRASH LEFANAV V'LO LIFNEI FANAV - a verse is interpreted to apply to that which precedes it but not to that which precedes that which precedes it (MIKRA NIDRASH LEFANAV)
In a number of places in Shas, different views are cited regarding whether a phrase in a verse is expounded to explain words that precede it ("Mikra Nidrash Lefanav"), or it is expounded to explain even words that precede the words that precede it ("Mikra Nidrash Lifnei Fanav").
17)[line 33]פחות מכפולPACHOS MIK'POL- less than the size of a bean
18)[line 36]מאהילMA'AHIL (TUM'AS OHEL)
(a)A k'Zayis of the flesh of a Mes (corpse) is an "Avi Avos ha'Tumah" and is Metamei through Maga (contact), Masa (carrying), and Ohel (being in the same room (lit. tent). An Ohel is defined as a covered space that is at least one Tefach in length, width and height. If a person becomes Tamei with Tum'as Mes, he must wait seven days to go to the Mikvah. Furthermore, on the third and seventh days he must have Mei Chatas (water mixed with ashes of the Parah Adumah — see Background to Chulin 81:11) sprinkled on him.
(b)In an Ohel ha'Mes, the house or room becomes Tamei even if the Mes is passing through it and does not stop moving. A person who enters an Ohel ha'Mes becomes Tamei even if only a bit of his body enters, even when entering backwards. A Mechitzah (partition) in an Ohel ha'Mes only prevents the spread of Tum'ah if it reaches the ceiling. (RASH to Kelim 1:4)
(c)The bones of a Mes are only Metamei through Ohel under one of three conditions:
1.They constitute a quarter of a Kav (Rova ha'Kav);
2.They are the majority of the human body (whether they are the majority of the build (Rov Binyano) of the body or the majority of the number (Rov Minyano) of 248 bones;
3.The bone is a complete skull or a complete spinal column. In order to be Metamei through Maga and Masa, it is enough for the bone to be the size of a Se'orah (a grain of barley).
(d)When an object that can be Metamei b'Ohel is located in an Ohel, the Ohel makes everything in it Tamei and protects anything that is above it from becoming Tamei. That is, an Ohel is Mevi Tum'ah (spreads Tum'ah inside of it) and is Chotzetz from Tum'ah (intervenes between the Tum'ah and the space above the Ohel, preventing Tum'ah from spreading above it).
(e)However, not all objects that cover Tum'ah are Mevi and Chotzetz. There are objects that are Mevi and not Chotzetz and other objects that are Chotzetz and not Mevi and even others that are neither Mevi nor Chotzetz (Ohalos 8:5). An object that is flying through the air, such as a bird or a Talis that is carried or caught up by the wind, is not an Ohel and is not Mevi or Chotzetz, even if it is one Tefach wide.
(f)A space that is less than a Tefach in length, width and height, is not considered an Ohel. Tum'as Mes in such an area is called "Tum'ah Retzutzah" (smashed or squashed Tum'ah) or "Tum'ah Temunah" (hidden Tum'ah). Such Tum'ah does not spread throughout the enclosure, but is Boka'as v'Olah, Boka'as v'Yoredes, i.e. it "breaks through" (Boka'as) the enclosure and goes straight up and straight down, as if it were in the open air. Similarly, if a grave has less than a Tefach of space between the body and the ceiling of the grave, the Tum'ah inside it is Tum'ah Retzutzah. The Tum'ah is Metamei everything that is above it within the boundaries of the Tum'ah (until it reaches something that is Chotzetz, thus keeping it inside an Ohel) and below it.
(g)Most graves have a space of a Tefach between the body and the ceiling of the grave (Berachos 19b). If the grave is completely sealed on all sides, it is called a "Kever Sasum." The Tum'ah inside it fills the entire Kever and is likewise Boka'as v'Olah, Boka'as v'Yoredes until something is Chotzetz above it. A grave that has an open space of a Tefach at the side is not a Kever Sasum, and the Tum'ah within it is prevented from rising above the ceiling of the grave (Ohalos 3:7). In this case, the Tefach above the body is Chotzetz.