1)PLANTING DIFFERENTLY THAN AGREED (cont.)
(a)Answer (Abaye): In our Mishnah, R. Shimon ben Gamliel forbids due to Rabah's reason. (Based on what the owner planted last year, planting wheat might be better for the field.)
1.Version #1 - Rashi (Rabah): If one plants wheat and the next year barley, or one year widthwise and the next year lengthwise, this will ruin the field;
2.Version #2 - Tosfos (Rabah): If one plants wheat and the next year barley, or one year widthwise and the next year lengthwise, this will improve the field; (end of Version #2)
i.If he plows after harvesting, this will not happen (so Reuven may plant barley).
(b)(Mishnah): If he was Chocher to plant grain, he may not plant legumes...
(c)Rav Yehudah taught Ravin that if he was Chocher to plant grain, he may plant legumes.
(d)Question (Ravin - Mishnah): If he was Chocher to plant grain, he may not plant legumes. If he was Chocher to plant legumes, he may plant grain.
(e)Answer (Rav Yehudah): The Mishnah is for Eretz Yisrael. I taught you the law in Bavel (where the soil is not harmed by legumes).
(f)(Rav Yehudah): If leeks grow among flax, one may take them from others' fields (removing them improves the flax more than their own value). If they are on the perimeter of a patch of flax, taking them is theft (because taking them does not help the flax);
1.If the leeks have hardened to the point that the seeds are fit for planting, it is theft to take them even amidst the flax.
2.Question: What is the reason?
3.Answer: They will not cause further harm.
2)TREES ON THE BORDER
(a)Rav Yehudah (to his neighbor Ravin): Some of your fruit is on my premises, and some of my fruit is on your premises (there were trees straddling the border).
1.The custom among neighbors is that the fruit belongs to the one in whose premises the roots are.
(b)Version #1 - Rashi - (Rav): If a tree is on the border between two fields, the fruit belongs to the one in whose premises the roots are;
(c)(Shmuel): They divide the fruit.
(d)Question (Beraisa): If a tree stands on the border, the neighbors divide the fruit.
(e)Answer (Shmuel, on behalf of Rav): The case is, the roots are in both fields.
1.Question: If so, this is obvious!
2.Answer: The case is, the branches lean to one side (e.g. the field on the east).
(f)Version #2 - Tosfos - (Rav): If a tree lies on the border (jointly owned by the neighbors), they split the branches that are over the border. Each takes the fruit of the branches above his field;
(g)(Shmuel): They divide the fruit.
(h)Question (Beraisa): If a tree stands on the border, the neighbors divide the fruit.
(i)Answer (Shmuel, on behalf of Rav): The case is, the branches are over the border.
1.Question: If so, this is obvious!
2.Answer: The case is, they produce more fruit on one side (e.g. the east) than the other.(end of Version #2)
3.Objection: Still, this is obvious!
4.Answer: One might have thought that the neighbor on the east can say 'each of us will take the fruit in his half.' The Beraisa teaches that this is not so. The other says 'one of us will take the northern, and the other will take the southern half.'
3)BLESSINGS AND CURSES
(a)Rav Yehudah (to Ravin): Do not buy land close to the city.
1.(R. Aba): One may not look at another's field when it is laden with crops (due to Ayin ha'Ra'ah. Jealousy can arouse harsh judgment from Shamayim.)
(b)Question: Rav taught that "Baruch Atah ba'Ir" is a Berachah that your house will be close to the Beis ha'Keneses. "U'Varuch Atah ba'Sadeh" - your property will be close to the city; "Baruch Atah b'Vo'echa" - when you return home, you will not find your wife Safek Nidah; "u'Varuch Atah b'Tzeisecha" - your descendants will be like you;
1.(R. Yochanan): "Baruch Atah ba'Ir" is that you will have a Beis ha'Kisei (privy) near your table. A house close to the Beis ha'Keneses is not a Berachah.
i.This is like R. Yochanan taught elsewhere, that one is rewarded for every step he takes to walk to the Beis ha'Keneses.
2.(R. Yochanan): "U'Varuch Atah ba'Sadeh" - a third of your land will be grain fields, a third olive orchards, and a third vineyards. "Baruch Atah b'Vo'echa u'Varuch Atah b'Tzeiseacha" - you will leave the world like you entered, without sin.
(c)Answer: It is a Berachah to have property close to the city only if there is a wall so people cannot see in.
(d)Opinion #1 (Rav): "V'Hesir Hash-m Mimecha Kol Choli" refers to Ayin ha'Ra'ah.
1.This is like he said elsewhere. Rav went to a graveyard and somehow learned that 99 of every 100 died from Ayin ha'Ra'ah, and only one died normally. (Rashi - he whispered by the graves; Aruch - he asked in a dream, or planted trees and imposed an oath on them; R. Peretz - he just said this. He did not do any action to learn this.)
(e)Opinion #2 (Shmuel): "Kol Choli" refers to wind.
1.This is like Shmuel holds, that that all sickness and death is due to wind.
2.Question: The kingdom beheads people. They do not die due to wind!
3.Answer: If not for wind, a potion could be used to reconnect their heads and heal them.
(f)Opinion #3 (R. Chanina): "Kol Choli" refers to the cold.
1.(R. Chanina): "Tzinim Pachim... Shomer Nafsho Yirchak Mehem" - whatever befalls one is decreed by Heaven, except for chills and fevers (they are due to lack of caution).
(g)Opinion #4 (R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina): "Kol Choli" refers to mucus and earwax;
1.A small amount of them is good. A large amount is harmful.
(h)Opinion #5 (R. Elazar): "Kol Choli" refers to Marah (bile).
(i)Support (Beraisa): "Machalah" refers to Marah;
1.It is called Machalah because it sickens the whole body.
2.Also, it is called Machalah because it causes 83 sicknesses (the numerical value of Machalah);
i.Eating bread in the morning with salt and drinking water prevents all 83.
(j)(Beraisa): There are 13 benefits of eating bread in the morning: it prevents heatstroke, chills, wind and damagers. It gives wisdom to the foolish, it helps him (be settled in Beis Din, which helps him) to win his case, to learn and to teach Torah. People heed his words, he remembers his learning, he does not sweat too much, he desires only his own wife, and it kills intestinal worms;
1.Some say, it even dispels envy and promotes love.
(k)Question (Rabah): People say 'sixty runners cannot catch one who ate bread in the morning.' Chachamim say 'eat early in summer due to the heat, and in winter due to the cold,. What is the source of these?
(l)Answer #1 (Rava bar Mari): "They will not be hungry or thirsty, heat and sun will not strike them (because they already ate)."
(m)Answer #2 (Rabah): "You will serve Hash-m" refers to saying "Shema Yisrael" and prayer in the morning. "And He will bless your bread and water" refers to (eating) bread with salt and a flask of water. After this "I will remove sickness from your midst."
(a)Rav Yehudah (to Rav Ada the land measurer): Be very careful when measuring land. Every tiny piece is fitting for saffron;
(b)Version #1 (Rashi): People leave four Amos fallow near an irrigation channel . Don't worry if you mark off less than four.
(c)Version #2 (Tosfos): People leave four Amos fallow near an irrigation channel. Give them generously (so people can stand comfortably while drawing water). (end of Version #2)
(d)People leave four Amos fallow near the river. Don't even measure it. Rather, give a generous estimation. (Tosfos - if it is too narrow, people pulling ships may fall in!)
(e)This is like Rav Yehudah taught elsewhere.
1.(Rav Yehudah): The four Amos near an irrigation channel belong to the people who use it; (Rashi - if they get too little, they can forgive this.)
2.The four Amos near the river belong to everyone. (Rashi - if they get too little, it is unfeasible to get their forgiveness!)
(f)(R. Ami): If trees or a forest grow near the river bank, one may cut whatever interferes with people pulling the ship, on both banks.
(g)Rav Nasan bar Hoshiya cut 16 Amos. The owners beat him.
1.Rav Nasan reasoned that the width allotted should be like a public road.
2.This is wrong. There, 16 Amos are needed. Here, we give only what is needed for people pulling a ship.
(h)Rabah bar Rav Huna had a forest on the riverbank. People asked him to cut his trees. He said 'after the owners upstream and downstream cut, also I will cut.'
(i)Question: Reish Lakish taught "Hiskosheshu va'Koshu" - first correct yourself before correcting others!
(j)Answer: The case was, the owner upstream and downstream was a Nochri officer. Surely, he would not agree to cut;
1.Since he would not cut, people pulling the ships would have to be on the other bank in any case. Surely, they would not cross to Rabah's side when they came to his forest.