[10a - 37 lines; 10b - 46 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Rashi 10a DH Nivlas Behemah Teme'ah ד"ה נבלת בהמה טמאה:

The words "v'Achas, Teme'ah Hi" ואחת טמאה היא are the end of the Dibur; the words "v'Chen Nivlas Of Tahor v'Chelev" וכן נבלת עוף טהור וחלב are a new Dibur

[2] Rashi 10b DH va'Afilu l'Gufei ד"ה ואפילו לגופיה:


[3] Rashi 10b DH u'Menalan ד"ה ומנלן:

The words "l'Achusei l'Yedei Tum'ah" לאחותי לידי טומאה are the end of the Dibur; the words "d'Ketani Alah" דקתני עלה are a new Dibur


1)[line 17]הואיל ואיסורו חישובוHO'IL V'ISURO CHISHUVO - the fact that the Torah prohibits eating makes it significant [such that it can become Tamei with Tum'as Ochlin].

The Gemara discusses four different cases in which an animal that is not permitted to be eaten might become Tamei with Tum'as Ochlin (without Machshavah), according to various opinions:

(a)One slaughters a non-Kosher animal for a Nochri to eat (RASHI 9b, DH u'Peter, from the Mishnah in Chulin 117b).

(b)One slaughters a non-Kosher animal for practice (that is, not with intent to feed it to a Jew or to a Nochri). (The Gemara on 10b initially assumes that Nimus and Rebbi Eliezer argue on this point.)

(c)One slaughters a non-Kosher animal with one Siman of Taharah, even accidentally (that is, without even intending to do an act of Shechitah), one kills it in any other manner (TOSFOS 10b, DH Mai). (This is the case in which Nimus and Rebbi Eliezer argue according to the Gemara's conclusion, which says that they argue about whether "Simanim Milsa Hi" or not.)

(d)One kills any non-Kosher animal ("Isuro Chishuvo"; since the Torah prohibits it, it as if the Torah told Nochrim to eat it, granting it the status of food.) (The Gemara on 10a initially assumes that Rebbi Shimon and the Rabanan argue on this point.)

2)[line 20]צריכה מחשבהTZERICHAH MACHSHAVAH- one must intend to eat it in order for it to receive Tum'as Ochlin


(a)Foods may become Tamei if they touch a source of Tum'ah only if they were wetted at some point in their history. Making foods wet in a manner that enables them to become Tamei is called "Hechsher." From then on, even after they dry, they can become Tamei. Wetting food with either of seven liquids, water, dew, oil, wine, milk, blood, and honey, can enable the food to become Tamei.

(b)The food can only become Tamei if the owner of the food was pleased that his food became wet. This is learned from the verse, "v'Chi Yutan Mayim Al Zera..." - "If water has been placed on seeds and then the dead body [of a Sheretz] fell upon them, the seeds are Tamei" (Vayikra 11:38). The word "Yutan" in the verse is written without a Vav, just like the word "Yiten" — "he places." However, according to the Mesorah, it is read "Yutan" — "it was placed." From this we learn that when water or other liquids fall on the food it is considered Hechsher only if their presence is desirable to the owner of the food (i.e. it is as though he himself applied them).

(c)It is necessary only for the owner to desire the liquid; he need not desire that the liquid come into contact with the food. That is, even if the owner desires the liquid for an entirely different purpose, if the liquid later comes into contact with food it will enable the food to become Tamei. On the other hand, if the owner only intended to dispose of the liquid it does not enable the food to become Tamei, since only liquids that are significant can cause Hechsher.

(d)It is only considered "Ki Yiten" when the liquid falls upon an object, with the will of the owner, that is detached from the ground.


4)[line 1]להתלמדבוL 'HISLAMED BO- to practice [Shechitah]

5)[line 4]העורבHA'OREV- a raven

6)[line 6]אלא לאו איסורו חישובוELA LAV, ISURO CHISHUVO- see Insights #2

7)[line 13]אפי' להתעסקAFILU L'HIS'ASEK- even if he inadvertently slaughtered it when he intended to cut something else

8)[line 14]עורפו בקופיץ מאחוריוORFO B'KUFITZ ME'ACHORAV- he strikes it on the back of its neck with a cleaver, severing its spinal column, gullet and windpipe

9)[line 17]קנהKANEH- a [sharp] reed

10)[line 17]מגלMAGAL- a sickle

11)[line 17]קרדוםKARDOM- a hatchet

12)[line 17]מגירהMEGEIRAH- a saw

13)[line 26]ספרא חבריך תרגומהSAFRA CHAVRICH TARGUMAH- your friend [Rav] Safra explained it

14)[line 31]פסידא דביני ביניPESEIDA D'VEINI VEINI- on the loss of the difference in value (between the value of the Peter Chamor and the potential value of the sheep with which it could have been redeemed, which need not be equal to the value of the donkey)