(a)(Mishnah): If Reuven sells Peros of a field (Aleph), he may not mix with it Peros of field Beis, even if the Peros of both are new, all the more so if that of Aleph is old (which is preferable) and that of Beis is new.
(b)Really, they permitted to mix hard wine with soft, for this improves (soft) wine.
(c)It is forbidden to mix dregs into wine, but he gives him its dregs (this will be explained).
(d)If water was mixed into wine, one may not sell it in a store without informing the buyer;
1.One may not sell it to a merchant, even if he informs him, for he will sell it without saying that it was mixed with water.
(e)In a place where people dilute wine with water, this is permitted.
(f)A merchant mixes together what he buys from different granaries or winepresses, on condition that he does not intend to mix (inferior Peros with superior, and to call it superior).
(g)(Gemara - Beraisa): Obviously, if new Peros sell for four Sa'im for a Sela and old for three Sa'im for a Sela, he may not mix them (and say that it is old);
1.Even if new Peros sell for three Sa'im for a Sela and old for four Sa'im for a Sela, he may not mix them;
i.The new is more expensive only because it can be kept longer. If the buyer wants to use it soon, the old is better for him.
(a)(Mishnah): Really, they permitted to mix hard wine with soft, for this improves it.
(b)(R. Elazar): This teaches that whenever the Mishnah says 'really', that is the Halachah. (Rashi - since it gives the reason, there is no room for doubt; Rambam - the Halachah is a tradition from Moshe from Sinai.)
(c)(Rav Nachman): The Mishnah discusses at the times of pressing the grapes (but afterwards, it harms the wine).
(d)Question: Nowadays, people mix afterwards!
(e)Answer #1 (Rav Papa): People know this, and they pardon it.
(f)Answer #2 (Rav Acha brei d'Rav Ika): The Mishnah is R. Acha;
1.(Beraisa - R. Acha): One may mix something that people taste before buying.
(g)(Mishnah): One may not mix dregs into wine, but he gives him (mixes in) its dregs.
(h)Question: This is self-contradictory!
1.Suggestion: He may give him the dregs if he informs him.
2.Rejection (Reisha): (If water was mixed into wine), one may not sell it in a store without informing the buyer. One may not sell it to a wine merchant, even if he informs him;
3.Inference: Until now, the Mishnah discusses without informing!
(i)Answer (Rav Yehudah): The Mishnah forbids mixing dregs of one wine with a different wine, but he may mix in dregs of the same wine.
(j)Support (Beraisa - R. Yehudah): Reuven gently poured wine to Shimon (so the dregs stayed in Reuven's Kli) - Reuven may not mix in dregs of a different wine, but he may mix in its own dregs.
(k)(Mishnah): If water was mixed into wine, one may not sell it in a store without informing the buyer...
(l)They brought wine from a store to Rava. He mixed it and tasted it. It was not good. He returned it to the store.
(m)Question (Abaye - Mishnah): One may not sell mixed wine to a merchant, even if he informs him.
(n)Answer (Rava): I put in so much water that any buyer will know that it was mixed.
1.Suggestion: We should be concerned lest the store owner add pure (undiluted) wine, so it will not be recognized!
2.Rejection: If the store owner himself will mix the wine, he could add water to pure wine. He need not buy mixed wine to swindle (so we are not responsible).
(o)(Mishnah): In a place where people dilute wine with water, this is permitted.
(p)(Beraisa): One mixes according to the local custom, a half, third or quarter.
(q)(Rav): This refers to at the time of pressing grapes.
3)WAYS TO ATTRACT BUYERS
(a)(Mishnah - R. Yehudah): A grocer may not give treats to children, for this accustoms them to patronize him;
(b)Chachamim permit this.
(c)R. Yehudah forbids selling for less than the standard price;
(d)Chachamim say, he should be blessed for this!
(e)Aba Sha'ul says, one who sells beans may not remove the cut beans;
(f)Chachamim permit this;
1.Chachamim agree that he may not remove the cut beans only on top, for that is deception.
(g)One may not be Mefarches (this will be explained) people, animals or Kelim (for sale).
(h)(Gemara) Question: Why do Chachamim permit giving nuts?
(i)Answer: The other grocers can do the same if they want.
(j)(Mishnah): R. Yehudah forbids selling for less than the standard price. Chachamim say, he should be blessed for this!
(k)Question: Why do Chachamim permit this?
(l)Answer: This will encourage others to sell cheaply, and the price will decline.
(m)Aba Sha'ul says, one may not remove the cut beans. Chachamim permit this...
(n)Question: Like whom do Chachamim hold?
(o)Answer: They hold like R. Acha;
1.(Beraisa - R. Acha): Anything that the buyer can see is permitted.
4)MAKING THE MERCHADISE ATTRACTIVE
(a)(Mishnah): One may not be Mefarches people, animals or Kelim.
(b)(Beraisa): One may not be Mesharbet animals or inflate intestines (of a slaughtered animal) nor soak the meat in water (to make it appear fatty).
(c)Question: What does Mesharbet mean?
(d)Answer #1 (Chachamim of Bavel): It is to give to them bran water to drink (to inflate the intestines and make the hair stand up).
(e)Answer #2 (Ze'iri): It is to comb with a thick comb.
(f)Shmuel permitted putting silk fringes on a cloak.
(g)Rav Yehudah permitted to starch clothing with colorful designs.
(h)Rabah permitted stretching hemp garments (to show off the fine threads).
(i)Rava permitted putting designs on arrows;
(j)Rav Papa bar Shmuel permitted putting designs on baskets.
(k)Question (Mishnah): One may not be Mefarches people, animals or Kelim.
(l)Answer: That is forbidden only for old Kelim, for it makes them look new.
(m)Question: What does Mefarches mean with respect to people?
(n)Answer: It is like the case of an old Kena'ani slave who dyed his (white) hair and beard black, and asked Rava to buy him.
1.Rava: A Mishnah says 'the poor should be in your household.' (It is better to pay a poor Yisrael to serve me.)
2.Rav Papa bar Shmuel bought him. One day, when he told the slave to serve him, the slave showed him that he was older than Rav Papa's father;
3.Rav Papa applied to himself "Tzadik mi'Tzarah Nechelatz va'Yavo Rasha Tachtav" - the Tzadik (Rava) was saved from trouble, the evil one (myself) gets the evil in his place.
PEREK EIZEHU NESHECH
5)NESHECH AND TARBIS
(a)(Mishnah) Question: What is Neshech (biting, making the borrower pay more than he received), and what is Tarbis (increase (of the lender's money))?
(b)Answer: Neshech is lending four Dinarim to get back five, or two Sa'im of wheat to get back three;
(c)Tarbis is increasing Peros (like the coming case);
1.Reuven bought a Kor of wheat for 25 Dinarim, which was the going rate. The price rose to 30 Dinarim, and he asked for his wheat, in order to sell it and buy wine. The seller did not have wheat; he promised to give Reuven 30 Dinarim worth of wine, and now he has no wine.
(d)(Gemara) Inference: The Tana did not give examples of Tarbis mid'Oraisa (through a loan), only Tarbis mid'Rabanan (through a sale). This implies that mid'Oraisa, Neshech and Tarbis are the same!
(e)Question: The Torah wrote them regarding different matters, so they must be different! Neshech is written regarding money, and Tarbis regarding food!
1.Counter-question: You cannot find either without the other!
2.Suggestion: We can find Neshech without Tarbis. He lent 100 (Perutos) on condition to get back 120. At the time of the loan, 100 Perutos was a Danka (a sixth; Rashi - of a Dinar; Ra'avad - of a Kor of grain), at the time of the payment, a Danka was 120 Perutos;
i.The borrower pays more (Perutos), the lender does not gain (Rashi - he received back the same Danka he lent; Ran - we are thinking that Neshech depends on the time he lends him, Tarbis depends on the time of payment).
3.Rejection: (Ran - no, Neshech and Tarbis both depend on the same time.) If it depends on the beginning (he stipulated to return 120 for 100), this is Neshech and Tarbis. If it depends on the end, (a Danka was given, a Danka was returned) there is neither Neshech nor Tarbis.
4.Suggestion: We can find Tarbis without Neshech. He lent 100 on condition to get back 100. At the time of the loan, 100 was a Danka (a sixth, of a Dinar or Kor), at the time of the payment, 100 was a fifth.
5.Rejection: If it depends on the beginning, this is neither Neshech nor Tarbis. If it depends on the end, there is both Neshech and Tarbis.
(f)Answer (Rava): Really, you cannot find one without the other. The Torah wrote them separately to forbid Ribis with a second Lav.