[70a - 36 lines; 70b - 32 lines]

1)[line 1]בני כופראBENEI KUFRA- boat owners (lit. pitch-men, so called because they would line their boats with pitch)

2)[line 4]מותר להלוותן ברביתMUTAR L'HALVOSAN B'RIBIS- it is permitted to lend [their money to others] with interest

3)[line 6]?!סָפִינָא להו איסוראSAFINA LEHU ISURA?!- may we feed to them something that is forbidden?!

4)[line 7]ליזלו בתר שבקייהוLEI'ZLU BASAR SHIVKAIHU- let them go after the one who left them, i.e. they should die like their father

5a)[line 8]אימא לי איזוEIMA LI EIZU- Tell me, my close friend, (MAHARSHAL here)

b)[line 9]גופא דעובדא היכי הוה?GUFA D'UVDA HEICHI HAVAH?- what was the actual incident?

6)[line 9]דודאDUDA- (O.F. chaldiere) kettle, cauldron

7a)[line 10]תקיל ויהיב ליהTAKIL V'YAHIV LEI- he weighed and then gave it

b)[line 10]תקיל ושקיל ליהTAKIL V'SHAKIL LEI- he weighed and then received it back

8)[line 13]בדקנניDIKNANEI- those who are bearded, i.e. adults

9)[line 14]חוסכא דנחשאCHUSCHA DI'NECHASHA- deterioration of the copper

10)[line 14]דכמה דמקלי נחשא, בציר דמיהKAMA D'MAKLEI NECHASHA, BATZIR DAMEI- the more the copper is burned, the less is its value

11)[line 19]קרוב לשכר ורחוק להפסדKAROV LI'SECHAR V'RACHOK L'HEFSED - (lit. close to profit and far from loss)

This refers to a case in which a person gives money to a manager to invest for him, stipulating that the manager will be responsible for any loss to the money, while the investor will still receive his full share of the profit. Such a case is normally prohibited. Since the manager must return the full amount that was given to him even if he loses the money, it is considered a loan, and when he gives back the money together with profit earned, that additional amount is considered Ribis d'Rabanan. In the case of the money of orphans, however, the Chachamim did not prohibit this form of investment.

12)[line 25]קא כליא קרנאKA KALYA KARNA- the principle (Keren) is being destroyed/consumed

13)[line 26]בדקינן גבראBADKINAN GAVRA- we search for a person

14)[line 26]דהבא פריכאDAHAVA PERICHA- (a) fragments of gold (RASHI); (b) pieces of broken golden utensils (TOSFOS Kesuvos 67a, citing RABEINU CHANANEL)

15)[line 27]ונקטינן דהבא מיניהV'NAKTINAN DAHAVA MINEI- we take the gold from him (as security). (According to Rashi, the reason the money manager is required to have fragments of gold is not in order to take them as security. Rather, it is meant to prove that he is wealthy and that the gold is not a Pikadon that he is watching for someone else, since no one gives fragments of gold to a Shomer to watch. The Maharshal points out that Rashi did not have the text "Naktinan Dahava Minei" in his Gemara.)

16)[line 29]דבר מסויםDAVAR MESUYAM- an item that is whole and identifiable

17)[line 30]יהיב סימניןYAHIV SIMANIN- he will give its identifying features

18)[line 33]ניכלו זוזי דיתמי?!NEICHLU ZUZEI D'YASMEI?!- is the money of orphans to be consumed?!

19a)[line 34]דמשפו נכסיהD'MESHAFU NICHSEI- his property is quiet (there is no one challenging his ownership of it)

b)[line 34]ומהימןMEHEIMAN- trustworthy

c)[line 35]ושמע דינא דאורייתאV'SHAMA DINA D'ORAISA- he listens to and accepts the law of the Torah

d)[line 35]ולא מקבל שמתא דרבנןV'LO MEKABEL SHAMTA D'RABANAN- he would never agree [even at the risk of monetary loss] to be excommunicated by the Chachamim

70b----------------------------------------70b

20)[line 1]אין מקבלין צאן ברזלEIN MEKABLIN TZON BARZEL - lit. iron sheep, i.e. sheep that retain their value.

(a)The Mishnah states that one may not accept "Tzon Barzel" assets from another Jew. In a "Tzon Barzel" agreement, the recipient who manages the assets is responsible to compensate the owner for any decrease in the value of the assets he is managing over the course of time. Consequently, the assets that he received to manage are considered like a loan, and any profits that the recipient (i.e. the manager) shares with the owner is like interest being paid for the loan.

(b)The Gemara explains that if the owner of the assets accepts upon himself responsibility for any unexpected damage or depreciation in value ("Onsa v'Zola") suffered by the assets that are being managed, they are no longer considered to be like a loan. The manager may share any profits made through the assets with the owner and there is no Ribis involved.

21)[line 4]בגר תושבGER TOSHAV

The Gemara (Avodah Zarah 64b) quotes three opinions regarding who is a Ger Toshav. Rebbi Meir maintains that a Ger Toshav is a Nochri who accepts upon himself, in front of three "Chaverim" (Talmidei Chachamim), not to worship idols. The Chachamim say that a Ger Toshav is a Nochri who accepts upon himself to observe the seven Mitzvos of Benei Noach (see Background to Avodah Zarah 46:4). Acherim maintain that the above opinions are incorrect, and that a Ger Toshav is a Nochri who accepts all of the Mitzvos except for not eating Neveilos (animals that were not slaughtered properly). See Insights to the Daf and Audio Shi'ur to Avodah Zarah 64: Ger Toshav.

22)[line 8]ולדות פטורין מן הבכורהVELADOS PETURIN MIN HA'BECHORAH (BECHOR BEHEMAH TEHORAH: YAD NOCHRI BA'EMTZA) - the offspring are exempt from the law of Bechor

(a)Every firstborn (Bechor) male of an ox, goat or sheep becomes Kadosh with the Kedushah of Bechor when it comes out of its mother's womb. Its owner must give the Bechor to a Kohen. If the Bechor has no blemish, the Kohen must bring it as a Korban during its first year; after its fat and blood are offered on the Mizbe'ach, it is eaten in Yerushalayim during the following two days and the intervening night. If the Bechor has or develops a blemish, it must be slaughtered and eaten during its first year. If it developed a blemish after the year, it must be slaughtered and eaten within thirty days. A Kohen may give away or sell a Bechor, even to someone who is not a Kohen, however it may not be sold in the marketplace or weighed for sale in the usual manner.

(b)A Bechor born to an animal owned - even in part - by a Nochri is exempt from the Kedushah of Bechor.

23)[line 9]דמקבל עליה אונסא וזולאD'MEKABIL ALEI ONSA VE'ZOLA- he (the Nochri) accepted upon himself any loss due to accidents and devaluation

24)[line 22]"מַרְבֶּה הוֹנֹו בְּנֶשֶׁךְ וְתַרְבִּית, לְחוֹנֵן דַּלִּים יִקְבְּצֶנּוּ""MARBEH HONO B'NESHECH V'SARBIS, L'CHONEN DALIM YIKBETZENU"- "He who increases his wealth through interest, will collect wealth only to deliver it to one who is gracious to the poor." (Mishlei 28:8)

25)[line 24]שבור מלכאSHEVOR MALKA- King Shapur II, the king of Persia (ruled 309-379 CE, during the Sassanid Dynasty), who would take the money of Jews and give it to Nochrim who are "poor" in that they do not have the Mitzvos (Rashi).

26)[line 26]"לַנָּכְרִי תַשִּׁיךְ [וּלְאָחִיךָ לֹא תַשִּׁיךְ]...""LA'NOCHRI SASHICH, [UL'ACHICHA LO SASHICH]..."- "To a Nochri you shall lend with interest, [but to your brother you may not lend with interest]...." (Devarim 23:21)

27)[line 27]לאו, תִּשּׁוֹךְ?!LAV TISHOCH?!- Does it not mean that you may take interest from a Nochri?!

28)[line 27]לא! תַּשִּׁיךְ!LO! TASHICH!- No! It does not mean that you may take interest from a Nochri. Rather, it means that] you must pay interest to a Nochri

29)[line 28]לאפוקי אחיך, דלאL'AFUKEI ACHICHA, D'LO- it is to exclude "you brother" to whom you may not [pay interest; you are permitted, however, to pay interest to a Nochri]

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