[43a - 54 lines; 43b - 45 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Gemara 43a [line 45]

The words "she'Ken Kedushaso Merubeh" שכן קדושתו מרובה

should be "she'Ken Kedushasan Merubeh" שכן קדושתן מרובה (RABEINU GERSHOM)



1)[line 6]הכילוןHA'KILON- a Kohen whose head is shaped like a cone (pointed on top; see below, entry #13). (All of the terms of the Mishnah will be explained by the Gemara.)

2)[line 7]בעלי חטרותBA'ALEI CHATAROS- humpbacked men

3)[line 8]קרחKERE'ACH- baldheaded

4)[line 11]דקDAK- a cataract (or similar blemish in the eye); see Background to Bechoros 36:8a

5)[line 12]תבלולTEVALUL- a pathological condition in which a white line extends from the white of the eye into the iris (or a black line extends from the iris into the white of the eye)

6)[line 16]מפני?MUFNEI? - are they free (are the words being used for the

Gezeirah Shavah not used to teach anything else)? (See Background to Bechoros 32:3.)

7)[line 19]לאיי, אפנויי מפניLE'AYEI, AFNUYEI MUFNEI- indeed, the words are certainly free (for inferring a Gezeirah Shavah)

8a)[line 27]קלוטKALUT- a creature with closed hooves

b)[line 27]חוטיןCHUTIN- and broken or defective teeth or gums (see Background to Bechoros 37:13)

9a)[line 30]גבןGIBEN- elongated eyebrows

b)[line 30]חרוםCHARUM- and embedded nose (the upper part of the bone of the nose (between the eyes) does not protrude)

10)[line 44]קדושתו מרובהKEDUSHASO MERUBEH- the sanctity of Kodshim is abundant, in that (a) it can be manifested in abundant types of offerings: sin offerings, guilt offerings, burnt offerings, and peace offerings (RASHI), or (b) because the sanctity of Kodshim applies to both male and female animals (RABEINU GERSHOM).

11)[last line]איש ששוה בזרעו של אהרןISH SHE'SHAVEH B'ZAR'O SHEL AHARON - a man who looks the same as all the other children of Aharon (MUMIM: MUMEI KOHANIM)

(a)Unlike an animal, a Kohen may become disqualified by a minor blemish, such as by having a strange appearance. He is forbidden to perform the Avodah, but if he does, it is not invalid. A Kohen with a major blemish, however, is forbidden to perform the Avodah and the Avodah that he performs is invalid.

(b)The Mumim of the Kohanim are listed in Vayikra (21:18-20):

1.IVER - blind, even in one eye

2.PISE'ACH - lame

3.CHARUM - a deformed nose; one whose nose is abnormally flat between his eyes

4.SARU'A - a misshapen limb

5.SHEVER REGEL - a crippled leg

6.SHEVER YAD - a crippled hand

7.GIBEN - hunchback; Mishnah: a person whose eyebrows are unusually long, or whose eyebrows are attached to each other, or entirely missing

8.DAK - (lit. eye's web, O.F. teile) a thin film (cataract?) that develops due to an eye-disease, or, alternatively, a cut on the eyelids or a white spot on the pupil

9.TEVALUL B'EINO - a streak of white reaching into the iris or pupil

10.GARAV - severe eczema, a hard dry rash

11.YALEFES - ringworm; this is described as running sores, pimples or scabs

12.MERO'ACH ASHECH - malformed testicles; alt. a person with abnormally dark skin coloration


12)[line 2]אחולי עבודהACHULEI AVODAH- profanes (and invalidates) the service that he does in the Beis ha'Mikdash

13)[line 7]דמי רישיה לאכלאDAMI REISHEI L'ACHLA- his head is similar to a cover of a cask

14)[line 8]לגלגלידא דליפתאL'GALGELIDA D'LIFTA- [his head is similar] to the head of a turnip (that is wide on top and narrow on bottom)

15)[line 8]צוארו עומד באמצע ראשוTZAVARO OMED B'EMTZA ROSHO- his neck is situated in the middle of his head [in that the back of his head protrudes outward like the front of his head]

16)[line 9]דמי רישיה למקבןDAMI REISHEI L'MAKVAN- his head is similar to an axe (the rear of which is rounded, and the front of which is narrow)

17)[line 10]שראשו שקוט מלפניוROSHO SHAKUT MI'LEFANAV- his head is slanted in the front of the head (i.e. the forehead recedes)

18)[line 11]שקיל פיסאSHAKIL PISA- [it appears as if] a piece [of the back of his head] was taken away (contrast with previous entry)

19)[line 12]חביא מחבאCHAVYA MACHVEI- his head is hidden [between his shoulders, as his neck is sunken]

20)[line 13]אריך ושמוטARICH V'SHAMUT- [his neck] is long and thin

21)[line 16]קרקורא דבישראKARKURA D'BISRA- a protruding piece of flesh

22)[line 25]הננסיןNANASIN- dwarfs

23)[line 25]הזבלגניןHA'ZAVLEGONIM- a) and those whose eyes constantly produce flows of watery tears (RASHI); b) those whose mouths constantly drip with saliva (RABEINU GERSHOM)

24)[line 26]ומהו דתימא ...U'MAHU D'TEIMA ...- not only does Rebbi Yochanan teach these blemishes in order to add one (Zavlagonim) that is not mentioned in the Mishnah, but he also teaches these blemishes (even the ones that are mentioned in the Mishnah) in order to teach that they disqualify a Kohen even mid'Oraisa. We might have thought that these blemishes (a baldheaded Kohen and a dwarf) disqualify a Kohen only because of Mar'is ha'Ayin (see Background to Bechoros 41:3a). Therefore, Rebbi Yochanan teaches that these blemishes disqualify a Kohen even mid'Oraisa.

25)[line 32]גביניןGEVININ- eyebrows

26)[line 34]גבינין שוכביןGEVININ SHOCHVIN- one whose eyebrows are large and thick, and lie flat over his face (or eyes — see Shitah Mekubetzes #15)

27)[line 34]שני גביןSHNEI GABIN- [one who has] two backs

28)[line 39]שימי אתSHIMI AT?- [Rav responded to Rav Shimi bar Chiya's question by asking,] are you Shimi (i.e., you are supposed to be wise; why are you asking such a question?)

29)[line 40]החרוםHE'CHARUM- see above, entry #9b

30)[line 42]סכי שמשSACHEI SHEMESH- those who are unable to look towards the sun

31)[line 42]הזגדןHA'ZAGDAN- one who has a) one normal eye and one abnormal eye (RASHI); b) one overly large eye (RABEINU TAM)

32)[line 43]הצירןHA'TZIRAN- the one whose eyes a) are round-shaped or constantly drip (RASHI); b) constantly flutter (ARUCH)

33a)[line 44]סולדSOLED- one who is short-nosed (snub-nosed)

b)[line 44]בולםBOLEM- one with obstructed nostrils

c)[line 44]נוטףNOTEF- one whose nose is long and hangs over his lip

34)[last line]הפלגתHIFLAGTA- you have exaggerated [i.e., even if the nose is not so deeply imbedded, he is still considered a Charum]