BECHOROS 57 (15 Teves) - dedicated by Dr. Moshe and Rivka Snow in memory of Rivka's mother, Rebbetzin Leah bas Rav Yosef (Rabinowitz), the Manostrishtcher Rebbetzin, whose Yahrzeit is 15 Teves.

[57a - 44 lines; 57b - 38 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Rashi 57a DH v'Iy Ashme'inan ד"ה ואי אשמעינן:

The words "Iy Nami l'Chatchilah" אי נמי לכתחילה

should be a new Dibur

[2] Rashi DH Prat l'Kol ד"ה פרט לכל:

The word "ked'Perishis" כדפרישית

should be "d'Perishis" דפרישית

[3] Rashi DH Tana Didan ד"ה תנא דידן:

The Shitah Mekubetzes #14 explains that

the words "Kol Hanei d'Masnisin" כל הני דמתניתין

should be "Kol Hanei d'Mis'asrin" כל הני דמתאתרין

[4] Rashi 57b Es ha'Mesah ד"ה את המתה:

Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #5

[5] Rashi DH veha'Kesiv ד"ה והכתיב:

The words "l'Oso Of" לאותו עוף

should be "b'Oso Of" באותו עוף

[6] Rashi DH Shalosh Geranos ד"ה שלש גרנות:

The words "me'Achar she'Kara Alav" מאחר שקרא עליו

should be "l'Achar she'Kara Alav" לאחר שקרא עליו


1)[line 2]האחין שחלקו לקוחות הן ומחזירין זה לזה ביובלHA'ACHIN SHE'CHALKU LEKUCHOS HEN U'MACHZIRIN ZEH LA'ZEH BA'YOVEL

See Background to Bechoros 48:6.

2)[line 8]לכתחלהL'CHATCHILAH- [the inheritance must be returned] to its original state

3)[line 11]יש ברירהYESH BEREIRAH

(a)In numerous places in Shas we find arguments among the Tana'im/Amora'im as to whether "Yesh Bereirah" (i.e. Bereirah works) or "Ein Bereirah" (i.e. Bereirah does not work). Bereirah means making one's action contingent retroactively on future events. Examples of this are: selling an object on the condition that it rains tomorrow; buying or selling today an object that will be selected tomorrow. "Ein Bereirah" means that such a stipulation does not work. An action cannot be contingent on a future event. The Ran (Nedarim 45b) explains the logic of this rule by saying, "It is not proper for something to take effect, when there remains a doubt on what it will take effect" (see Insights to Chulin 14:3). "Yesh Bereirah" means that such a stipulation does work.

(b)When the action is contingent on a past event, there is no question that the action works — even if the people involved in the action are not aware as to whether the past event did or did not take place. For example, if a person makes two Eruvei Techumin before sundown on Erev Shabbos, in two different directions, and stipulates, "if the Chacham is presently staying in the town towards the east, I would like the eastern Eruv to work, if not, I would like the western Eruv to work." The man making the Eruv might not know where the Chacham is, but when he finds out, the Eruv will have taken effect on the side that he stipulated.

(c)We find many instances in the Gemara where a person may perform an action "on the condition that..." (b'Tenai). For example, a man may buy or sell an object or divorce his wife on the condition that the other party pays or does whatever the first party specifies. If the condition is not kept in the future, the sale or divorce is annulled. This situation is not called Bereirah — see Insights to Chulin 14:5.

(d)Halachically, most Poskim conclude (based on Beitzah 38a) that regarding Biblical questions (mid'Oraisa), we assume that Bereirah does not work (l'Chumra), but with regard to Rabbinical questions (mid'Rabanan), we rely on Bereirah. The question of our Gemara concerns one who has received ten sheep in return for nine sheep and a dog. Can he determine which of the ten sheep was the one that was traded for the dog by designating one of the ten or not? The one that was traded for a dog may not be used as a sacrifice (Devarim 23:19).

4)[line 15]והאי משהו משיך ואתי בכולהוV'HAI MASHEHU MASHICH V'ASI B'CHULHU- this small difference in value is spread out among all the other lambs

5)[line 21]רבי ישמעאל בנו של רבי יוחנן בן ברוקה אומרREBBI YISHMAEL BENO SHEL REBBI YOCHANAN BEN BEROKAH OMER...- Rebbi Yishmael, the son of Rebbi Yochanan ben Berokah, says.... He is not arguing with the Tana Kama; he is only stating another law.

6)[line 29]"... כי משחתם בהם; מום בם, לא ירצו לכם""... KI MASHCHASAM BAHEM; MUM BAM, LO YERATZU LACHEM"- "because they have in them their flaw; there is a blemish in them, they will not find favor for you" (Vayikra 22:25)

7)[line 33]כל שהמום פוסל בוKOL SHE'EIN HA'MUM POSEL BO- Although Ma'asar Behemah may not be sacrificed with a Mum, it is permitted to sanctify it when it has a Mum (unlike other Kodshim)


8)[line 6]מערקת לבינהME'ARKAS LEVEINAH- from a place called Arkas Leveinah

9)[line 9]יש להם ששים רבוא קלפים בבית המסס שלוYESH LAHEM SHISHIM RIBO KELAFIM B'VEIS HEMSES SHELO- there are 600,000 layers of leaves in the center of the lettuce; alt., the flea's stomach has 600,000 layers (see SHITAH MEKUBETZES #1, RASHI Kesav Yad)

10)[line 11]קרונותKERONOS- coaches

11)[line 12]על חודוAL CHUDO- on the upper edge of the fallen tree

12)[line 12]בר יוכניBAR YUCHNI- a very large bird

13)[line 14]ומי שדיא ליה?U'MI SHADYA LEI?- does it throw away its egg?

14)[line 15]מוזרתאMUZARTA- spoiled

15)[line 16]שלש גרנות למעשרSHALOSH GERANOS L'MA'ASER

The Chachamim designated three times during the year at which a person is obligated to tithe his flock (see Background to Bechoros 53:1). After these times the animals are forbidden to be eaten or sold until they are tithed.

16)[line 17]בפרס הפסחB'PERAS HA'PESACH- in half of the period before Pesach during which the laws of Pesach are discussed, i.e. fifteen days

17a)[line 36]לקבל חורפי ואפלי וקייטיL'KABEL CHURFEI V'AFLEI V'KAITEI- corresponding to the animals that give birth early, late, and in the summer