BAVA KAMA 18-20 - Two weeks of study material have been dedicated by Mrs. Estanne Abraham Fawer to honor the ninth Yahrzeit of her father, Rav Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Rabbi Morton Weiner) Z'L, who passed away on 18 Teves 5760. May the merit of supporting and advancing Dafyomi study -- which was so important to him -- during the weeks of his Yahrzeit serve as an Iluy for his Neshamah.

[19a - 46 lines; 19b - 47 lines]

1)[line 3]הא משונה הואHA MESHUNAH HU!- it is an unusual act [for an animal to crow in a vessel]!

2)[line 3]דאית ביה בזרניD'IS BEI BIZRANEI- (the Gemara answers) [the case in one] in which there were seeds [in the vessel, and as it is therefore normal for the animal to stick its head in the vessel, it is also normal for it to crow while there]

3)[line 4]יש שנוי לצרורות לרביע נזקYESH SHINUY LI'TZEROROS LI'REVI'A NEZEK- is one responsible for no more than one-quarter of the damage for Tzeroros that result from an unusual action? (i.e., are the factors of Chatzi Nezek that result from that which it is a Tam and that which it has caused Tzeroros multipliable by each other?)

4)[line 7]מכלל דאין שנויMI'CHELAL D'EIN SHINUY- this implies one is responsible for half of the damage [caused by Tzeroros that result from an unusual action, since otherwise Rava would have wondered whether one's responsibility for established Tzeroros increases from one-quarter to one-half]

5)[line 10]תיקוTEIKU - An Unanswered Question

(a)The Gemara often leaves a question unanswered with the word "Teiku". The PRI MEGADIM (Igeres preceding his introduction to Orach Chaim, #9) cites three explanations for this term:

1.[this question shall remain] sealed in its container (ARUCH, Erech Tik)

2.let [the question] stand ("Tehei Ka'I"; MUSAF HA'ARUCH)

3.Tishbi Yetaretz Kushyos v'Ibayos - Eliyahu ha'Navi will answer difficulties and questions (TOSFOS YOM TOV, end of Eduyos)

6)[line 11]מי גמיר הלכה ומוקי לה בכח כחוMI GAMIR HALACHAH U'MOKI LAH B'CHO'ACH KOCHO?- does he agree that a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai was taught and establishes it in [a case in which the Tzeroros themselves were generated by his animal's] indirect force? (See Insights)

7)[line 16]כאורחייהוK'ORCHAIHU- that result from a normal action

8)[line 24]ראשון ראשון להתזה, ושני שני להתזהRISHON, RISHON L'HATAZAH; V'SHENI, SHENI L'HATAZAH- the "first" [vessel referred to in our Mishnah] is the first one broken by the shards [that shot out from the vessel broken by the animal directly], and the "second" [vessel referred to in our Mishnah] is the second one broken by the shards [that shot out from the first vessel to be broken by shards]

9)[line 29]ובעי לה הכיU'VA'I LAH HACHI- and he asks the question as follows. There was a tradition in which Talmudists of an earlier generation had wondered whether the Mishnah discusses a case of regular Tzeroros or those produced by an unusual action (TOSFOS DH Rav).

10)[line 33]במקום שאי אפשר לה אלא אם כן מנתזתMAKOM SHE'IY EFSHAR LAH ELA IM KEN MENATEZES- in a place [belonging to the Nizak] in which [there are so many Tzeroros] that it is impossible for it not to spray them

11)[line 36]ובעטה(U'VA'ATAH)- (and it kicked in an unusual manner). See Insights for the explanation of this question according to those Rishonim who are Gores this word; according to the Girsa of RASHI, this word does not appear and the question of the Gemara concerns Tzeroros that result from a normal action.

12)[line 37]לקרן מדמינן ליהL'KEREN MEDAMINAN LEI?- do we compare it to Keren [since one must pay only Chatzi Nezek, similar to a Tam]?

13)[line 37]תולדה דרגל הואTOLDAH D'REGEL HU- it is a subdivision of Regel [since the animal has not acted in an unusual manner]

14)[line 38]עקירה אין כאן הנחה יש כאןAKIRAH EIN KAN; HANACHAH YESH KAN?- there is no uprooting [of the Tzeroros] here [in the Reshus ha'Nizak, which is the only place that one is responsible for Tzeroros]; can there then be placement [of Tzeroros in a manner that obligates the owner to pay]?

15)[line 41]הדרי ביHADRI BI- I have retracted my opinion


16)[line 1]אין חצי נזק חלוקEIN CHATZI NEZEK CHALUK- there is no differentiation with regards to paying half damages

17)[line 6]אקרןA'KEREN- [only] with regard to [a Tam of] Keren

18)[line 7]רבי יהודה נשיאהREBBI YEHUDAH NESI'AH- Rebbi Yehudah the spiritual leader of the Jews in Eretz Yisrael, grandson of Rebbi Yehudah ha'Nasi (also known as Rebbi)

19)[line 7]אקילעא דרבי יהודהA'KIL'A D'REBBI YEHUDAH [NESI'AH]- on the porch of Rebbi Yehudah [Nesi'ah] (DIKDUKEI SOFRIM; see YA'AVETZ)

20)[line 8]נפק מילתא מבינייהוNAFAK MILSA MI'BEINAIHU- a [Halachic] discussion arose between them

21)[line 8]כשכשה בזנבהKISHKESHAH BI'ZENAVAH- if [an animal] wagged its tail [and thereby caused damage]

22)[line 9]וכי יאחזנה בקרן וילך הכיV'CHI YOCHEZENAH BI'ZENAVAH V'YELACH?- must he grab hold of its tail and walk [with it to prevent from damaging]?

23)[line 12]כשכוש יתירא מבעיא ליהKISHKUCH YESEIRAH MIBAYA LEI- he asked him regarding especially strong wagging

24)[line 13]כשכשה באמתהKISHKESHAH B'AMASAH- if [a male animal] wagged its phallus [and thereby caused damage (which is only possible if it has an erection)]

25a)[line 14]מידי דהוה אקרןMIDI D'HAVAH A'KEREN- similar to Keren

b)[line 14]קרן לאו יצרא קתקיף ליהKEREN LAV YITZRA KATAKIF LEI?- does an animal not intentionally cause damage due to that which it was seized by an urge?

26)[line 18]לא שנוLO SHANU- we did not learn [that one is responsible for damage caused by that which is tied to the leg of his chicken]

27)[line 19]שנקשר מאליוNIKSHAR ME'ELAV- it became attached on its own

28)[line 21]אי דאצנעיהIY D'ATZNE'EI- if he hid it away

29)[line 22]פושע הואPOSHE'A HU!- he has acted in a negligent manner [and he should be fully responsible]!

30)[line 23]"כי יפתח איש בור..." ולא שור בור"(V')CHI YIFTACH ISH BOR..." V'LO SHOR BOR- "(And) if a man shall uncover a pit..." (Shemos 21:33) [he is responsible, which implies] and not if one's ox (or any other animal) [created] a pit

31)[line 25]בדאדייה אדוייBED'ADYEI ADUYEI- [in a case] in which [the chicken] threw [the Delil, resulting in a case of Tzeroros]

32)[line 26]בעלמא אתמרB'ALMA ITMAR- was taught regarding a different case

33)[line 29]בורו המתגלגל ברגלי אדם וברגלי בהמהBORO HA'MISGALGEL B'RAGLEI ADAM UV'RAGLEI VEHEMAH- his obstacle [that he placed in a public domain] (such as a stone) that is rolled [from place to place] by the feet of people and animals [that was then tripped upon in its new location] (see 6a)

34)[line 32]כסותKESUS- an article of clothing

35)[line 32]משלם חצי נזקMESHALEM CHATZI NEZEK- he need only pay half-damages [since it is an unusual act and is therefore a subcategory of Keren]

36)[line 33]אם נהנית משלמת מה שנהניתIM NEHENES, MESHALEM MAH SHE'NEHENIS- if he derived benefit, he must pay for the benefit that he derived (see 20a)

37a)[line 34]הרחבהRECHAVAH- lit. square; a public area

b)[line 34]מצדי הרחבהTZIDEI HA'RECHAVAH- the sides of the public area [that are privately owned (TSOFOS to 21a DH uv'Machzeres)]

38)[line 35]החנותCHANUS- a store

39a)[line 37]בהמהBEHEMAH- a domesticated animal (i.e., a cow or sheep)

b)[line 38]חיהCHAYAH- a non-domesticated animal (in this case, for example, a lion or wolf)

40)[line 38]וטרפהTARFAH- lit. ripped; killed violently

41a)[line 39]ופרה שאכלה שעוריןPARAH SHE'ACHLAH SE'ORIN- a cow that ate barley (which is normally donkey food)

b)[line 39]וחמור שאכל כרשינןCHAMOR SHE'ACHAL KARSHININ- a donkey that ate a certain species of bean (prob. horse-bean) (which is normally cow food)

42a)[line 40]וכלב שליקק את השמןKELEV SHE'LIKEK ES HA'SHEMEN- a dog that lapped up oil (which is normally lapped by pigs)

b)[line 40]וחזיר שאכל חתיכה של בשרCHAZIR SHE'ACHEL CHATICHAH SHEL BASAR- a pig that ate a cut of meat (which is normally dog food)

43)[line 41]ע"י הדחקAL YEDEI HA'DECHAK- in extenuating circumstances (i.e., when it was extremely hungry)

44)[line 42]שונראSHUNRA- a cat

45)[line 42]תמריTAMREI- dates

46)[line 42]וחמראCHAMRA- a donkey

47)[line 42]ביניתאBINISA- a fish

48)[line 43]דאכל נהמא ופלסיה לסלאD'ACHAL NAHAMA U'PALSEI L'SALA- that ate bread and a) chewed; b) split the basket [that had been holding the bread]

49)[line 45]דאכל והדר פליסD'ACHAL V'HADAR PALIS- [the case was one] in which it ate [the bread] and subsequently chewed [the basket]

50)[line 46]ותבשילTAVSHIL- a cooked dish

51)[last line]דמטויD'MITVI- (the Gemara answers) [the Beraisa was referring to a case] in which [the meat] was roasted

52)[last line]בטביאB'TAVYA- [the Beraisa was referring] to a deer [which is a herbivore]

53)[last line]ובפתוראB'PESORA- [the Beraisa was referring to a case] in which [the food items] were on a table [in which case it is unusual for an animal to take them]