[31a - 52 lines; 31b - 37 lines]
1)[line 1]באסרטיאISRATYA- a wide street
2)[line 5]ששוטפין ובאיןSHOTFIN U'VA'IN- flowing and going [into someone's field]
3)[line 5]הרי זה גודר בפניהםHAREI ZEH GODER BIFNEIHEM- he should fence them off, or otherwise prevent them from doing damage
4)[line 10]עומריןOMARIN- sheaves
5)[line 12]עומרין דצריכי לארעאOMRIN DI'TZERICHEI L'AR'A- sheaves that are still attached to the ground that still have a slight need to be there, such as to dry out completely (RITVA)
6)[line 22]"יַגִּיד עָלָיו רֵיעוֹ""YAGID ALAV REI'O..."- "The noise of the storm tells of it..." (Iyov 36:33) - Abaye takes this verse out of context, using it to mean, "His companion will testify about it," as he proceeds to explain.
7a)[line 28]דאפה לגבי דבראAPAH L'GABEI DABRA (HAREI ZO AVEIDAH)- when it is facing the fields, [it is lost]
b)[line 29]דאפה לגבי מתאAPAH L'GABEI MASA (EIN ZO AVEIDAH)- when it is facing the city, [it is not lost]
8a)[line 29]באבידת גופהB'AVEIDAS GUFAH- with regard to loss (i.e. damage) to the body [of the animal]
b)[line 30]באבידת קרקעB'AVEIDAS KARKA- with regard to loss (i.e. damage) of the land (or the vines in a vineyard)
9)[line 33]מסקבאMISAKVA- is ruined
10)[line 34]בדכותיBED'KUSI- where the field belongs to a Kusi or a Nochri
11)[line 35]באתרא דמתרו והדר קטליB'ASRA D'MASRU V'HADAR KATLEI- in a place where they give the owners of stray animals fair warning before they kill the animals
12)[line 38]השב, אפילו ק' פעמים משמעHASHEV, AFILU 100 PE'AMIM MASHMA- Hashev (the infinitive) [already] implies that one must return the lost animal (or object) even 100 times
13a)[line 39]לביתוBEISO- his house
b)[line 39]לגינתוGINASO- his garden
c)[line 39]ולחורבתוCHURVASO- his destroyed building
14)[line 39]דמינתראMINTERA- it is able to safeguard its contents and keep outsiders from taking them (see Background to Bava Metzia 9:10:e)
15)[line 40]הכל צריכין דעת בעליםHA'KOL TZERICHIN DA'AS BE'ALIM- when an object that was entrusted to one of the four Shomrim (see Background to Bava Metzia 5:2:a), or that was stolen, is returned to its owner, the one who returns it must let the owner know about its return, so that the owner will know to care for it properly
16a)[line 41]שַׁלֵּחַ תְּשַלַּחSHALE'ACH TESHALACH (SHILU'ACH HA'KEN)
It is forbidden to take a mother bird that is sitting on her nest together with the eggs or baby birds; rather, one must first send the mother away as prescribed in Devarim (22:7).
b)[line 41]"שַׁלֵּחַ תְּשַלַּח [אֶת הָאֵם, וְאֶת הַבָּנִים תִּקַּח לָךְ]""SHALE'ACH TESHALACH [ES HA'EM, V'ES HA'BANIM TIKACH LACH...]"- "But you shall surely let [the mother] go, [and take the young for yourself; that it may be well with you, and that you may prolong your days]" (Devarim 22:7).
17a)[line 43]הוֹכֵחַ... תּוֹכִיחַHOCHE'ACH TOCHI'ACH (MITZVAS TOCHACHAH)
The Torah (Vayikra 19:17) commands anyone who sees another person doing something wrong to rebuke that person, on the condition that his rebuke is made with the best Torah intentions and that the rebuke will be taken in the correct spirit of the Torah's intentions.
b)[line 43]"[לֹא תִשְנָא אֶת אָחִיךָ בִּלְבָבֶךָ;] הוֹכֵחַ תּוֹכִיחַ [אֶת עֲמִיתֶךָ וְלֹא תִשָּא עָלָיו חֵטְא]""[LO SISNA ES ACHICHA BI'LVAVECHA;] HOCHE'ACH TOCHI'ACH [ES AMISECHA, V'LO SISA ALAV CHEIT]"- "[You shall not hate your brother in your heart;] you shall rebuke [your neighbor, and not allow him to sin]" (Vayikra 19:17).
18a)[line 45]עָזֹב תַּעֲזוֹבAZOV TA'AZOV (PERIKAH)
Perikah is the Mitzvah of unloading and helping an animal that has fallen under its load, as commanded in Shemos 23:5.
b)[line 45]"[כִּי תִרְאֶה חֲמוֹר שֹׂנַאֲךָ רֹבֵץ תַּחַת מַשָּׂאוֹ, וְחָדַלְתָּ מֵעֲזֹב לוֹ;] עָזֹב תַּעֲזֹב עִמּוֹ""[KI SIR'EH CHAMOR SONA'ACHA ROVETZ TACHAS MASA'O, V'CHADALTA ME'AZOV LO;] AZOV TA'AZOV IMO"- "[If you see the donkey of one who hates you lying under its burden, shall you refrain from leaving it with him,] you shall surely help him to lift it up" (Shemos 23:5).
19a)[line 45]הָקֵם תָּקִיםHAKEM TAKIM (TE'INAH)
Te'inah is the Mitzvah of loading an animal after the load that it was carrying fell off, as commanded in Devarim 22:4.
b)[line 45]"[לֹא תִרְאֶה אֶת חֲמוֹר אָחִיךָ אוֹ שׁוֹרוֹ נֹפְלִים בַּדֶּרֶךְ, וְהִתְעַלַּמְתָּ מֵהֶם,] הָקֵם תָּקִים עִמּוֹ""[LO SIR'EH ES CHAMOR ACHICHA O SHORO NOFLIM BA'DERECH, V'HIS'ALAMTA MEHEM;] HAKEM TAKIM IMO"- "[You shall not watch your brother's donkey or his bull fall down by the way, and hide yourself from them;] you shall surely help him to lift them up again" (Devarim 22:4).
20)[line 46]ולמה ליה למכתב פריקה, ולמה ליה למיכתב טעינהV'LAMAH LEI L'MICHTAV PERIKAH, V'LAMAH LEI L'MICHTAV TE'INAH- and why in general did the Torah need to write both Perikah and Te'inah (since they are similar commandments and one could be learned from the other)
21)[line 47]צער בעלי חייםTZA'AR BA'ALEI CHAYIM
It is prohibited to cause pain or anguish to any living thing for no purpose. The Gemara (below Daf 32a-b) discusses whether this is a Mitzvah from the Torah or mid'Rabanan.
22)[line 48]חסרון כיסCHISARON KIS- (lit. a lack in the [money] pouch) a financial loss [due to wear and tear on the animal]
23a)[line 49]ואי אשמעינן טעינה, משום דבשכרV'IY ASHME'INAN TE'INAH, MISHUM DEBI'SECHAR- and if the Torah were to write Te'inah, [we would say that one is only obligated in Te'inah,] since the person performing it gets paid
b)[line 49]אבל פריקה דבחנםAVAL PERIKAH, DEB'CHINAM- but Perikah, where the person performing it does not get paid, [would not be obligatory]
24)[line 50]לא מסיימי קראיLO MESAIMEI KERA'EI- the verses are not specific; each verse may refer to either Perikah or Te'inah
25)[line 2]"מוֹת יוּמַת הַמַּכֶּה, [רֹצֵחַ הוּא]""...MOS YUMAS HA'MAKEH, [ROTZE'ACH HU]"- "[Or if in enmity he hits him with his hand, so that he dies;] he [who hit him] shall surely be put to death, for he is a murderer; [the Go'el ha'Dam shall slay the murderer when he meets him]" (Bamidbar 35:21).
26)[line 3]במיתה הכתובה בוMISAH HA'KESUVAH BO- the death penalty that the Torah writes with regard to each specific capital offense
27a)[line 6]הַכֵּה תַכֶּהHAKEH SAKEH (IR HA'NIDACHAS)
A city that was led astray (Nidach) to the extent that its inhabitants willfully committed idolatry, must be destroyed. All of those who were led astray must be killed and the city burned, along with all of the possessions of its inhabitants, as stated in Devarim 13:13-19. The righteous people who were not led astray are not killed, but their possessions are burned.
b)[line 6]"הַכֵּה תַכֶּה [אֶת יֹשְׁבֵי הָעִיר הַהִוא לְפִי חָרֶב; הַחֲרֵם אֹתָהּ וְאֶת כָּל אֲשֶר בָּהּ וְאֶת בְּהֶמְתָּהּ לְפִי חָרֶב]""HAKEH SAKEH [ES YOSHVEI HA'IR HA'HI LEFI CHAREV; HACHAREM OSAH V'ES KOL ASHER BAH V'ES BEHEMTAH LEFI CHAREV]"- "You shall surely strike [the inhabitants of that city with the edge of the sword, destroying it completely, and all that is in it, and its cattle, with the edge of the sword]" (Devarim 13:16).
28)[line 10]"הָשֵׁב תָּשִׁיב [לוֹ אֶת הָעֲבוֹט כְּבוֹא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְשָׁכַב בְּשַׂלְמָתוֹ וּבֵרֲכֶךָּ וּלְךָ תִּהְיֶה צְדָקָה ..]""[BA'CHUTZ TA'AMOD; VEHA'ISH ASHER ATAH NOSHEH VO YOTZI ELECHA ES HA'AVOT HA'CHUTZAH. V'IM ISH ANI HU; LO SISHKAV BA'AVOTO.] HASHEV TASHIV [LO ES HA'AVOT K'VO HA'SHEMESH, V'SHACHAV B'SALMASO U'VERACHEKA; U'LECHA TIHEYEH TZEDAKAH...]"- "[You shall stand outside; and the man to whom you have lent will bring to you the collateral outside. And if the man is poor, you shall not sleep while his pledge is in your possession (if it is a night garment).] You shall surely give [him] back [the pledge when the sun goes down, that he may sleep in his own garment, and bless you; and it shall be righteousness to you before HaSh-m.]" (Devarim 24:11-13) - The Gemara below (Daf 113a) states that the man who brings the collateral outside can also refer to the agent of Beis Din. This indicates that the collateral here is an object taken from the debtor after the litigants went to court and the debtor did not pay his debt.
29a)[line 11]שמשכנו ברשות בית דיןMISHKENO BI'RESHUS BEIS DIN- if he took collateral with the permission of Beis Din
b)[line 11]משכנו שלא ברשות בית דיןMISHKENO SHE'LO BI'RESHUS BEIS DIN- he took collateral without the permission of Beis Din, i.e. against the will of the debtor
30)[line 13]"[אִם] חָבֹל תַּחְבֹּל [שַׂלְמַת רֵעֶךָ עַד בֹּא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ תְּשִיבֶנּוּ לוֹ]""[IM] CHAVOL TACHBOL [SALMAS RE'ECHA, AD BO HA'SHEMESH TESHIVENU LO]"- "[If] you take as security for a loan [your neighbor's garment, you have until sundown to return it to him]" (Shemos 22:25). - This verse refers to a garment that one wears in the daytime, which is taken as collateral each night. (Compare entry #28, above.)
31)[line 16]"כִּי פָתֹחַ תִּפְתַּח אֶת יָדְךָ לוֹ; וְהַעֲבֵט תַּעֲבִיטֶנּוּ דֵּי מַחְסֹרוֹ אֲשֶׁר יֶחְסַר לוֹ""[KI] FASO'ACH TIFTACH [ES YADECHA LO, V'HA'AVET TA'AVITENU DEI MACHSORO ASHER YECHSAR LO]"- "[But] you shall surely open [your hand wide to him, and shall surely lend him sufficient for his need, in that which he lacks]" (Devarim 15:8).
32)[line 19]"נָתוֹן תִּתֵּן [לוֹ וְלֹא יֵרַע לְבָבְךָ בְּתִתְּךָ לוֹ...]""[HISHAMER LECHA PEN YIHEYEH DAVAR IM LEVAVCHA VELIYA'AL LEIMOR 'KARVAH SHENAS HA'SHEVA, SHENAS HA'SHEMITAH,' V'RA'AH EINCHA B'ACHICHA HA'EVYON V'LO SITEN LO.] NASON TITEN [LO, V'LO YERA LEVAVCHA B'SITCHA LO...]"- "[Guard yourself lest there be a base thought in your heart saying, 'The seventh year is near, the year of Shemitah,' and you will look upon your needy brother with an evil eye and you will not give him [a loan]. You shall surely give [him, and your heart shall not be grieved when you give to him; because for this thing HaSh-m your G-d shall bless you in all your works, and in all that you put your hand to]" (Devarim 15:9-10).
33a)[line 20]הַעֲנֵק תַּעֲנִיקHA'ANEK TA'ANIK (EVED IVRI: HA'ANAKAH)
(a)There are two ways that a Jewish man can be bought as a slave by another Jew. Either he may sell himself because he is destitute, or he may be sold by Beis Din to pay back a theft. During his term as a slave, his master must support his family (Kidushin 22b). The master may not make his Eved Ivri do disgraceful work for him, nor may he treat him as one normally treats a slave. For example, if the master only has one pillow, he must give it to his Eved Ivri rather than keep it for himself (Kidushin 20a).
(b)An Eved Ivri is obligated to work for his master for only six years (Shemos 21:2) or until the Yovel year (see Background to Bava Kama 28:5), whichever comes first (Kidushin 14b, 16a). At any time during his term, he may go free if he or someone else pays his master the money remaining from the sum that the master paid for him, prorated to the amount of time that he worked. If at the termination of six years he expresses his desire to continue life as a slave, the master takes the slave to Beis Din, and stands the slave near a doorpost and pierces his right ear and the door with an awl. This is known as Retzi'ah, and an Eved Ivri upon whom this is performed is called a "Nirtza." A Nirtza slave must continue to serve his master until the Yovel year (ibid. 21:6) or until his master dies. Whenever an Eved Ivri goes free, under most circumstances his master must give him monetary gifts valued at 15, 30 or 50 Sela'im, according to the various opinions (Kidushin 17a). This is known as Ha'anakah (Devarim 15:14).
b)[line 20]"הַעֲנֵיק תַּעֲנִיק [לוֹ מִצֹּאנְךָ וּמִגָּרְנְךָ וּמִיִּקְבֶךָ]"UVA'SHANAH HA'SHEVI'IS TESHALCHENU CHOFSHI ME'IMACH. V'CHI SESHALCHENU CHOFSHI ME'IMACH LO SESHALCHENU REIKAM.] HA'ANEK TA'ANIK [LO MI'TZONCHA UMI'GORNECHA UMI'YIKVECHA]"- "[...and in the seventh year you shall send him free from you. And when you send him free from you, do not send him empty-handed.] You surely must give gifts [to him liberally, out of your flock, and out of your threshing floor, and out of your winepress; of that with which HaSh-m your G-d has blessed you, you shall give to him.]" (Devarim 15:12-14)
34)[line 26]דברה תורה כלשון בני אדםDIBRAH TORAH K'LASHON BENEI ADAM - the Torah [in this instance] speaks in the manner of man
Every word in the Torah is holy and contains worlds of insights and nuances. However, certain sages of the Mishnah felt that there were some phrases recorded in the Torah that paralleled people's speech, and should not be used for homiletics or insights.
35)[line 27]"[כִּי פָתֹחַ תִּפְתַּח אֶת יָדְךָ לוֹ; וְ]הַעֲבֵט תַּעֲבִיטֶנּוּ [דֵּי מַחְסֹרוֹ אֲשֶׁר יֶחְסַר לוֹ]""[KI FASO'ACH TIFTACH ES YADECHA LO, V']HA'AVET TA'AVITENU [DEI MACHSORO ASHER YECHSAR LO]"- "[But you shall surely open your hand wide to him, and] shall surely lend him [sufficient for his need, in that which he lacks]" (Devarim 15:8).
36a)[line 27]שאין לו, ואינו רוצה להתפרנסEIN LO, V'EINO ROTZEH L'HISPARNES- he has no [means of support,] and he does not wish to be supported [from your charity]
b)[line 28]אמר רחמנא, "תן לו דרך הלואה"AMAR RACHMANA, "TEN LO DERECH HALVA'AH"- the Torah states, "Give him [money] as a loan." (The Gemara (Kesuvos 67b) continues that after you give him the money, you should cancel his debt - "Chozrin v'Nosnin Lo l'Shum Matanah.")
37)[line 29]יש לו, ואינו רוצה להתפרנס, מנין?YESH LO, V'EINO ROTZEH L'HISPARNES; MINAYIN?- If he has [his own independent means of support,] and he wishes to be supported [from your charity], from where [do we learn that you are obligated to give him a loan] (This is the implication of our Gemara. The Gemara in Kesuvos (ibid.) brings a Machlokes Tana'im on the matter. Rebbi Yehudah rules that one gives this person money in the guise of a gift - "Nosnin Lo l'Shum Matanah" - and collects the debt from his heirs - "v'Chozrin v'Nifra'in Heimenu l'Achar Misah." The Rabanan rule that one is not obligated to support this person at all. The opinion of the Rabanan is identical to the opinion of Rebbi Shimon here.)
38)[line 31]אין נזקקין לוEIN NIZKAKIN LO- one is not obligated to support this person at all
39)[line 35]עביד עיסקא בהדי הדדיAVID ISKA BAHADEI HADADEI- conducted a business deal together
40)[line 36]פלג ליהPALAG LEI- he divided the end result of their deal, which was merchandise and not money
41)[line 36]באפי בי תריB'APEI BEI TREI- in front of two [witnesses]
42)[last line]אייתי תלתא דפלגת קמייהוAISI TELASA D'PALGAS KAMAIHU- bring the three [individuals, who constitute a Beis Din,] before whom you divided [the merchandise]