CHAGIGAH 4 (23 Nisan) - dedicated by Mr. Avy Reichman of Queens, NY, l'Iluy Nishmas his father, Dovid ben Avraham, for the day of his Yahrzeit.

[4a - 41 lines; 4b - 42 lines]

1)[line 28]המקמץHA'MEKAMETZ- (a) (lit. one who scrapes together, collects) one who collects the excrement of dogs in order to process hides (O.F. cordovan - a soft fine-grained leather [originally] made in Cordova, Spain) (RASHI); (b) one who collects the excrement of dogs in order to wash clothes (RASHI to Kesuvos 77a and to Bava Basra 17a, 19a); (c) a small-scale tanner (Gemara Kesuvos 77a)

2)[line 28]והמצרף נחשתHA'METZAREF NECHOSHES- (a) one who smelts copper at the copper mine (RASHI); (b) copper kettle smiths; (c) a copper miner (the last two opinions are quoted in the Gemara Kesuvos 77a)

3)[line 29]והבורסיHA'BURSI- a tanner, who uses animal excrement to tan hides


4)[line 1]מפנקיMEFANKEI- those who have been pampered and reared delicately, who cannot walk barefoot

5)[line 2]"רמוס חצרי""REMOS CHATZEIRAI"- "[When you come to appear before Me, who has required this from you,] to trample My courtyards?" (Yeshayah 1:12).

6)[line 26]"ויאמר לה המלך אל תיראי כי מה ראית ותאמר האשה אל שאול אלקים ראיתי עלים מן הארץ... ויאמר שמואל אל שאול למה הרגזתני להעלות אתי ויאמר שאול צר לי מאד ופלשתים נלחמים בי וא-לקים סר מעלי ולא ענני עוד גם ביד הנביאם גם בחלמות ואקראה לך להודיעני מה אעשה""VA'YOMER LAH HA'MELECH..." - "The king said to her, 'Do not be afraid; but what did you see?' The woman said to Shaul, 'I saw angels coming up from the ground... Shmuel said, 'Why did you disturb me to raise me up?' Shaul said, 'I am in great distress, because the Pelishtim are at war with me, and G-d has turned away from me and does not answer me anymore, neither through the prophets nor through dreams; so I called you to inform me what I should do" (Shmuel I 28:13, 15) (SHAUL CONURES UP SHMUEL FROM THE GRAVE)

(a)When Shaul ha'Melech, whose army was encamped on Mt. Gilbo'a, saw the attacking Philistine army which was encamped in Shunem, he was gripped by fear. He tried to consult HaSh-m to find out what he should do, but HaSh-m declined to answer him through any medium - dreams, the Urim v'Tumim, and the prophets. Shaul then told his servants to find for him a Ba'alas Ov (a necromancer) through whose services he would be able to bring up Shmuel, who had recently died, from the grave. Although this was no easy matter (as Shaul himself had just destroyed all of the Ovos and the Yid'onim (another type of witch) from the entire land), his servants were informed of a witch who lived in Ein Dor.

(b)Disguising himself, Shaul went to visit her, accompanied by two trusted servants (Avner and Amasa). When the Ba'alas Ov expressed fear as to what would happen to her if Shaul found out that she had survived his "witch-hunt," he promised her that nothing would happen to her. Following Shaul's instructions to conjure up Shmuel, she did so, but immediately let out a scream, as it is a rule of necromancy that the person who is brought up appears upside-down, unless he is being brought up on behalf of a king, in which case he would appear head-first. Since Shmuel appeared head-first, she now knew that the man who was visiting her was none other than Shaul ha'Melech, whom she immediately accused of having tricked her (as she thought that he now intended to kill her).

(c)The king repeated his assurance that nothing would happen to her, and asked her what she had seen (as in necromancy, the witch sees but cannot hear, while the person on whose behalf the person is being brought up hears but cannot see). By her description, Shaul knew that it was indeed Shmuel whom she had brought up.

(d)It is noteworthy that in the verse quoted here, Shaul omitted mention of the Urim v'Tumim (even though the Urim v'Tumim did not respond to his request either, as mentioned above). This was because Shaul attributed the Urim v'Tumim's silence to his request to his having killed the priestly city of Nov, and now he felt embarrassed at having perpetrated such a terrible sin. This explains the positive side of Shmuel's otherwise negative message (as we shall now see).

(e)Shmuel's response was, unfortunately, not a happy one. He informed Shaul that because he failed to destroy Amalek as he had been instructed to do, HaSh-m had departed from him and became his enemy. Furthermore, He had taken the kingdom away from him and given it to David. Moreover, Yisrael would be defeated by the Pelishtim, and he and his sons would join him (Shmuel) in Gan Eden. (He merited to go to Gan Eden because he was full of remorse for his sin, as explained above.)

(f)Chazal ascribe Shmuel's use of the plural form of the word "Elokim" (angels) to the fact that Shmuel, fearful that he was being called to the Heavenly Court to give a reckoning for his deeds in this world, had asked Moshe Rabeinu to accompany him to testify on his behalf.

7)[line 30]לדינא מתבעינאL'DINA MISBE'INA- I am being called to judgment

8)[line 32]"יתן בעפר פיהו אולי יש תקוה""YITEN BE'AFAR PIHU, ULAI YESH TIKVAH"- "Let him put his mouth in the dust; there may yet be hope" (Eichah 3:29).

9)[line 36]"ויש נספה בלא משפט""V'YESH NISPEH B'LO MISHPAT"- "[Much food is in the well-tilled acre of the poor;] but sometimes ruin comes for lack of judgment" (Mishlei 13:23) - The Gemara interprets the end of this verse as follows: "but sometimes death comes without a judgment."

10)[line 38]מגדלא שיער נשייאMEGADLA SEI'AR NESHAYA- who braids the hair of women

11)[last line]ליהוי למניינאLEHEVEI L'MINYANA- let her fill the count of people who are supposed to die

12)[last line]היכי יכלת להHEICHI YACHALT LAH- how were you able to take her soul?

13)[last line]הות נקיטא מתארא בידהHAVAS NEKITA META'ARA B'YADAH- she was holding a poker in her hand (O.F. forgon - a poker, an instrument used to stoke a fire)

14)[last line]והות קא שגראV'HAVAS KA SHAGRA- and she was heating