BAVA KAMA 99 (4 Elul) - Dedicated l'Iluy Nishmas Chaim Yisachar (ben Yaakov) Smulewitz of Cleveland on his Yahrzeit, by his daughter and son in law, Jeri & Eli Turkel of Raanana, Israel.

[99a - 45 lines; 99b - 55 lines]

1)[line 1]והקדיחו יורהV'HIKDICHO YOREH- the pot burned it

2)[line 3]לאו שהקדיחו לאחר נפילה?LAV SHE'HIKDOCHO L'ACHAR NEFILAH?- after the dye "fell" (i.e. became permanently absorbed) into the wool

3)[line 9]וסמניןSAMANIN- dyes

4)[line 10]אגר ידיה הוא דשקילAGAR YADEI HU D'SHAKIL- the fee for his labor (see Insights)

5)[line 12]דחויי קא מדחי ליהDECHUYEI KA MADCHI LEI- [Shmuel] was just pushing off [the questioner, without providing the true answer to his question]

6)[line 13]גמרו והודיעוGAMRO V'HODI'O- if he (the artisan) finished working on the item, and notified the owner (that he should come to pick it up)

7)[line 13]אפילו מכאן ועד עשרה ימיםAFILU MI'KAN V'AD ASARAH YAMIM- even if he delays [paying the artisan] for another ten days

8)[line 14]לא תליןLO SALIN (HALANAS SECHAR SACHIR)

The Torah teaches that it is prohibited to delay paying a hired worker - "Lo Salin Pe'ulas Sachir Itecha Ad Boker" - "Do not leave overnight the wage of a worker with you until morning" (Vayikra 19:13).

9)[line 18]בגרדא דסרבלאGARDA D'SARBELA- (O.F. flochier) a teaseled white cloak. This refers to rubbing the garment with thistles in order to raise the fibers, giving it a softer feel.

10)[line 20]לרכוכיLI'RECHUCHEI- to soften it

11a)[line 21]דאגריה לביטשיD'AGREI L'VITSHEI- (O.F. foledures) he hired him to press it

b)[line 21]ביטשא ביטשא במעתאBITESHA BITESHA BI'ME'ASA- for each pressing, he pays a Me'ah

12)[line 24]קבלנותKABLANUS- hiring a laborer to perform a full job with a fixed salary in cash

13)[line 28]בשליחא דאיגרתאSHELICHA D'IGARTA- the deliverer of a letter

14a)[line 29]עשה לי שירים... ואקדש לךASEI LI SHIRIM... V'EKADESH LACH- [if a woman gives gold to a man and tells him,] "Make for me bracelets (brooches), etc. and I will be betrothed to you"

b)[line 29]נזמיןNEZAMIN- nose rings or earrings (see IBN EZRA to Bereishis 24:22)

c)[line 29]וטבעותTABA'OS- rings

15)[line 32]אילימא אותו ממוןILEIMA OSO MAMON- if we say that it means [when he returns] the [finished product of] gold [which the woman gave to the craftsman to work on] (and that is when the Chachamim say that she is Mekudeshes)

16)[line 32]מכלל דרבי מאיר סבר אותו ממון לא?!MICHLAL D'REBBI MEIR SAVAR OSO MAMON LO?!- would this then imply that Rebbi Meir holds that even if he has not given back that [finished product of] gold, [she would still be Mekudeshes to him]?!

17)[line 33]אלא במאי מקדשא?ELA B'MAI MEKADSHA?- but, then, with what did he betroth her?!

18)[line 33]אלא פשיטא מאי ממון? ממון אחרELA PESHITA, MAI MAMON? MAMON ACHER- rather, it is obvious that what is the meaning of "Mamon?" It means other money (i.e. when he gives her other money, that is when the Chachamim say that she is Mekudeshes, while Rebbi Meir holds that she is Mekudeshes when he returns just the finished product of gold to her without giving any additional money)

19)[line 35]ישנה לשכירות מתחילה ועד סוף / אין לשכירות אלא לבסוףYESHNAH LI'SECHIRUS MI'TECHILAH V'AD SOF / EINAH LI'SECHIRUS ELA LEVA'SOF - lit. "the compensation for a hired worker is only at the end," or "the compensation for a hired worker is from the beginning until the end

The Tana'im argue whether an employer of a hired worker becomes obligated to pay the worker for his work only at its completion, or whether he becomes obligated to pay him for his work when the worker completes each Perutah's worth of work.

20)[line 36]המקדש במלוה אינה מקודשתHA'MEKADESH B'MILVEH EINAH MEKUDESHES (HA'MEKADESH B'MILVEH)

When a man betroths a woman by letting her keep a loan that he has lent to her, the Kidushin does not take effect, even if she had not yet spent the loan money (Kidushin 6b, 47a). The bills or coins that she received are considered to belong to her from the moment that she receives them since "Milvah l'Hotza'ah Nitnah" - "loan money is given to be spent," and she may repay the lender other bills or coins (RASHI to Kidushin 6b). As such, when a man tries to betroth her with the loan money, he has in effect not given her money for the Kidushin.

21)[line 42]אין לשכירות אלא לבסוףEINAH LI'SECHIRUS ELA LEVA'SOF- see above, entry #19

99b----------------------------------------99b

22)[line 5]נופךNOFECH- generally, a gem (ARUCH; specifically, a carbuncle, ruby, or emerald; see commentary of RABBI ARYEH KAPLAN to Shemos 18:8)

23)[line 11]מלוה ופרוטה דעתה אפרוטהMILVEH A'PERUTAH, DA'ATAH A'PERUTAH- [when one is Mekadesh a woman by giving her] a loan and a Perutah, her mind is on the Perutah (therefore, the Kidushin takes effect)

24)[line 11]ורבי יהודה הנשיאV'REBBI YEHUDAH HA'NASI- Rebbi Yehudah "the Prince" and leader of the Jewish people in Eretz Yisrael. He was from Tzipori, a city in the lower Galilee, approximately midway between Tiberias and Haifa, where he finished editing the Mishnah.

25)[line 12]באמת אמרוB'EMES AMRU- it is an accepted Halachah. (According to the Yerushalmi (Shabbos 1:3), "b'Emes Amru" translates as "it is a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai." From the Rambam's introduction to Perush ha'Mishnah, though, it may be inferred that this is true only when "b'Emes Amru" is stated in a Mishnah. Our Gemara brings this phrase in a Beraisa. Rashi to Sukah 38a DH b'Emes Amru applies the Yerushalmi's translation even to a "b'Emes Amru" that is mentioned in a Beraisa. Accordingly, in our case it could mean "it is as clear as a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai" - see MAHARATZ CHAYOS to Beitzah 17a.)

26)[line 17]טבח אומןTABACH UMAN- an expert/professional slaughterer

27a)[line 18]מזיק הואMAZIK HU- he is doing damage

b)[line 18]פושע הואPOSHE'A HU- he is negligent

28)[line 23]וניבלהV'NIBLAH - he caused it to become a Neveilah (NEVEILAH)

A Neveilah is a carcass of an animal that died without a Halachic slaughtering. The Torah states, "You shall not eat anything that dies by itself (Neveilah). You shall give it to the stranger who is in your gates, that he may eat it, or you may sell it to a Nochri, for you are a holy people to HaSh-m, your El-okim" (Devarim 14:21). The flesh of a Neveilah is prohibited to be eaten, and a k'Zayis or more of a Neveilah makes an object Tamei through Maga (contact) and Masa (carrying).

29)[line 24]אמר ליה לעכר מוחךAMAR LEI: L'ACHER MOCHACHA- he said to him (Shmuel said to Rav Chama bar Gurya): (a) your brain should become cloudy (RASHI); (b) you have no brain in your head (Ga'on cited by SHITAH MEKUBETZES); (c) are you not concerned about making your brain cloudy? (YA'AVETZ)

30)[line 25]השתא שקלת מאי דשקל חברךHASHTA SHAKALT MAI D'SHAKAL CHAVRACH- now you have taken what your friend took

31)[line 28]מבעי ליה למירמי אנפשיהMIBA'I LEI L'MIRMEI A'NAFSHEI- he should have been cautious and careful (lit. thrown it upon himself)

32a)[line 29]קשרו בעליו במוסירהKASHRO BE'ALAV B'MOSEIRAH- if its owner tied it with a tie-rope (or the reins)

b)[line 30]ונעל בפניו כראויNA'AL B'FANAV KA'RA'UY- if he closed the door properly [so that it could not be opened by a normal wind and the animal could not get out by itself]

33)[line 32]בידים קלאו מיניהB'YADAYIM KELA'O MINEI- he destroyed it from him with his hands

34)[line 35]דבנתקל פושע הואNISKAL POSHE'A HU- one who trips and falls (and thereby causes damage to someone else) is considered negligent and is obligated to pay for the damages. This is the subject of a Machlokes Tana'im (Bava Kama 29a, 82b).

35)[line 36]כטבחי ציפוריTABACHEI TZIPORI- the slaughterers of Tzipori, a city in the lower Galilee, approximately midway between Tiberias and Haifa

36)[line 38]בכנישתא דמעוןB'KENISHTA D'MA'ON- in the synagogue of Ma'on or Beis Ma'on, a city near Tiberias

37)[line 39]זיל אייתי ראיה דממחית לתרנגולים ואפטרךZIL, AISI RE'AYAH D'MAMCHIS L'SARNEGOLIM, V'AFTERACH- go bring proof that you are an expert at [slaughtering] chickens, and I will exempt you

38)[line 41]לתתןLASESEN- moisten them

39a)[line 41]סוביןSUBIN- Literally, (a) bran that adheres to the wheat kernel that is separated out in the last stages of sifting; alt. coarse bran that comes off the wheat when it is pounded; (b) bran flour (coarse flour that still has the bran in it)

b)[line 41]מורסןMURSAN- coarse bran that comes off the wheat when it is pounded, or flour that still has the bran in it. Rashi here explains that Subin is thicker than Mursan.

40)[line 42]פת ניפוליןPAS NIPOLIN- bread that falls apart when held

41)[line 43]כנושא שכרK'NOSEI SACHAR- he receives a wage for his work

42)[line 43]מגרומתאMAGRUMASA (SHECHITAH: HAGRAMAH)

(a)There are two "Simanim," or parts of the animal that must be sliced through when performing Shechitah: the Kaneh (trachea) and the Veshet (esophagus). Five of the most important laws of Shechitah are the following:

1."Shehiyah" - One may not "pause" in the middle of a Shechitah.

2."Derasah" - One may not "press" the knife into the neck, but must use a sliding, cutting motion.

3."Chaladah" - One may not insert the knife into the middle of the thickness of the neck and cut from there outwards.

4."Hagramah" - One may not cut the Simanim such that part of the cut "slants" above the point that delimits the part of the neck upon which Shechitah may be performed.

5."Ikur" - One may not "rip out" the Simanim from the neck and then cut them. Similarly, one may not cause the Simanim to tear during Shechitah, such as by cutting them with a dull blade.

43)[line 47]דאיבעי ליה (חיובא) [לחיובי] לטבחאD'IBA'I LEI (CHIYUVA) [L'CHIYUVEI] L'TABACHA- he should have obligated the slaughterer to pay (DIKDUKEI SOFERIM)

44)[line 48]לכשיצאLECHESHE'YETZEI- when he goes out [from asking a Halachic question, and he receives a stringent reply]

45)[line 49]"הולך רכיל מגלה סוד""HOLECH RACHIL MEGALEH SOD"- "One who goes around talebearing is he who reveals a secret" (Mishlei 11:13).

46)[line 50]לשולחניSHULCHANI- a moneychanger

47)[line 51]רעRA- invalid. (A person shows a coin (Dinar), before accepting it as payment, to a moneychanger to receive his professional opinion on whether it is a valid coin or not. The moneychanger says that it is a valid coin, and so the person accepts it. Later he discovers that the coin is actually not valid.)

48)[line 51]אומן פטור; הדיוט חייבUMAN PATUR; HEDYOT CHAYAV- a professional [appraiser] is exempt (for making an inaccurate appraisal); an amateur is obligated (to pay for his inaccurate appraisal)

49)[line 52]דנכו ואיסורDANKU V'ISUR- [such as] Danku v'Isur, who were two highly skilled moneychangers (and appraisers of coins)

50)[line 52]דלא צריכי למיגמר כללD'LO TZERICHI L'MIGMAR KELAL- who do not need to study at all

51a)[line 52]טעו בסיכתא חדתאTA'U B'SICHTA CHADTA- (O.F. coinz) they erred in identifying a newly minted coin (i.e. they said that it was valid, but it was actually not valid due to a blemish in the minting process of that specific coin)

b)[line 53]דההיא שעתא דנפק מתותי סיכתאDEHA'HI SHA'ATA D'NAFAK MI'TUSEI SICHTA- because at that moment, it (the new coin) had just come out from under the mint

52)[line 54]ולא קא נפיק ליV'LO KA NAFIK LI- they would not let me spend it

53)[line 54]זיל חלפיה ניהלהZIL, CHALFEI NIHALAH- go exchange it for her

54)[line 55]וכתוב אפנקסי ''דין עסק ביש''U'CHESOV A'PINKASI ''DEIN ESEK BISH''- and write on my ledger "this bad deal" (so that I remember not to do such a thing again)

55)[last line]לפנים משורת הדיןLIFNIM MI'SHURAS HA'DIN- (lit. further inside from the line of the law) beyond what the law requires

56)[last line]"והודעת להם את הדרך ילכו בה ואת המעשה אשר יעשון""V'HODATA LAHEM ES HA'DERECH YELCHU VAH, V'ES HA'MA'ASEH ASHER YA'ASUN"- "And you shall inform them of the path in which they shall walk, and the deeds which they shall do" (Shemos 18:20).

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