BAVA METZIA 60 - (24 Cheshvan) - dedicated by Dr. Moshe and Rivkie Snow in memory of Rivkie's father, the Manostrishtcher Rebbe, Hagaon Rav Yitzchak Yoel ben Harav Gedaliah Aharon Rabinowitz Ztz"l, Rav of Kehilas Nachalas Yehoshua in Canarsie, NY. A personification of the Torah scholar of old, the Ukranian-born Rebbe lived most of his life in the United States where his warm ways changed many lives.

[60a - 41 lines; 60b - 42 lines]

1)[line 1]באמת אמרוB'EMES AMRU- (lit. in truth they said) it is an accepted Halachah. (According to the Yerushalmi (Shabbos 1:3), "b'Emes Amru" translates as "it is a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai." From the Rambam's introduction to Perush ha'Mishnayos, though, it may be inferred that this is true only when "b'Emes Amru" is stated in a Mishnah (as in our Mishnah), but not when it is mentioned in a Beraisa. Rashi to Sukah 38a DH b'Emes Amru applies the Yerushalmi's translation even to a "b'Emes Amru" that is mentioned in a Beraisa. Accordingly, it could mean "it is as clear as a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai" - see MAHARATZ CHAYOS to Beitzah 17a.) See below, entry #11.

2a)[line 2]קשהKASHEH- (lit. hard) strong wine

b)[line 2]ברךRACH- (lit. soft) mellow wine

3)[line 3]שמרי ייןSHEMAREI YAYIN- lees/dregs of wine

4)[line 6]שאינו אלא לרמות (בו)SHE'EINO ELA L'RAMOS (BO)- it is used only to cheat with it

5)[line 8]גרנותGERANOS- granaries (for the threshing and processing of wheat)

6)[line 8]מגורהMEGURAH- silo (for storage of wheat)

7)[line 9]גיתותGITOS- winepresses

8)[line 9]פיטוםPITOM- cask (for storage of wine)

9)[line 13]לישנןL'YASHNAN- to age them

10)[line 15]עדא אמרהADA AMRAH- this proves

11)[line 16]הלכה היאHALACHAH HI- (a) it is an accepted and unquestioned Halachah (RASHI); (b) it is a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai (Yerushalmi Shabbos 1:3, RABEINU CHANANEL and RAMBAM in his Introduction to Peirush ha'Mishnayos); (c) it is a Halachah d'Rabanan which is accepted as if it were a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai (the Rash's explanation of the Yerushalmi Terumos 2:1)

12)[line 18]ובין הגיתות שנוU'VEIN HA'GITOS SHANU- during the wine-pressing season (when the wine has not yet fermented) it was taught

13a)[line 26]בשל אמשB'SHEL EMESH- [the wine] of yesterday

b)[line 27]בשל יוםB'SHEL YOM- [the wine] of today. That is, wine and sediment from different barrels (even if they were actually produced on the same day) may not be mixed with each other.

14)[line 28]השופה ייןHA'SHOFEH YAYIN- one who pours wine

15)[line 31]מזגיהMAZGEI- he diluted it

16)[line 31]לא הוה בסיםLO HAVAH VASIM- it was not tasty

17)[line 31]שדריה לחנותאSHADREI LA'CHANUSA- he sent it [back] to the store

18)[line 33]וכי תימא דטפי ומחייליה ומזבין ליהV'CHI TEIMA D'TAFI U'MECHAILEI U'MAZBIN LEI- and if you will say that he (the store owner) will add more [wine] and mix it in and then sell it (see Girsa of Rashi)

19)[line 36]קליותKELAYOS- roasted kernels

20)[line 36]ואגוזיןEGOZIN- nuts

21)[line 37]ולא יפחות את השערLO YIFCHOS ES HA'SHA'AR- he may not cause the market price to fall (lit. sell at less than the market price)

22)[line 37]לא יבור את הגריסיןLO YAVOR ES HA'GERISIN- he may not separate the [refuse from the] beans (and charge extra for the labor)

23)[line 39]אין מפרכסיןEIN MEFARKESIN- we may not beautify

24)[line 40]אנא מפליגנא אמגוזיANA MAFLIGNA AMGUZEI- I give out nuts

25)[last line]שיסקיSHISKEI- (O.F. prunes) plums


26)[line 1]דקא מרווח לתרעאKA MARVACH L'SAR'A- he thereby benefits the market price (by causing others to lower their prices)

27)[line 5]אין משרבטין את הבהמהEIN MESHARVETIN ES HA'BEHEMAH- we may not straighten [the hairs of] an animal (to make it look fatter than it really is)

28)[line 6]ואין נופחין בקרבייםV'EIN NOFCHIN BI'KERAVAYIM- we may not bloat (by blowing into) the intestines (to make them look larger than they really are, when they are being sold in the slaughterhouse)

29)[line 7]ואין שורין את הבשר במיםV'EIN SHORIN ES HA'BASAR B'MAYIM- we may not soak meat in water (to whiten it, making it look like fat meat)

30)[line 8]מיא דחיזראMAYA D'CHIZRA- bran water (which bloats the animal)

31)[line 9]מזקפתאMAZKAFTA- (O.F. estreillier - to curry-comb, to rub down and clean an animal with a special comb) brushing [the animal's hair to make it stand up straight]

32)[line 9]שמואל שרא למרמא תומי לסרבלאSHMUEL SHARA L'MIRMA TUMEI L'SARBELA- Shmuel permitted one to place fringes (O.F. frenjes) on a coat

33)[line 10]לכסכוסי קרמיL'CHASKUSEI KARMEI- (O.F. enpeser) to rub fine clothing [with bran water — RASHI] in order to starch it

34)[line 11]למידק צרדיL'MEIDAK TZERADEI- to beat canvas (hemp) apparel (so that their fibers appear finer)

35)[line 11]לצלומי גיריLITZLUMEI GIREI- to paint arrows

36)[line 12]לצלומי דיקוליLITZLUMEI DIKULEI- to paint baskets

37a)[line 15]בחדתיCHADTEI- new ones (for which a person will pay extra when it is beautified)

b)[line 15]בעתיקיATIKEI- old ones

38)[line 16]דההוא עבדא סבאD'HA'HU AVDA SABA- that certain elderly slave. (According to RASHI, he was a Nochri. See, however, SHITAH MEKUBETZES.)

39)[line 16]צבעיה לרישיה ולדיקניהTZAV'EI L'REISHEI UL'DIKNEI- he dyed [the hair of] his head and his beard

40)[line 18]זיבנןZIVNAN- buy me

41)[line 20]אשקיין מיאASHKEYAN MAYA- bring water for me to drink

42)[line 20]חווריהCHAVREI- he whitened (he removed the dye from his hair)

43)[line 21]חזי דאנא קשיש מאבוךCHAZI D'ANA KASHISH ME'AVUCH- see that I am older than your father (and it is therefore not fitting for me to bring you water)

44)[line 22]"צַדִּיק מִצָּרָה נֶחֱלָץ, וַיָּבֹא (אחר) [רָשָע] תַּחְתָּיו""TZADIK MI'TZARAH NECHELATZ, VA'YAVO (ACHER) [RASHA] TACHTAV"- "The righteous one is removed from trouble, and the wicked one comes in his place." (Mishlei 11:8) - The verse actually reads, "va'Yavo Rasha Tachtav," but Rav Papa bar Shmuel, when he applied this verse to himself, certainly did not consider himself a Rasha for acquiring a Nochri slave instead of hiring a poor Jew. He therefore replaced the word "Rasha" with the word "Acher" ("... and someone else comes in his place...") when he applied the verse to himself.


45)[line 24]נשך / תרביתNESHECH / TARBIS (RIBIS)

(a)It is forbidden to lend money with interest (Shemos 22:24, Vayikra 25:36, Devarim 23:20). Even if interest is charged conditionally, and it is eventually not collected, the transaction is prohibited mid'Oraisa according to some Tana'im. It is also forbidden to take money in order to allow the borrower more time to complete the payment of the loan. (Such payment is known as "Agar Natar.")

(b)The Torah forbids lending with interest only if the rate or amount of interest was fixed at the time that the loan was made. This is called Ribis Ketzutzah. If interest was paid but the amount paid was not fixed at the time of the loan, or if a higher price was paid in a sale in order that the seller should allow the buyer more time to complete his payment for the purchase, it is called Avak Ribis or Ribis d'Rabanan. In addition to these, certain payments that are not actually Ribis mid'Oraisa or mid'Rabanan were prohibited because they have similarities to Ribis. Chazal refer to this as "Ha'aramas Ribis."

46)[line 24]המלוה סלע בה' דינריןHA'MALVEH SELA B'CHAMISHAH DINERIN - one who lends a Sela (equal to four Dinerim) with the condition that he receive five Dinerim in return (CURRENCY OF THE TALMUD)

(a)The relationship between the various coins mentioned in the Talmud is as follows:

1.1 Sela = 2 Shekel

2.1 Shekel = 2 Dinar

3.1 Dinar = 6 Me'ah

4.1 Rova Shekel (or Sela Medinah) = 3 Me'ah

5.1 Me'ah = 2 Pundeyon

6.1 Pundeyon = 2 Isar

7.1 Isar = 8 Perutah (or sometimes 6 Perutah - see Kidushin 12a)

(b)Another name for a silver Dinar a Zuz. All of the coins listed above are silver except for the Perutos, which are copper. (This is the understanding of most of the Rishonim. According to the ROSH 4:20, even the Pundeyonin and Isarin are copper.)

(c)The word "Shekel" in the Torah, as used in the phrase "Machatzis ha'Shekel," refers to the Shekel that was in use at the time of Moshe Rabeinu which was equivalent to the Sela of the times of the Gemara. Machatzis ha'Shekel is half of a Sela, or two Dinerin. People became accustomed to calling the coin of that value "Shekel," since it was "paid out" ("Shoklim" Oso) in order to fulfill the Mitzvah of Machatzis ha'Shekel each year (RAMBAN to Shemos 30:13). Likewise, the Shekel to which our Gemara refers is worth half of a Sela or two Dinerin.

47)[line 25]מפני שהוא נושךMIPNEI SHE'HU NOSHECH- because he bites (taking interest from a borrower is akin to "biting" him, for it diminishes his assets)

48)[line 26]הכורKOR (DRY MEASURES)

(a)The following is a list of measures of volume used in the Mishnah and Gemara:

1.1 Kor (= 1 Chomer) = 30 Se'in

2.1 Lesech = 15 Se'in

3.1 Eifah = 3 Se'in

4.1 Se'ah = 6 Kabin

5.1 Tarkav (= Trei v'Kav, or 3 Kabin) = 12 Lugin

6.1 Kav = 4 Lugin

7.1 Log (= 1 Rova) = 4 Revi'iyos = 6 Beitzim

8.1 Beitzah = 2 or 3 k'Zeisim, according to the varying opinions

(b)In modern-day measures, the k'Zayis is approximately 0.025, 0.0288 or 0.05 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions. Thus, 1 Kav is approximately equivalent to 1.20, 1.38, or 2.4 liters.

49a)[line 29]לריבית דאורייתאL'RIBIS D'ORAISA- see above, entry #45

b)[line 29]דרבנןD'RABANAN- see above, entry #45

50)[line 32]אוזפיהOZFEI- he lent to him

51)[line 32]בדנקאDANKA- a Me'ah, or 1/6th of a Dinar (see above, entry #46)

52)[line 33]דקא נכית ליהD'KA NACHIS LEI- he is biting him (taking interest from a borrower is akin to "biting" him, for it diminishes his assets)

53)[line 37]בחומשאCHUMSHA- 1/5th of a Dinar

54)[line 40]"אֶת כַּסְפְּךָ לֹא תִתֵּן לוֹ בְּנֶשֶׁךְ, וּבְמַרְבִּית לֹא תִתֵּן אָכְלֶךָ""ES KASPECHA LO SITEN LO B'NESHECH, UV'MARBIS LO SITEN OCHLECHA"- "You shall not give to him your money with interest, and you shall not give your food for increase." (Vayikra 25:37)

55)[last line]"[לֹא תַשִּׁיךְ לְאָחִיךָ] נֶשֶׁךְ כֶּסֶף נֶשֶׁךְ אֹכֶל, [נֶשֶׁךְ כָּל דָּבָר אֲשֶׁר יִשָּׁךְ]""[LO SASHICH L'ACHICHA,] NESHECH KESEF, NESHESH OCHEL, [NESHECH KOL DAVAR ASHER YISHACH]"- "[You shall not cause your brother to take interest,] interest for money, interest for food, [or interest of any object for which he might take interest]." (Devarim 23:20)