[117a - 43 lines; 117b - 24 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos

[1] Rashi 117a DH Alyah d'Leisa b'Shor Lo :

The words "d'Alyas ha'Keves Kerina Bei"

should be "d'Alyas ha'Keves Kreivah Bei" (RASHASH)

[2] Mishnah 117b PEREK HA'OR VEHA'ROTEV [line 8]:

(a) Perek ha'Or veha'Rotev is actually the twelfth and last Perek of the Masechta according to the Me'iri; it was placed out of order in order to end the Mesechta with the words "v'Ha'arachta Yamim," which are the concluding words of Perek Shilu'ach ha'Ken. (In the Peirush of the Me'iri, ha'Or veha'Rotev is the eleventh Perek.)

(b) It appears from the Rif that ha'Or veha'Rotev is the last Perek, since the Rif omits it entirely and does not add a number when counting the subsequent Perakim. The Rif did not quote any Halachos from this Perek since it does not contain much material that is Halachah l'Ma'aseh.

(c) However, Tosfos and the other Rishonim learned this Perek in the same order as our Gemaros; see Insights to 116:2 for Tosfos' reasoning for the order of the Perakim.


1)[line 1] MO'ALIN BO (ME'ILAH)

(a)It is forbidden to derive personal benefit from anything that is Hekdesh, as the Torah states, "Lo Suchal le'Echol b'Sha'arecha... u'Nedarecha Asher Tidor" - "You may not eat in your settlements... and your pledges [to Hekdesh] that you will pledge" (Devarim 12:17) (RAMBAM Hilchos Me'ilah 1:1-3). The minimum amount for which one transgresses this prohibition is a Perutah's worth of benefit.

(b)If someone benefited from Hekdesh b'Mezid (intentionally), he is liable to Malkus (according to the Rabanan; according to Rebbi he is liable to Misah b'Yedei Shamayim - Sanhedrin 83a) and must pay to Hekdesh the amount that he benefited. However, the object from which he benefited remains Hekdesh.

(c)If someone benefited from Hekdesh b'Shogeg (unintentionally), the object loses its Kedushah. He must bring a Korban Me'ilah (as described in Vayikra 5:15-16) and repay Hekdesh the value of his benefit plus an additional fifth (of the ensuing total, or a quarter of the original value). This is true of any object that has Kedushas Damim (i.e. its value is consecrated to Hekdesh). An object that has Kedushas ha'Guf (i.e. an object with intrinsic Kedushah, such as the utensils used in the Beis ha'Mikdash or a live Korban that is used in the Beis ha'Mikdash "as is") does not lose its Kedushah under any circumstances (Rosh Hashanah 28a).

2)[line 1]PIGUL

(a)A sacrifice that was slaughtered (or any of the other three main actions involved in offering a sacrifice: Kabalas ha'Dam, Holachas ha'Dam, Zerikas ha'Dam see Background to Menachos 2:18) with the intention of eating it or offering it Chutz li'Zemano (after its allotted time) becomes disqualified and must be burned.

(b)It is forbidden to eat or offer such a Korban, as the verse states, "v'Im He'achol Ye'achel mi'Besar Zevach Shelamav ba'Yom ha'Shelishi, Lo Yeratzeh, ha'Makriv Oso Lo Yechashev Lo, Pigul Yiheyeh" - "If [the person offering the sacrifice plans] to eat it on the third day, [the sacrifice] will not be accepted, it is considered Pigul (putrid, rejected) and it will not be counted in his favor" (Vayikra 7:18).

(c)If a person eats a k'Zayis of Pigul b'Mezid (intentionally) after Hasra'ah (being forewarned), he is punished with Malkus (lashes); the Lav for eating Pigul is learned from the verse of the Milu'im (Shemos 29:34). If he was not given Hasra'ah, he is Chayav Kares. If he eats it b'Shogeg (unintentionally), he must bring a Korban Chatas (as with all sins for which one is liable to Kares b'Mezid) (SEFER HA'CHINUCH Mitzvah #144.)

3)[line 1]NOSAR

(a)If any meat of a Korban remains after the time that was allotted for it to be eaten, it must be burned, as the Torah states, "b'Yom Zivchachem Ye'achel umi'Macharas, veha'Nosar Ad Yom ha'Shelishi ba'Esh Yisaref" - "It shall be eaten the same day that you slaughter it and on the next day, and anything that remains until the third day shall be burned in fire" (Vayikra 19:6; see Background to Chulin 141:12).

(b)If a person eats a k'Zayis of Nosar b'Mezid (intentionally) after Hasra'ah (being forewarned), he is punished with Malkus (lashes); the Lav for eating Nosar is learned from the verse of the Milu'im, "v'Im Yivaser mi'Besar ha'Milu'im u'Min ha'Lechem Ad ha'Boker, v'Sarafta Es ha'Nosar ba'Esh, Lo Ye'achel Ki Kodesh Hu" - "And if any flesh or bread of the Milu'im sacrifices is left over until the (following) morning, you shall burn the remnants in fire, it shall not be eaten since it is holy" (Shemos 29:34). If he was not given Hasra'ah, he is Chayav Kares. If he eats it b'Shogeg (unintentionally), he must bring a Korban Chatas (as with all sins for which one is liable to Kares b'Mezid) (SEFER HA'CHINUCH Mitzvah #215).

4)[line 2]TAMEI (TUM'AS HA'GUF)

(a)Regarding a person who becomes Tamei the verse states, "b'Chol Kodesh Lo Siga," (Vayikra 12:4) from which we learn that it is forbidden for a person who is Tamei to eat Kodshim.

(b)The punishment for transgressing this Lav intentionally is Kares. If one transgresses it unintentionally he must bring a Korban Oleh v'Yored (see Background to Chulin 21:16b; SEFER HA'CHINUCH Mitzvah #167). If a person who is Tamei eats the blood of Kodshim, he does not transgress this prohibition.

5)[line 6]" ; [ ]""KA'ASHER YURAM MI'SHOR ZEVACH HA'SHELAMIM"- "As [they are] removed (lit. lifted) from the bull of the Korban Shelamim; [and the Kohen shall burn them on the Mizbach ha'Olah]" (Vayikra 4:10).


(a)A person may offer a Korban in the Beis ha'Mikdash as a voluntary sacrifice (Olas Nedavah), as it states in Vayikra 1:2. Voluntary Korbanos may be Olos (which are burned entirely on the Mizbe'ach, see Vayikra 1:2-17, 6:1-6), Shelamim (parts of which are eaten, see Vayikra 3:1-17, 7:11-21, 7:28-37) or Menachos (flour offerings, see Vayikra 2:1-13, 6:7-11, 7:9-10).

(b)Korbenos Shelamim that are offered by an individual may be brought from male or female sheep, cows or goats. They are Kodshim Kalim, and may therefore be slaughtered in the entire Azarah (and not only in its northern part). Before its slaughter, the owner presses his hands on the head of the animal (Semichah). The blood of the Shelamim is cast on the northeastern and southwestern corners of the lower half of the Mizbe'ach (Shenayim she'Hen Arba). Nesachim (a flour offering consisting of flour and oil, and a wine libation) are brought as part of the Korban (Bamidbar 15:3-12). The flour offering is completely burned on the Mizbe'ach and the wine is poured into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes located at the top of the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach) (RAMBAM and RA'AVAD Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1). The amount of flour, oil and wine needed depends upon the animal offered, as specified in Bamidbar (ibid.).

(c)The Chazeh (breast) and Shok (the two upper sections of the right hind leg, until the hip joint) of the Shelamim were given to the Kohen (Vayikra 7:34). Certain fats and other parts of the Korban ("Eimurim,") were offered on the Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 3:3-4, 9-10, 14-15). The Eimurim consist of:

1.The layer of fat covering the stomachs;

2.All other fat attached to the stomachs;

3.The two kidneys;

4.The fat on the kidneys;

5.The Yoseres, which is either the diaphragm (RASHI, RADAK) or a lobe of the liver (RAV HAI GA'ON) (Vayikra 3:3-4).

(d)The owner and his guests (men or women) eat the rest of the Korban inside the borders of the city of Yerushalayim. The meat may be cooked in any fashion and is eaten for two days and the intervening night.

7)[line 8] HAREI ZEH BA L'LAMED V'NIMTZA LAMED- this is a case that comes to teach that is found [to have Halachos] taught about [it]


(a)The Par Kohen Mashi'ach is the young bull brought as a Korban Chatas by a Kohen Gadol who transgresses an Isur Kares thinking that the Torah did not prohibit such an act. (The bull is brought by a Kohen Gadol for the same sins that a Par He'elem Davar (see Background to Shevuos 14:13:a) is brought when the people commit transgressions upon being misled by Beis Din in a Halachic matter.)

(b)The blood of this bull is sprinkled seven times on the Paroches, and is applied to the Keranos (raised corners) of the Mizbe'ach ha'Ketores in the Heichal. The Sheyarei ha'Dam (the remainder of the blood) is poured on the Western Yesod (foundation) of the Mizbe'ach while the Eimurim are offered on the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon.

(c)The remains of the bull (including the meat and parts that are not sacrificed) are burned outside of the city of Yerushalayim (Vayikra 4:3-21, Bamidbar 15:22-26). Those who carry the carcass out of the Azarah are Metamei Begadim. (According to Rebbi Shimon, Yoma 67b, those who are involved in burning the meat are Metamei Begadim.)

9)[line 9] MAH PAR KOHEN MA'SHI'ACH YESH BO ME'ILAH- just as one who benefits from the sacrificial fats of the young bull brought by a Kohen Gadol transgresses the Lav of Me'ilah (see above, entry #1). (The Lav of Me'ilah applies to the entire body of an animal that is Kodshei Kodashim from the time it is sanctified. After its blood is sprinkled on the Mizbe'ach, the Lav of Me'ilah only applies to the Eimurim of the animal (i.e., to the fats that are offered on the Mizbe'ach). An animal that is Kodshim Kalim is the property of its owner while it is alive, and, as a result, the Lav of Me'ilah does not apply to it at that point. After its blood is cast on the Mizbe'ach, the Lav of Me'ilah applies to the Eimurim (just as in the case of Kodshei Kodashim.)

10)[line 11] ?KE'URAH ZO SHE'SHANAH REBBI?- It this teaching that Rebbi taught implausible (lit. ugly)?

11)[line 12]"... -'""... KOL CHELEV LA'SH-M"- "... all [Chelev] fats are [to be sacrificed] to HaSh-m" (Vayikra 3:16).

12)[line 14] YOSERES U'SHTEI KELAYOS- the diaphragm muscle and the two kidneys

13)[line 16] , CHELEV ALYAH, D'LEISA B'SHOR- the fat tail, that is not sacrificed in the case of a bull

14)[line 19]"... [ ]""... KOL CHELEV SHOR V'CHESEV VA'EZ"- "... all sacrificial fat of the bull, or the sheep or the goat [you shall not eat]" (Vayikra 7:23).

15)[line 24]"[ ; ] [ ] [ ; ] [ ]""[KI NEFESH HA'BASAR BA'DAM HI; VA'ANI NESATIV] LACHEM [AL HA'MIZBE'ACH] LECHAPER [AL NAFSHOSHEICHEM; KI HA'DAM] HU [BA'NEFESH YECHAPER]"- "[For the life of the flesh is in the blood; and I have given it] to you [upon the Mizbe'ach] to make an atonement [for your souls; for] it [is the blood that makes an atonement for the soul]" (Vayikra 17:11).

16)[line 25]"""LECHAPER"- see previous entry

17)[line 27]"""HU"- see entry #15

18)[line 31] EIN LECHA DAVAR SHE'NA'ASEH MITZVASO U'MOALIN BO- the Lav of Me'ilah does not apply to anything after its incumbent Mitzvah was performed

19)[line 32] TERUMAS HA'DESHEN

(a)Every morning a Kohen must remove some of the ashes from the consumed sacrifices and place them southeast of the Mizbe'ach alongside the ramp, at a distance of three Tefachim (approximately equal to 22.8, 24 or 28.8 cm, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) from the ramp and 10 Amos (4.56, 4.8 or 5.76 m) from the foot of the ramp, as described in Vayikra 6:3.

(b)It is forbidden to derive benefit from these ashes even after they are placed at the side of the ramp. Generally, after the completion of a Mitzvah that is performed with a particular object, it becomes permitted to derive benefit from the object (if it was previously forbidden). The Torah specifies that with regard to Terumas ha'Deshen, however, even though its Mitzvah has been completed once the ashes are placed on the floor of the Azarah, they remain Asur b'Hana'ah.

20)[line 33]"... ;] ""... V'SAMO ETZEL HA'MIZBE'ACH"- "... [and he shall lift up the ashes of the burnt offering onto the Mizbe'ach, consumed by the fire,] and he shall place it next to the Mizbe'ach" (Vayikra 6:3).


(a)A Kohen who performs the Divine Service must wear the proper Bigdei Kehunah in order to do so.

(b)Except for Yom ha'Kipurim, the Kohen Gadol must wear the eight vestments of the Kohen Gadol which are:

1.Tzitz (forehead-plate),

2.Efod (apron),

3.Choshen (breastplate),

4.Me'il (robe),

5.Kutones (long shirt),

6.Michnasayim (breeches),

7.Avnet (belt made of colored wool and linen),

8.Mitznefes (turban).

(c)The vestments of the ordinary Kohanim are

1.Kutones (long shirt),

2.Michnasayim (breeches),

3.Avnet (belt),

4.Migba'as (hat).

(d)A Kohen who performs the Divine Service while he is not dressed in the proper Bigdei Kehunah is liable to Misah b'Yedei Shamayim, as learned from the verse in Shemos 29:9 (Sanhedrin 83b), since they are considered like Zarim (see Background to Sanhedrin 83:1).

(e)On Yom ha'Kipurim, the kohen Gadol wears Bigdei Lavan (Vayikra 16:4). The Bigdei Lavan of the Kohen Gadol are the four white linen garments that the Kohen Gadol wore when performing the Avodas Penim (the service that included entering the Heichal and the Kodesh ha'Kodashim on Yom ha'Kipurim). They are the Kutones (long shirt), Michnasayim (breeches), Avnet (pure linen belt), and Mitznefes (turban).

(f)The Kohen Gadol did not use these garments again. There is a dispute among the Tana'im as to what is done with the Bigdei Lavan after each Yom ha'Kipurim. According to Rabanan, they were buried and never used again. According to Rebbi Dosa, a Kohen Hedyot, whose uniform consists only of these four white garments, is permitted to use them. (See Insights to Kerisus 6:1.)

22)[line 34] KOL SHNEI KESUVIN HA'BA'IN K'ECHAD EIN MELAMDIN - we do not learn from any two subjects that express the same Halachah (lit. that come together) (SHNEI KESUVIM HA'BAIM K'ECHAD)

(a)In the Introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash to Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael lists thirteen methods that Chazal use for extracting the Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of them is called Binyan Av. A Binyan Av (lit. "building through a father" father in this sense means a Biblical source), is a rule of Biblical interpretation in which one subject is deemed a prototype in order to apply a Halachah stated in that subject to other comparable subjects.

(b)If two verses express the same Halachah regarding two different subjects, we cannot apply the Halachah elsewhere through a Binyan Av. Through the fact that the Torah found it necessary to repeat the law the second time, we may deduce that the Halachah is not meant to be applied automatically in all situations.

23)[line 37]"... ""... V'HINICHAM SHAM"- "... and he shall leave them there" (Vayikra 16:23).

24)[line 40] EGLAH ARUFAH

(a)If a Jew is found murdered in a field (in Eretz Yisrael) and it is not known who the murderer is, the Torah requires that an Eglah Arufah be brought in order to atone for the blood that was spilled (Devarim 21:1). The procedure is as follows:

(b)Five elders (according to the opinion of Rebbi Yehudah, which is the Halachah) of the Beis Din of the Lishkas ha'Gazis (the Jewish Supreme Court) measure the distance between the dead body and the cities around it to determine which city is closest to it.

(c)The elders of the city that is closest to the corpse must bring a female calf that has never been worked (see Background to Bava Metzia 30:12:b) to a Nachal Eisan (a swiftly flowing stream - RAMBAM Hilchos Rotze'ach 9:2; a valley with tough soil - RASHI). They strike it on the back of its neck (Arifah) with a cleaver, severing its spinal column, esophagus and trachea. This calf is the "Eglah Arufah" and becomes Asur b'Hana'ah.

(d)The elders of the closest city then wash their hands there and say, "Our hands have not spilled this blood, and our eyes did not see [the murder]" (Devarim 21:7). This includes a proclamation that the dead man was not sent away from the city without the proper food for his journey or the proper accompaniment. The Kohanim that are present say, "Atone for Your people Yisrael whom You have redeemed, HaSh-m, and do not place [the guilt for] innocent blood in the midst of Your people, Yisrael" (ibid. 21:8). After this procedure, HaSh-m will grant atonement for the innocent blood that was spilled (RAMBAM Hilchos Rotze'ach 9:3).


25)[line 2] TELASA KERA'EI- the three seemingly unnecessary words pertaining to blood in the verse (Vayikra 17:11) "Ki Nefesh ha'Basar ba'Dam Hi va'Ani Nesativ Lachem Al ha'Mizbe'ach Lechaper Al Nafshoseichem, Ki ha'Dam Hu ba'Nefesh Yechaper" (see above, entry #15).

26)[line 5] KOL SHE'YESH LO MATIRIN... CHAYAVIN ALAV MISHUM PIGUL- The Lav of Pigul (see above, entry #2) applies to anything that requires something else to be offered in order for it to be permitted [to be sacrificed or eaten]


27a)[line 8]ROTEV- (O.F. glaire - a viscous, semi-fluid sticky substance) the jellied gravy of meat

b)[line 8]KIPAH- particles of boiled meat and/or spices that settle to the bottom of the pot

c)[line 8]ALAL- Rebbi Yochanan and Reish Lakish (Daf 121a) argue as to the definition of Alal: (a) (O.F. jenol) the tough cervical ligament of animals (Rebbi Yochanan); (b) small pieces of flesh that remain stuck to the hide after flaying (Reish Lakish)

d)[line 9]TELAFAYIM- the hooves

28a)[line 10] TUM'AS OCHLIN

(a)All objects belong to one of three categories:

1.Sources of Tum'ah

2.Objects that can become Tamei

3.Objects that cannot become Tamei.

(b)All sources of Tum'ah are called 'Av ha'Tum'ah' (a father of Tum'ah), except for a corpse, which can generate more Tum'ah than any other object and is therefore referred to as the "Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah." All levels of Tum'ah below Av ha'Tum'ah are referred to as Vlad ha'Tum'ah (a 'child' of Tum'ah).

(c)When one object makes another object Tamei, the second object has a weaker Tum'ah than the first. If something becomes Tamei from an Av, it is called a Rishon l'Tum'ah. A Rishon makes a Sheni l'Tum'ah.

1.Liquids are an exception to this rule. The Chachamim decreed that liquids should always be a Rishon, even if touched by a Sheni.

2.Another case in which the object touched can retain the same level of Tum'ah as that which touched it is Cherev Harei Hu k'Chalal (see Insights to Pesachim 14b).

(d)A Sheni l'Tum'ah cannot make Chulin Tamei. Terumah, however, can become a Shelishi l'Tum'ah. (If someone guarded his Chulin from Tum'ah as one normally guards Terumah, it is called "Chulin she'Na'asu Al Taharas Terumah," and can become a Shelishi.)

(e)Terumah that is a Shelishi l'Tum'ah cannot make other Terumah Tamei. However, it may not be eaten. For this reason, it is referred to as "Pasul" (invalid) rather than "Tamei." Kodesh (objects associated with the sacrifices) that is touched by a Shelishi l'Tum'ah can become a Revi'i. A Revi'i of Kodesh is "Pasul" and may not be eaten.

(f)All foods become Tamei if they touch a source of Tum'ah, but only after they first become wet. From then on, even after they dry, they can still become Tamei. Seven liquids can enable foods to become Tamei: water, dew, oil, wine, milk, blood, and bee's honey. The minimum amount of food that can become Tamei is a k'Beitzah. The modern equivalent of a Beitzah is 0.05, 0.0576 or 0.1 liter, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions.

(g)In order for something edible to receive Tum'as Ochlin, it has to be considered food. A person's intention to eat the item and treat it as a food gives it the status of a food and it can receive Tum'as Ochlin. Once food becomes Tamei, it cannot become Tahor by immersing it in a Mikvah.

b)[line 10] TUM'AS NEVEILOS

A Neveilah is a carcass of a Kosher animal that died without a Halachic slaughtering (or that was slaughtered improperly). The Torah states, "You shall not eat anything that dies by itself (Neveilah), you shall give it to the stranger who is in your gates, that he may eat it, or you may sell it to a Nochri; for you are a holy people to HaSh-m, your El-kim" (Devarim 14:21). A person who eats a k'Zayis of Neveilah is liable to Malkus (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 4:1) and a k'Zayis or more of a Neveilah is an Av ha'Tum'ah that makes a person or an object Tamei through Maga (contact). It is Metamei a Keli Cheres (an earthenware utensil) if it enters the utensil's interior and is Metamei a person with Tum'as Masa (by carrying it) to cause him, in turn, to be Metamei the clothes that he is wearing (RAMBAM Hilchos She'ar Avos ha'Tum'ah 1:1).

29)[line 12]MEFARKESES- it is making convulsive, jerking motions

30)[line 14] YATIZ ES ROSHAH- cut off its head

31)[line 16] ALAL HA'MECHUNAS- Alal that was gathered together (according to both opinions above, entry #29, this is referring to the pieces of flesh that remain stuck to the hide after flaying).

32)[line 18]SHOMRIM

(a)Shomrim are those parts of plants or animals that serve to protect them (e.g. peels and skin). A Shomer combines with the food to make up the requisite k'Beitzah in order to receive Tum'ah.

(b)A Shomer also brings Tum'ah to the food if the Shomer was touched by something Tamei. If the food was Tamei and the Shomer touched food that was not Tamei, the Shomer transmits the Tum'ah to the other food (Uktzin 1:1).

33a)[line 18] TUM'AH KALAH- a lenient Tum'ah; i.e. Tum'as Ochlim, which is only a Rishon or Sheni l'Tum'ah

b)[line 18] TUM'AH CHAMURAH- a stringent Tum'ah; i.e. Tum'as Neveilos, which is an Av ha'Tum'ah

34)[line 20]"[ ] [ , ]""[V'CHI YIPOL MI'NIVLASAM] AL KOL ZERA ZERU'A [ASHER YIZARE'A, TAHOR HU]"- "[If their dead bodies (the dead bodies of the Sheratzim) fall] on any planted seeds [that are to be planted, the seeds remain Tahor]" (Vayikra 11:37).

35)[last line]"[ , ] [ ]""[V'CHI YAMUS MIN HA'BEHEMAH ASHER HI LACHEM L'OCHLAH, HA'NOGE'A] B'NIVLASAH [YITMA AD HA'AREV]"- "[And if an animal that you may consume dies, then he who comes into contact with] its carcass [shall be Tamei until the evening]" (Vayikra 11:39).