[26a - 21 lines; 26b - 53 lines]
(a)A Kohen with a Mum (physical blemish) may not perform Avodah in the Beis ha'Mikdash, whether it is a Mum Kavu'a (a permanent blemish; e.g. an amputated hand or foot) or a Mum Over (a temporary blemish; e.g. boils). The RAMBAM in SEFER HA'MITZVOS maintains that these are counted as two separate negative commandments (#'s 70 and 71), while the RAMBAN rules that they are included in one Lav. If an animal has a Mum (physical blemish), it may not be offered as a Korban.
2)[line 3]מוכןMUCHAN (MUKTZAH)
(a)Muktzah literally means "set aside" or "designated". With regard to Shabbos, this term is used to describe items which one has no intention of using on Shabbos, such as wood stacked in a barn. Anything that a person had no intention to use during Bein ha'Shemashos (twilight) at the start of Shabbos (or Yom Tov) - for any reason - is included in the category of Muktzah and may not be moved on Shabbos. That which is not Muktzah is termed "Muchan" - "designated" for use on Shabbos or Yom Tov.
3)[line 3]במאי קא מפלגי?B'MAI KA MI'PALGI?- what are Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Shimon disagreeing over? It cannot be over whether or not a Bechor that entered Yom Tov without a Mum is Muktzah, since then each would take the opposite stance. Rebbi Yehudah rules that Muktzah applies in many more situations than does Rebbi Shimon. Rather, the Bechor in question must have entered Yom Tov with a Mum already in place.
4)[line 7]דעלמאD'ALMA- in a general sense [and not in the specific case of a Bechor that fell into a pit]
5)[line 8]צער בעלי חייםTZA'AR BA'ALEI CHAYIM
(a)One may not cause pain or anguish to any living creature purposelessly. The Gemara discusses whether this Mitzvah is Biblical or Rabbinic in nature (Bava Metzia 32a-b).
6)[line 8]לערים ולסקיהLA'ARIM V'LASKEI- he should act deceptively [by assuming that the animal developed a Mum] and raise [it from the pit]
7)[line 9]כר' יהושעK'REBBI YEHOSHUA (OSO V'ES BENO)
(a)One may not slaughter a cow, female sheep, or female goat along with her offspring on the same day (Vayikra 22:28).
(b)In a case in which a female animal and her offspring fell into a pit together on Yom Tov, Rebbi Yehoshua permits a Ha'aramah (deception). One may raise one of them from the pit, claiming to be interested in slaughtering it. He may then "change his mind" and raise the other from the pit as well. He may then proceed to slaughter either one of them.
8)[line 11]דעבר ואסקיהD'AVAR V'ASKEI- that he transgressed and raised ]the Bechor from the pit, at which point it became evident that it had no Mum]
9)[line 12]תםTAM- an unblemished animal
10)[line 12]דנפל ביה מומאD'NAFAL BEI MUMA- that it received a Mum [through falling into the pit]
11a)[line 14]עוברOVER- temporary (see above, entry # 1)
b)[line 15]קבועKAVU'A- permanent (see above, entry # 1)
12)[line 15]דעתיה עלויהDAITEI ILAVEI- he intended to [eat] it [from before Yom Tov since the temporary Mum could have developed into a permanent one] (see Insights)
13)[line 16]ר' יהודה הנשיאREBBI YEHUDAH HA'NASI- Rebbi Yehudah the leader; also known as Rabeinu ha'Kadosh or Rebbi
14)[line 17]ירד מומחה ויראהYERED MUMCHEH V'YIR'EH ...- According to the Girsa in our Gemara, it is clear that Rebbi Yehudah ha'Nasi rules that the Bechor is not Muktzah (unlike Rebbi Yehudah) and that it is permissible to check Mumin on Yom Tov (unlike Rebbi Shimon). According to the alternate Girsa in Rashi, the word "Tam" should not appear in this Beraisa and Rebbi Yehudah ha'Nasi agrees with Rebbi Yehudah.
15)[line 19]הרי אמרוHAREI AMRU- they (namely, Rebbi Shimon [bar Yochai], the Rebbi of Rebbi Yehudah ha'Nasi) said
16)[last line]מבקריןMEVAKRIN- check [to determine if it is temporary or permanent]
17)[line 2]שאם נולד הואSHE'IM NOLAD HU- that if it is born [on Yom Tov]
18)[line 5]אבאABA- [your] father [Rav Huna]
19)[line 8]תלתא בביTELASA BAVI- three [separate] cases [each with its own individually worded ruling]
20)[line 15]מתניתאMASNISA- a Beraisa
21)[line 15]בין שנולד בו מום מערב י"ט ובין שנולד בו מוםבי"ט ... BEIN SHE'NOLAD BO MUM B'EREV YOM TOV U'VEIN SHE'NOLAD BO MUM B'YOM TOV ...- This Beraisa must be expressing the opinion of Rebbi Shimon, since his is the only ruling of which we are aware that is stringent with regard to checking Mumin on Yom Tov. Yet, the Beraisa does not differentiate between a Mum that developed before Yom Tov and one that developed during Yom Tov; in both of these cases, the Halachah is that one may not eat the Bechor even if the Mum is checked b'Di'eved. It is now impossible to understand the opinion of Rebbi Shimon in accordance with the three-tiered approach suggested by Abaye.
22)[line 18]ההיאHA'HI- that [Beraisa that implied a three-tiered ruling on the part of Rebbi Shimon]
23)[line 18]דמשבשD'MESHABESH- who is prone to muddle [his Beraisos]
24)[line 19]מתני' נמי דייקאMASNISIN NAMI DAIKA- it is implicit in our Mishnah as well [that the Beraisa of Rav Oshiya is correct]
25)[line 22]פשיטא!PESHITA!- it is simple [that it is Muktzah according to Rebbi Yehudah]!
26)[line 24]אין זה מן המוכןEIN ZEH MIN HA'MUCHAN- it is not from that which is considered to have been designated [from before Yom Tov, even if the Mum if checked b'Di'eved]
27)[line 27]אחזיACHAZI- it is fit [for use on Shabbos]
28)[line 27]בין השמשותBEIN HA'SHEMASHOS
(a)Bein ha'Shemashos refers to the length of sunset. It is Halachically unclear whether this period of time is day or night.
(b)There is a disagreement among the Tana'im (Shabbos 34b) as to the exact timing of Bein ha'Shemashos:
1.According to Rebbi Yehudah, Bein ha'Shemashos begins when the sun dips below the horizon and lasts for the time that it takes an average person to walk either two-thirds or three-quarters of a Mil (depending upon how one understands the statement of Rebbi Yehudah on Shabbos 34b).
2.Rebbi Nechemyah explains that Bein ha'Shemashos lasts for the time that it takes an average person to walk half of a Mil. (Rashi to Berachos 2b and Nidah 53a records this opinion as that of Rebbi Yehudah.)
3.Rebbi Yosi maintains that Bein ha'Shemashos lasts no longer than the (gentle) blink of an eye. There is a difference of opinion as to whether the Bein ha'Shemashos of Rebbi Yosi occurs after or during the Bein ha'Shemashos of Rebbi Yehudah (Nidah 53a). The Gemara concludes (Shabbos 35a) that the Bein ha'Shemashos of Rebbi Yosi takes place only once the Bein ha'Shemashos of Rebbi Yehudah finishes (meaning that until that point, Rebbi Yosi would consider it day).
(c)Our Gemara refers to Bein ha'Shemashos of Erev Shabbos as Shabbos begins. Generally, the Muktzah status of an item over the course of Shabbos depends upon its status during Bein ha'Shemashos.
29)[line 29]אדחיADCHI- deferred [from being fit for use on Shabbos]
30)[line 31]אגב אמיהAGAV IMEI- along with its mother [when she is slaughtered]
31)[line 34]דיתבי דייני התםD'YASVEI DAYANEI HASAM- that judges (i.e., an expert in checking Mumin) sat there [as the Bechor was born and immediately declared the Mum permanent, in which case the Bechor was never Kadosh]
32)[line 40]היה אוכל בענבים והותירHAYAH OCHEL BA'ANAVIM V'HOSIR- [even] if one was in the middle of eating grapes and decided to leave over some of them [in which case one might have thought it obvious that he plans to continue eating them at any point]
33a)[line 41]צמוקיןTZIMUKIN- raisins
b)[line 43]גרוגרותGEROGROS- dried figs
34)[line 43]יזמיןYAZMIN- he designates [them as what he wishes to consume on Shabbos]
35a)[line 44]אפרסקיןAFARSEKIN- (O.F. persches) peaches
b)[line 44]חבושיןCHAVUSHIN- (O.F. codoinz) quinces
36)[line 45]דחזוD'CHAZU- they are fit [for use on Shabbos as they are fully dried]
37)[line 48]מוקצה שיבשMUKTZAH SHE'YAVESH- [grapes or figs that have been set to dry in the sun that are] Muktzah [as long as the process is not complete] that have fully dried
38)[line 49]ואדחוV'IDCHU- and they become deferred [when rain falls on them and plumps them up]
39)[line 51]כי אזמין להו מאי הוי?KI AZMIN LEHU MAI HAVEI?- if he does designate them, what does it accomplish [since they are still to become Muktzah following that point]?
40a)[last line]פוליןPOLIN- beans [cooked on Yom Tov]
b)[last line]עדשיםADASHIM- lentils [cooked on Yom Tov]
41)[last line]מעיקרא חזו לכוסME'IKARA CHAZU LA'KUS- at the beginning [of Yom Tov, during Bein ha'Shemashos,] they are [raw and] fit to be chewed [and consumed in their uncooked state]
42)[last line]שדינהו בקדרהSHADINHU B'KEDEIRAH- once they are thrown into a pot [and have been heated until they are too hot to be eaten]