(R. Yakov): Anyone who journeys must say Tefilas ha'Derech.
Question: What is Tefilas ha'Derech?
Answer: "May it be Your will to lead me, direct me, and support me towards peace, to save me from any enemies or ambush on the way, to bless my endeavors, and grant me grace, kindness and mercy in Your eyes and the eyes of all who see me; Baruch Atah Hash-m Shome'a Tefilah."
(Abaye): When one prays, he should pray for the public as well.
Question: How should he say Tefilas ha'Derech?
Answer: "May it be Your will to lead us..."
Question: When is the earliest one may say Tefilas ha'Derech?
Answer (R. Yakov): He may say it once he is on the road.
Version #1 (Rashi) Question: When is the latest time to say Tefilas ha'Derech?
Answer: It should be said before going a Parsah (about four kilometers).
Version #2 (Bahag) Question: What is the smallest trip for which Tefilas ha'Derech should be said?
Answer: It is said for a trip of at least a Parsah. (end of Version #2)
Question: How is it said?
Answer #1 (Rav Chisda): It is said while standing.
Answer #2 (Rav Sheshes): It may be said even while travelling.
Rav Chisda and Rav Sheshes were travelling; Rav Chisda stood up (to say Tefilas ha'Derech).
Rav Sheshes (who was blind, to his servant): What is he doing?
His servant: He is praying.
Rav Sheshes (to his servant): Help me to stand and I will also pray -- I agree that this is better, and there is no reason not to (I want to wait for Rav Chisda anyway).
Question: What is the difference between saying the "short prayer" said when in danger and saying Havinenu?
Answer: Havinenu is preceded by and followed by three blessings; one who says Havinenu is exempt from Tefilah when he gets home;
The short prayer is not preceded or followed by other blessings; one who says it must pray when he gets home.
The Halachah is, Havinenu must be said while standing, the short prayer may be said while standing or travelling.
PRAYING WHILE TRAVELLING
(Mishnah): If one was riding on a donkey...
(Beraisa): If one was riding on a donkey and the time for prayer came:
If there is someone else to watch his donkey, he must come down to pray;
If not, he may sit stationary and pray.
Rebbi says, in either case he may sit stationary and pray, for his mind is not settled (he is bothered by the delay in his journey).
(Rava): The Halachah follows Rebbi.
(Beraisa): A blind person, or one who does not know the direction (towards the Mikdash) should direct his thoughts to his Father in Heaven -- "v'Hispalelu El Hash-m";
One who is in Chutz la'Aretz should face towards Eretz Yisrael -- "v'Hispalelu Elecha Derech Artzam";
One who is in Eretz Yisrael should face towards Yerushalayim -- "v'Hispalelu El Hash-m Derech ha'Ir Asher Bacharta";
One who is in Yerushalayim should face the Mikdash -- "v'Hispalelu El ha'Bayis ha'Zeh";
One who is in the Mikdash should face the Kodesh ha'Kodashim -- "v'Hispalelu El ha'Makom ha'Zeh";
One who is in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim should face the Beis ha'Kapores (the wall in back of the Aron);
One who is in back of the Beis ha'Kapores should [face west, towards Beis ha'Kapores, but] consider himself as if he was in front of it (R. Yonah - with most of Yisrael, who face east).
Conclusion: Wherever one is, he faces towards Beis ha'Kapores; all of Yisrael face one place.
(R. Avin): We learn from "... Tzavarech Banuy l'Salpiyos" -- the Tel (mound) towards which all Piyos (mouths) turn.
When Shmuel's father and Levi wanted to travel, they would pray [Shemoneh Esreh] early (Tosfos - between dawn and sunrise; Rashi (according to Tosfos) - before dawn);
When the time for Shema came, they would say Shema.
Question: Like whom did they conduct themselves?
Answer: They conducted themselves like the following Tana:
(Beraisa): If one must travel early, [he first performs the Mitzvos of the day, such as] he hears a Shofar, shakes a Lulav, or hears Megilas Esther before leaving; when the time for Shema comes, he says Shema;
If one rises early to ride in a wagon or boat, he prays first; when the time for Shema comes, he says Shema;
R. Shimon ben Elazar says, in either case he says Shema (in the proper time) and then prays, in order to be Somech Ge'ulah l'Tefilah.
Question: What do they argue about?
Answer: The first Tana holds that praying while standing is more important than being Somech Ge'ulah l'Tefilah, R. Shimon holds that being Somech Ge'ulah l'Tefilah is more important.
On the Shabbos before the festival, Mereimar and Mar Zutra would gather ten people and pray, and then expound in the Beis Medrash. (The Talmidim would leave one at a time to pray.)
Rav Ashi would pray by himself amidst his Talmidim (while the translator was broadcasting a long part of his discourse), while sitting; after the class, he would go home and pray again, standing.
Talmidim: Why don't you do like Mereimar and Mar Zutra?
Rav Ashi: It would be a burden to delay the class so long.
Talmidim: Why don't you do like Shmuel's father and Levi (pray before Shema)?
Rav Ashi: We do not find that previous Chachamim did so.
THE ENACTMENT TO SAY MUSAF
(Mishnah - R. Eliezer ben Azaryah): The enactment to say Musaf applies only in a Tzibur;
Chachamim say, it applies even to an individual.
R. Yehudah says, R. Eliezer ben Azaryah exempts an individual from Musaf in any place where there is a Tzibur (this will be explained).
(Gemara) Question: R. Yehudah says just like the first Tana!
Answer: They argue about an individual in a place where there is no Tzibur -- the first Tana exempts, R. Yehudah obligates.
(Rav Huna bar Chinena): The Halachah follows R. Yehudah.
(R. Chiya bar Avin): That is correct -- Shmuel said that the only time he ever prayed Musaf by himself in Neharde'a was the day that the king's army came and prevented Chachamim from praying;
That day, he was an individual in a place without a Tzibur.
(R. Chanina Kara (see Rashi to Taanis 27b)): The Halachah follows R. Yehudah.
R. Yanai: That is wrong -- the Halachah does not follow R. Yehudah!
(R. Yochanan): I saw R. Yanai pray (without a Tzibur) twice (in succession, i.e. Shacharis and Musaf).
Question (R. Yirmeyah): Perhaps he repeated the same prayer because he did not have proper intention the first time!
Answer (R. Zeira): A great Chacham testified about this, surely he knew that he prayed Musaf.
Even though there were 13 synagogues in Tiverya, R. Ami and R. Asi would pray only where they learned.
(R. Yitzchak bar Avodimi): The Halachah follows R. Yehudah.
CORRECTING AN OMISSION
R. Chiya bar Aba prayed twice (in succession).
R. Zeira: Why did you do this?
Suggestion: Perhaps you did not have good intention the first time.
Rejection: [Surely this did not happen --] R. Elazar taught that one should estimate whether or not his mind is settled enough to have intention -- if not, he should not pray!
Suggestion: You forgot to mention Rosh Chodesh (in Ya'aleh v'Yavo), therefore you prayed again.
Rejection (Beraisa): If one forgot to mention Rosh Chodesh in Ma'ariv, he does not go back, for he can say it in Shacharis;
If he forgot to mention it in Shacharis, he does not go back, for he can mention it in Musaf; if he forgot to mention it in Musaf (Rashi - he prayed a regular Shemoneh Esreh), he does not go back, for he can mention it in Minchah;
R. Chiya: Indeed, that was the reason;
R. Yochanan taught, the Beraisa only exempts one who is praying with a Tzibur (Rashi - for one who will hear the Shali'ach Tzibur mention Rosh Chodesh; Bahag - it only exempts a Shali'ach Tzibur, to avoid burdening the Tzibur), but an individual must pray again.
Question: If one will pray twice in succession (Shacharis and Musaf; alternatively, if he must repeat Shemoneh Esreh), how long must he pause between prayers?
Answer (Rav Huna and Rav Chisda): He must pause until his mind is settled.
One of them expressed this "until his mind Tischonen," as we find in the verse, "va'Eschanan El Hash-m";
The other expressed this "until his mind Tischolel," as we find, "va'Yechal Moshe."
(Rav Anan citing Rav): If one forgot to mention Rosh Chodesh in Ma'ariv, he does not go back, for [Kedushas Rosh Chodesh applies primarily during the day, since] Beis Din is not Mekadesh the month at night, only during the day.
(Ameimar): Presumably, Rav's law applies only to one who forgot on the first night of Rosh Chodesh when the [previous] month was full (30 days), for then [there are two days of Rosh Chodesh, the primary one is the second,] he will mention Rosh Chodesh the next night;
If the month was short (29 days), he must repeat Shemoneh Esreh.
Rejection (Rav Ashi): Rav explained, the reason is because Beis Din is not Mekadesh the month at night, only during the day -- this applies whether the month was full or short.
SUBMISSIVENESS BEFORE PRAYER
(Mishnah): One stands to pray only out of submissiveness;
Chasidim of old would wait one hour (where they would pray) before praying [Shemoneh Esreh], in order to direct their thoughts to Hash-m.
Even if the king greets one during prayer, he should not answer; even if a snake wraps itself around his heel, he should not interrupt.
(Gemara) Question: What is the source for this?
Answer #1 (R. Elazar): We learn from "v'Hi Maras Nefesh."
Objection: Perhaps Chanah was different, for she was very pained!
Answer #2 (R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina): We learn from "va'Ani... Avo Veisecha... b'Yir'asecha."
Objection: Perhaps David would afflict himself to arouse mercy, but others need not do so!
Answer #3 (R. Yehoshua ben Levi): We learn from "Hishtachavu la'Shem b'Hadras Kodesh" -- we read this "b'Cherdas" (with fear).
Objection: Perhaps we explain it like it is written, "b'Hadras," to teach that one should beautify himself for prayer!
Rav Yehudah would adorn himself with his garments before praying.
Answer #4 (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): We learn from "Ivdu Es Hash-m b'Yir'ah v'Gilu bi'Re'adah" (this refers to Avodah of the heart, i.e. prayer);
Question: What do we learn from "v'Gilu bi'Re'adah"?
Answer: Where there is Gilah (rejoicing) there must be trembling.
Rabah saw that Abaye was overly jovial -- he rebuked him, "It says, 'v'Gilu bi'Re'adah'!"
Abaye: I am wearing Tefilin (so all can see that I have accepted the authority of my Master over me).
R. Zeira saw that R. Yirmeyah was overly jovial -- he rebuked him, "b'Chol Etzev Yiheyeh Mosar"!
R. Yirmeyah: I am wearing Tefilin.