BAVA METZIA 38-40 (10 Sivan) - dedicated by Mrs. Rita Grunberger of Queens, N.Y., in loving memory of her husband, Reb Yitzchok Yakov ben Eliyahu Grunberger. Irving Grunberger helped many people quietly in an unassuming manner and is dearly missed by all who knew him. His Yahrzeit is 10 Sivan.

[40a - 53 lines; 40b - 54 lines]

1a)[line 3]אגלגל מלתאIGALGEL MILSA- the question went around (unanswered)

b)[line 4]ומטא לקמיה דרבי אמיU'MATA L'KAMEI D'REBBI AMI- and came before Rebbi Ami

2)[line 4]גדולה מזו אמרו: שמין להם כאריס!GEDOLAH MI'ZU AMRU: SHAMIN LAHEM K'ARIS!- Chazal have said even greater things (i.e. provided even more benefits) [for people like Mari bar Isak: even on the portion of his brother] he gets paid as if he were an Aris, a hired field laborer who receives a percentage (1/2, 1/3 or 1/4) of the produce of the field

3)[line 7]ברשות נחיתBI'RESHUS NACHIS- he (the older brother mentioned in the Mishnah Bava Basra 143b) took charge (lit. went down) of the field with the permission [and authority of Beis Din]

4)[line 12]יוציא לו חסרונותYOTZI LO CHESRONOS- when he returns the produce to the Mafkid, he deducts their usual amount of natural loss

5a)[line 12]לחטיםCHITIM- for wheat

b)[line 12]ולאורזOREZ- (a) (O.F. mil) millet (RASHI to Berachos 37a); (b) rice (TOSFOS ibid.)

6)[line 13]תשעה חצאי קבין לכורTISH'AH CHATZA'EI KABIN L'KOR - nine half-Kav measures per Kor, a percentage of 2.5% (DRY MEASURES)

(a)The following is a list of measures of volume used in the Mishnah and Gemara:

1.1 Kor (= 1 Chomer) = 30 Se'in

2.1 Lesech = 15 Se'in

3.1 Eifah = 3 Se'in

4.1 Se'ah = 6 Kabin

5.1 Tarkav (= Trei v'Kav, or 3 Kabin) = 12 Lugin

6.1 Kav = 4 Lugin

7.1 Log (= 1 Rova) = 4 Revi'iyos = 6 Beitzim

8.1 Beitzah = 2 or 3 k'Zeisim, according to the varying opinions

(b)In modern-day measures, the k'Zayis is approximately 0.025, 0.0288 or 0.05 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions. Thus, 1 Se'ah = 7.2, 8.29 or 14.4 liters, according to the various opinions.

(c)Therefore: 1 Kav = 4 Lugin = 24 Beitzim = 1.20, 1.38, or 2.4 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions. 9 half-Kabin per Kor = 5.4/216, 6.22/248.83 or 10.8/432 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions

7a)[line 13]לשעוריןSE'ORIN- barley

b)[line 13]ולדוחןDOCHAN- (a) (O.F. panil, paniz) panic grass, a type of millet (RASHI to Rosh Hashanah 13b); (b) (O.F. mil) millet (TOSFOS to Berachos 37a)

8)[line 14]תשעה קבין לכורTISH'AH KABIN L'KOR- (see above, entry #6)

9a)[line 14]לכוסמיןKUSMIN- spelt (a species of wheat)

b)[line 14]ולזרע פשתןZERA PISHTAN- flax seed

10)[line 15]שלש סאין לכורSHALOSH SE'IN L'KOR- 10% (see above, entry #6)

11)[line 17]לעכבריןACHBARIN- mice

12)[line 21]מפני שמותירותMIPNEI SHE'MOSIROS- since they expand in volume [due to dampness]

13)[line 21]אורז, טובא חסר!OREZ, TUVA CHASER!- Orez depletes much more [than nine half-Kav measures]!

14)[line 23]קלוףKALUF- peeled

15)[line 25]בגבעוליןGIV'OLIN- thin shoots, at the end of which grow the seeds

16)[line 31]מתפזרותMISPAZROS- scatter

17)[line 31]שעירבן עם פירותיוSHE'IRVAN IM PEIROSAV- the owner of the house mixed the Mafkid's produce with his own produce (Note: the RAMBAM Hilchos She'eilah u'Fikadon 5:5 rules that it is forbidden to mix it with his own produce)

18)[line 32]יחד לו קרן זויתYICHED LO KEREN ZAVIS- the owner of the house or the owner of the produce designated a small part (lit. a corner) of the house for the owner of the produce (so that the produce remains in the "domain" of its owner)

19)[line 34]במסתפקB'MISTAPEK- when he takes from the produce for his day-to-day use

20)[line 39]שמדד לו מתוך גורנוSHE'MADAD LO MI'TOCH GORNO- the measure used in the fields was slightly bigger than the measure used in the houses (RASHI)

21)[line 41]וכי בשופטני עסקינן?!V'CHI B'SHUFTANEI ASKINAN?!- Are we dealing with fools?!

22a)[line 41]בכיילא רבאB'KAILA RABA- a large measure

b)[line 42]בכיילא זוטאB'KAILA ZUTA- a small measure

23)[line 45]לפקע כדא!LIPAKA KADA!- The storage jug will explode!

24)[line 45]אי בעית אימא משום איצצאIY BA'IS EIMA MISHUM ITZETZA- it is also possible to answer that it is because of pressure (that is, the reason that the jug does not usually break is because the walls of the jug exert pressure that does not let the produce expand)

25)[line 46]שתותSHESUS- one sixth

26a)[line 46]לוג ומחצה שמריםLOG U'MECHETZAH SHEMARIM- [the three Lugin that he deducts is because he deducts] a Log and a half [for the] lees [that settled]

b)[line 47]לוג ומחצה בלעLOG U'MECHETZAH BELA- [and he deducts] a Log and a half [for the] absorption [of oil into the walls of the jug]

27)[line 47]שמן מזוקקSHEMEN MEZUKAK- clear oil (without lees)

28)[line 49]הרי זה מקבל עליו לוג ומחצה שמרים למאהHAREI ZEH MEKABEL ALAV LUG U'MECHETZAH SHEMARIM L'ME'AH- he accepts upon himself [to receive] a Log and a half [less for the] lees

29)[line 50]מר כי אתריהMAR KI ASREI- the Master according to his place [of residence]

30a)[line 50]חפו בקיראCHAFU B'KIRA- they line the inside of the jugs with wax

b)[line 51]ולא מייץ טפיV'LO MAYITZ TEFEI- and it does not absorb much

31)[line 51]בכופראB'KUFRA- pitch

32)[line 52]גרגישתאGARGISHTA- (O.F. arzille) clay [for making earthenware jugs]

33)[line 52]רמו ארבעים ותמני כוזי בדנאRAMU ARBA'IM V'TAMNEI KUZEI B'DANA- 48 Kuzim (a small measure) would fill (lit. they threw into) a barrel

34)[last line]אזיל דנא בשיתא זוזיAZIL DANA B'SHISA ZUZEI- a barrel would sell for six Zuzim

35)[last line]פריס רב יהודה שיתא שיתא בזוזאPARIS RAV YEHUDAH SHISA SHISA B'ZUZA- Rav Yehudah became a storekeeper and sold six Kuzim for one Zuz


36)[line 1]דל תלתין ושיתא בשיתאDAL TELASIN V'SHISA B'SHISA- take off 36 cups-worth for six [Zuzim, which was the price that he paid for the barrel]

37)[line 1]פשו ליה תריסרPASHU LEI TREISAR- twelve cups-worth were left [for his profit]

38)[line 2]דל תמניא שתותיDAL TEMANYA SHESUSEI- take off eight [cups-worth to account for the loss due to absorption of one] sixth [of the 48-cup barrel]

39)[line 3]המשׂתכר אל ישׂתכר יותר על שתותHA'MISTAKER AL YISTAKER YOSER AL SHESUS - one who makes a profit should not make more than one sixth (ONA'AH)

(a)If a person makes a profit of one sixth of the total value on an item that he sells, without the purchaser's knowledge of the price discrepancy, the transaction is valid, but the seller must return the profit to the purchaser. If the profit is less than one sixth, nothing is returned. If the profit is more than one sixth, the sale is invalid even if the profit is returned.

(b)With regard to sales of real estate, even if the profit is more than one sixth, the sale is valid and nothing is returned.

(c)When Beis Din errs in an appraisal of property by a sixth of its value, the Rabanan and Raban Shimon ben Gamliel argue whether the sale is binding (because of "Im Ken, Mah Ko'ach Beis Din Yafeh"; this is the view of Raban Shimon) or it is not binding (Rabanan).

(d)Our Sugya asks why Rav Yehuda would limit his profit to 4 cups, if he may take up to a sixth of the original 48 cups as profit (RASHI)

40)[line 4]גולפיGULFEI- earthenware jugs or barrels

41)[line 4]ושמריאV'SHEMARAYA- the lees

42)[line 5]ודמי ברזנייתאV'DEMEI BARZENAYASA- (a) the fees of the skilled artisan who is an expert at thrusting a spigot into the barrel; (b) according to the Girsa כרזנייתא KARZENAYASA - the advertising fees (similar to the word Keruz - announcement)

43)[line 7]והא אי אפשר דלא בלעV'HA IY EFSHAR D'LO BALA- the Gemara asks this question regarding the phrase in the Mishnah that states "Im Hayu Kankanim Yeshanim Eino (Yotzi) [Motzi - this is the Girsa of the Mishnayos] Lo Bela" - Amud Alef, line 48)

44)[line 8]במזופפיןMEZUFAFIN- lined with pitch

45)[line 9]כיון דטעון, טעוןKEIVAN D'TA'UN, TA'UN- (lit. once they are loaded, they are loaded) once they are saturated with oil, even if they were never lined, they will not absorb any more

46)[line 12]כשתמצא לומרKESHE'TIMTZA LOMAR- if you are exacting, you will conclude

47)[line 13]מותר לערב שמריםMUTAR L'AREV SHEMARIM- it is permissible to stir up the lees from the bottom of the barrel so they mix into the oil being sold

48)[line 20]בצילאTZILA- clear oil

49a)[line 22]הצמדHA'TZEMED- the yoke [which keeps the oxen together and connects them to the plow]

b)[line 23]הבקרHA'BAKAR- the bulls

50)[line 25]צמדךTZIMDECHA- your yoke

51)[line 37]זבון וזבין תגרא איקרי?ZAVUN V'ZAVIN TAGRA IKREI?- [Should I] buy and sell [at my cost] just to be called a merchant? (i.e. if you do not accept upon yourself to receive a Log and a half less for the lees, I will not make a profit)

52)[line 38]לפקטיםL'PIKTIM- froth, foam; waste from the olive pits that floats at the top of the barrel

53)[line 44]לא אמרו שמן עכור אלא למוכר בלבדLO AMRU SHEMEN ACHUR ELA L'MOCHER BILVAD- the loss due to cloudy oil (that is mixed with Piktim) is sustained only by the seller

54)[line 47]כי מדה דתשריKI MIDAH D'TISHREI- like the [inexpensive] rate [for oil that is charged in the month] of Tishrei (in which the oil waste has not yet settled)

55)[line 49]וטלטלהV'TILTELAH- he moved it

56)[line 51]ובין משהניחהU'BEIN MISHE'HINICHAH- the Gemara discusses whether this means that he put it back in its designated place or in a different place

57)[line 53]לא בעינן דעת בעליםLO BA'INAN DA'AS BE'ALIM- the owner need not be informed in order to absolve a thief of liability

58a)[line 53]טלהTALEH- a sheep, within its first year

b)[line 53]העדרHA'EDER- flock