[93a - 44 lines; 93b -55 lines]

1)[line 1]אין הרב יכול לומר לעבד "עשה עמי ואיני זנך"EIN HA'RAV YACHOL LOMAR L'EVED "ASEH IMI V'EINI ZANCHA"- the master may not say [to his slave,] "Work for me but I will not feed you."

2)[line 6]ורבי יוחנן, דאמר יכול הרבV'REBBI YOCHANAN, D'AMAR YACHOL HA'RAV- (Source: Gitin 12b)

3)[line 17]אוכלין מהלכות מדינהOCHLIN ME'HILCHOS MEDINAH- they may eat, for that is the local custom

4a)[line 19]גנותGINOS- vegetable gardens

b)[line 19]ופרדסיןPARDESIN- vineyards or orchards

5a)[line 19]גיתותGITOS- [wine in] winepresses

b)[line 19]וערימותAREIMOS- piles [of grain]

6)[line 22]המשמר את הפרה מטמא בגדיםHA'MESHAMER ES HA'PARAH METAMEI BEGADIM - the one who guards the cow [from the time of its slaughter until its ashes are collected] becomes Tamei to the extent that he causes the clothing that he is wearing at the time to become Temei'im also (PARAH ADUMAH)

(a)The Parah Adumah, an exclusively red-haired female cow, is burned on Har ha'Zeisim and its ashes are used for making a person Tahor if he is Tamei Mes. Only a cow that has not had a yoke placed upon it and has had no other work done with it is fit to be used as a Parah Adumah. A place is prepared for its slaughter on Har ha'Zeisim, opposite the gate to the Azarah (the courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash). After it is slaughtered, its blood is sprinkled in the direction of the Beis ha'Mikdash seven times. A cedar branch, some Ezov branches and a piece of crimson wool are thrown into the carcass of the cow while it is burning (Bamidbar 19:1-22).

(b)If a person (or utensil) became Tamei through touching Tum'as Mes or being in the same room as a Mes or something that is Metamei b'Ohel, he must wait seven days to become Tahor. On the third and seventh days he must have spring water mixed with the ashes of the Parah Adumah (Mei Chatas) sprinkled on him. A person who is Tahor dips three Ezov branches that have been bound together into the mixture, and sprinkles them on the person who is Tamei. On the seventh day, after the mixture is sprinkled on him, he immerses in a Mikvah in order to complete his Taharah (Bamidbar 19:17-19).

(c)The verses state that anyone who is involved in burning the Parah Adumah, or gathering its ashes, becomes Tamei to the extent that he causes the clothing that he is wearing at the time to become Tamei with the status of "Rishon l'Tum'ah." The Rabanan decreed that a person who guards the Parah Adumah likewise becomes Tamei. The reason for this decree is that we suspect that the watchman may inadvertently move a limb of the cow while he is fulfilling his task.

7)[line 25]מקשאותMIKSHA'OS- cucumber patches

8)[line 25]לא ימלא כריסוLO YEMALEI KEREISO- he shall not fill his stomach

9)[line 27]בעקוריןAKURIN- uprooted, picked

10)[line 28]שלא ניטל פיקס שלהםSHE'LO NITAL PIKAS SHELAHEN- their flowers had not yet fallen off

11)[line 34]ארבעה שומרים הן, שומר חנם והשואל נושא שכר והשוכרARBA'AH SHOMRIM: SHOMER CHINAM VEHA'SHO'EL, NOSEI SACHAR VEHA'SOCHER (FOUR SHOMRIM)

The Torah (Shemos 22:6-14) mentions four types of Shomrim (watchmen) and the different Halachos that apply to them:

1.SHOMER CHINAM - the Shomer Chinam is one who watches an item without demanding compensation from the owner. He is liable for damages only in cases of Peshi'ah (negligence), but not in cases of theft or loss, and certainly not in a case of Ones (an unavoidable accident).

2.SHO'EL - the Sho'el, the borrower, is one who borrows an item in order to use it and becomes obligated to take care of it. He is liable for damages in cases of Peshi'ah, theft or loss, and Ones. He is exempt from damages only in a case of "Meisah Machmas Melachah," when the item was damaged in the normal manner of usage, or if the item was damaged while its owner was working for the borrower ("Be'alav Imo").

3.NOSEI SACHAR - Nosei Sachar, or Shomer Sachar, is one who is paid to watch an item but is not permitted to use it. He is liable for damages in cases of Peshi'ah, theft or loss, but is not liable in a case of Ones.

4.SOCHER - the Socher, or renter, is one who pays money to rent an item. He is liable for damages in cases of Peshi'ah, theft or loss, but is not liable in a case of Ones, just like a Shomer Sachar, according to some of the Tana'im. Others assert that a Socher is liable for damages only in cases of Peshi'ah, but not in cases of theft or loss, and certainly not in a case of Ones, just like a Shomer Chinam.

12)[line 35]נשבע על הכלNISHBA AL HA'KOL- takes an oath [to exempt himself from payment] for all [damages that occur to the item that he is watching]

13)[line 35]משלם את הכלMESHALEM ES HA'KOL- pays for all [damages that occur to the item that he is borrowing]

14a)[line 36]השבורהSHEVURAH- [an animal that] broke a limb

b)[line 36]השבויהSHEVUYAH- [an animal that was] captured

15)[line 36]המתהMESAH- [an animal that] died as a result of an unavoidable accident

16)[line 42]אי הכי, ארבעה?! שלשה נינהו!IY HACHI, ARBA'AH?! SHELOSHAH NINHU!- if so, that a Socher has the same Halachos as either a Shomer Chinam or a Shomer Sachar, then there are only three categories of Shomrim and not four! (see TOSFOS DH Iy Hachi; RASHI to Shevuos is not Gores the words "Iy Hachi")

17)[line 43]ההוא רעיא דהוה קא רעי חיותא אגודא דנהר פפאHA'HU RAYA D'HAVAH KA RA'EI CHEIVASA A'GUDA D'NEHAR PAPA- there was a certain shepherd who was grazing animals on the banks of the Papa River, the name of a canal in Bavel

18)[line 43]שריג חדא מינייהו ונפלת למיאSHAREIG CHADA MINAIHU V'NAFLAS L'MAYA- one of the animals slipped and fell into the water [an drowned]


19)[line 2]על למתא בעידנא דעיילי אינשיAL L'MASA B'IDNA D'AILEI INSHEI- [the shepherd] went into the town at the time that all shepherds go into town [leaving the flocks in the fields]

20)[line 3]גנא פורתאGANA PURTA- he slept a little

21)[line 6]"וַתִּפֹּל שְׁבָא וַתִּקָּחֵם וְאֶת הַנְּעָרִים הִכּוּ לְפִי חָרֶב""VA'TIPOL SHEVA VA'TIKACHEM, V'ES HA'NE'ARIM HIKU L'FI CHAREV..."- "And [people of the kingdom of] Sheva fell upon them (the bulls and the donkeys), and took them away. They have slain the servants with the edge of the sword, [and I alone have escaped to tell you]." (Iyov 1:15)

22)[line 7]בחזני מתאCHAZANEI MASA- the city watchmen (who are expected to perform expert guard duty)

23)[line 9]"הָיִיתִי בַיּוֹם אֲכָלַנִי חוֹרֶב, וְקֶרַח בַּלַּיְלָה...""HAYISI VA'YOM, ACHALANI CHOREV, V'KERACH BA'LAILA..."- "Thus I was; in the day the scorching heat consumed me, and the frost by night; [and my sleep departed from my eyes]." (Bereishis 31:40)

24)[line 11]נטרי לך נטירותא יתירתאNATRI LACH NETIRUSA YESEIRTA- I performed expert guard duty

25)[line 13]עדרוEDRO- his flock

26)[line 13]זאבZE'EV- a wolf

27)[line 14]וטרףTARAF- tore [its prey and dragged it to its lair, where it killed it and ate it]

28)[line 14]אריARI- a lion

29)[line 14]ודרסDARAS- attacked with its paws or claws [and ate it on the spot]

30)[line 18]תחילתו בפשיעה וסופו באונס חייבTECHILASO BI'PESHI'AH V'SOFO B'ONES; CHAYAV - although the eventual damage that occurred was an Ones and something for which the Shomer would not normally be responsible, he was negligent in the first place in such a way that could have led to the type of damage(s) for which he would have been Chayav

The Gemara (42a) cites two views regarding the liability of the Shomer in a case of "Techilaso bi'Peshi'ah v'Sofo b'Ones," and rules in accordance with the view that says that the Shomer is Chayav. Our Gemara supports the ruling since it only considers the opinion that the Shomer is Chayav (TOSFOS to Bava Metzia 42a DH Hachi Garsinan).

31)[line 21]היה לו לקדם ברועים ובמקלותHAYAH LO L'KADEM B'RO'IM UV'MAKLOS- he could have gathered a group of shepherds armed with large sticks

32)[line 28]אי הכי מאי אהני ליה מינה?IY HACHI MAI AHANI LEI MINAH?- If so, what benefit does the owner have from this [since he will end up paying back the Shomer the value of his sheep?] (he could just as well not have the Shomer save them and buy new sheep)

33)[line 29]לכושרא דחיותאKUSHRA D'CHEIVASA- the familiarity that he has with his animals and the fact that they are accustomed to and trained to know his stables

34)[line 29]לטרחא יתירתאTIRCHA YESEIRTA- the extra trouble [of buying new animals]

35)[line 32]בר אדא סבולאהBAR ADA SEVULA'AH- Bar Ada, the porter

36)[line 33]הוי קא מעבר חיותא אגמלא דנרשHAVI KA MA'A'AVAR CHEIVASA A'GAMLA D'NARASH- was transporting animals over the bridge of Narse, a town in Bavel

37)[line 34]דחפה חדא לחברתה ושדיתה במיאDACHAFAH CHADA L'CHAVERTAH V'SHADISAH B'MAYA- one of them pushed another one into the water [and it drowned]

38a)[line 38]כבר צווחו קמאי דקמךKEVAR TZAVCHU KAMA'EI D'KAMACH- earlier ones (litigants) have cried out like this before, i.e. have used this as their claim of innocence

b)[line 39]ולא איכא דאשגח בהוV'LO IKA D'ASHGACH BEHU- and no one has paid any attention

39)[line 39]אפקיד כיתנא בי רוניאAFKID KISNA BEI RUNYA- deposited flax in the house of [and under the guard of] Runya

40)[line 40]שמטיה מיניהSHAMTEI MINEI- he (Shabu) stole it from him (Runya)

41)[line 41]חייביהCHIYEVEI- Rav Nachman ruled that Runya was liable to pay for the flax

42)[line 43]נגנבה באונסNIGNEVAH B'ONES- it was stolen through uncontrollable circumstances, e.g. by a Listim Mezuyan, an armed bandit

43)[line 46]גברי דפרמוסקא הוו קיימיGAVREI D'FARMUSKA HAVU KAIMEI- the official law-enforcement officers were there (within earshot)

44)[line 46]דאי רמא קלא, הוו אתו ומצלין ליהD'IY RAMA KOLA, HAVU ASU U'MATZLIN LEI- had he called out, they would have come and saved him

45)[line 47]בשעת משלחת זאביםBI'SHE'AS MISHLACHAS ZE'EVIM- at the time of a wolf attack

46)[line 48]ידוע הבבליYIDO'A HA'BAVLI- the name of a Tanaic sage

47)[line 48]מרוח אחתME'RU'ACH ACHAS- if they came from the same direction

48)[line 49]הלסטיםHA'LISTIM- armed bandits (RASHI prefers the Girsa: HA'LISTAM (sing.) - a bandit)

49a)[line 49]הדובDOV- a bear

b)[line 49]והנמרNAMER- a leopard

c)[line 49]והברדלסBARDELAS- (a) (O.F. puteis) ferret; a small, half-tamed, flesh-eating animal similar to a weasel; (b) a polecat; a small dark brown flesh-eating animal similar to a weasel; (c) a striped wild animal of the genus felis leopard; striped hyena (RASHI to Avodah Zarah 42a); (d) marten (Tosfos Sanhedrin 15b DH veha'Bardelas)

50)[line 49]שבאו מאליהןSHE'BA'U ME'ELIHEN- when they came of their own accord

51)[line 50]הוליכן למקום גדודי חיה ולסטיםHOLICHAN LI'MEKOM GEDUDEI CHAYAH V'LISTIM- but if he (the shepherd) took them to a place of wild animals and armed bandits

52)[line 50]מתה כדרכהMESAH K'DARKAH- if it died of natural causes

53)[line 50]סגפהSIGFAH- he afflicted it (by starving it or leaving it out in the scorching sun)

54)[line 51]עלתה לראשי צוקיןALSAH L'ROSHEI TZUKIN- it went up to the high cliffs

55)[line 53]בלסטים מזוייןLISTIM MEZUYAN- armed bandits

56)[last line]גנבא סריאGANVA SARYA- you rotten thief!

57)[last line]בדוכתא פלניא יתיבינןB'DUCHTA PELANYA YESIVINAN- we are staying in such-and-such a place