[91a - 36 lines; 91b - 49 lines]

1)[line 1] ME'HIPARCHYA L'HIPARCHYA- from one district (at the northern-most part of Eretz Yisrael) to another [adjacent] district (in Syria)

2)[line 1] EIN MISTAKRIM- We may not make a profit from...

3)[line 5] '' [ ]SAVAR LAH K'REBBI YEHUDAH [BEN BESEIRA]- [with regard to making a profit by selling wine, Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah] holds like Rebbi Yehudah ben Beseira, who permits taking wine out of Eretz Yisrael. By decreasing the amount of wine, or by making it more difficult to get, frivolity in Eretz Yisrael is decreased.

4)[line 5] ' , B'ASREI D'REBBI ELAZAR BEN AZARYAH SHECHI'ACH MISHCHA- in the place where Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah lived, oil was abundant

5)[line 9] []MASRI'IN AL PERAKMATYA [SHE'HUZLAH]- it is permitted to make a public prayer gathering [to beseech HaSh-m for help] when merchandise has cheapened so much [that the livelihood of the people is at stake]. This is permitted even on Shabbos, when such activities are normally prohibited because they are not in the joyful spirit of Shabbos.

6)[line 9] KELEI FISHTAN- linen garments

7)[line 11] ''EIN YOTZ'IN ME'ARETZ L'CHUTZ LA'ARETZ- it is not permitted to leave Eretz Yisrael to go outside of Eretz Yisrael

8)[line 11]'' ELA IM KEN AMDU SE'ASAYIM B'SELA- unless [inflation has increased so much that] two Se'ah [of wheat] costs one Sela

9)[line 13] ELIMELECH MACHLON V'CHILYON- Elimelech, and his two sons, Machlon and Kilyon, were the leaders of the Jews in Eretz Yisrael. They left Eretz Yisrael when a severe famine struck the land, and they took refuge in the land of Moav. Elimelech died there (as punishment for abandoning the people of Eretz Yisrael and for deciding to settle in Moav), and Machlon and Kilyon married two Moavite women, Orpah and Ruth. Machlon and Kilyon died, too, in Moav. The widow of Elimelech, Naomi, decided to return to Eretz Yisrael. Ruth, the widow of her son, begged Naomi to permit her to return to Eretz Yisrael with her, as she sought to join the Jewish people. She became a Giyores Tzedek, and was the forebear of David ha'Melech and, ultimately, Mashi'ach.

10a)[line 13] GEDOLEI HA'DOR- the great leaders of the generation

b)[line 14] PARNASEI HA'DOR- the providers of the generation

11)[line 15]"[ ; ,] ""[VA'TEILACHNAH SHTEIHEM AD BO'ANAH BEIS LACHEM; VA'YEHI K'VO'ANAH BEIS LECHEM,] VA'TEHOM KOL HA'IR ALEIHEN, VA'TOMARNAH 'HA'ZOS NAOMI?'" - "[And the two of them walked until they arrived in Beis Lechem; and it was when they arrived in Beis Lechem, that] the entire town was amazed at them, and they declared 'Is this Naomi?'" - (Rus 1:19) (NAOMI AND RUS ARRIVE IN BEIS LECHEM)

(a)Once Rus decided to convert, the Pasuk places her on a par with Naomi, demonstrating the deep love that HaSh-m feels towards converts.

(b)Elimelech and his family were leaders of the generation, whom everybody had known. When Naomi departed, she departed with her prominent husband and two sons. She departed as a wealthy, aristocratic woman. Now, ten years later, she was returning a childless widow, broken and penniless, accompanied by an unknown Moabite woman.

(c)According to the Gemara, what the people were saying was, "See what happens to a person who leaves Eretz Yisrael!"

12)[line 16]CHAZISEM- look! (The MAHARSHA says that the Gemara is reading the word "" "ha'Zos" in the verse as "" "Chazos.")

13a)[line 18] AD D'LO SHACHIV SHICHVA- before the dead one dies

b)[line 18] KAIMA MANO VAISEI- the [future] manager of his house is prepared [to take her place] (RASHBAM, RABEINU GERSHOM; see alternative explanation in Rabeinu Gershom)

14)[line 19]IVTZAN- Ivtzan was one of the Shoftim, who served as the leaders of the Jewish People from the time that the people entered Eretz Yisrael until the time that a king was anointed. Ivtzan, from Beis Lechem, served as the Shofet of the Jewish people from the year 2785 until 2792 (975-968 BCE) (Shoftim 12:9), almost one hundred years before Shaul was anointed as the first king. The Gemara here identifies Ivtzan as Boaz, who married Ruth, and who was the forebear of David ha'Melech.

15)[line 20]MISHTA'OS- festive meals. The RASHBAM explains that the two festive meals for each child were the festive meal of the Eirusin, and the festive meal of the Nisu'in (the seven days of feasting being counted as one long festive meal). RABEINU GERSHOM explains that the two festive meals were the festive meal at the time of the child's birth, and the festive meal at the time of his or her wedding.

16)[line 20]" , , ; ""VA'YEHI LO SHELOSHIM BANIM, U'SHELOSHIM BANOS SHILACH HA'CHUTZAH, U'SHELOSHIM BANOS HEVI L'VANAV MIN HA'CHUTZ; VA'YISHPOT ES YISRAEL SHEVA SHANIM"- "And he (Ivtzan) had thirty sons, and thirty daughters whom he sent out [to the homes of their husbands], and took in thirty daughters from outside [of his house, i.e. the houses of their fathers,] for his sons; and he led Yisrael for seven years" (Shoftim 12:9).

17a)[line 22] ECHAD B'VEIS AVIV- one [festive meal] in the home of his father (Ivtzan)

b)[line 23] ECHAD B'VEIS CHAMIV- one [festive meal] in the home of his father-in-law (This entry follows the opinion of the RASHBAM cited above, entry #15. RABEINU GERSHOM ibid. clearly is not Gores the phrase "Echad b'Veis Aviv v'Echad b'Veis Chamiv." Similarly, this Girsa, starting from "uve'Chol Achas v'Achas," does not appear in Dikdukei Sofrim #1.)

18)[line 23] UV'CHULAN LO ZIMEN ES MANO'ACH- and he did not invite Mano'ach to any of them

19a)[line 23] KUDNA AKARAH- a barren mule

b)[line 24] B'MAI PAR'A LI?- with what will he pay me back? (see MAHARSHA)

20a)[line 24] B'CHAYACH D'YALADT SHITIN- if you gave birth to sixty [children who will die] during your lifetime,

b)[line 25] SHITIN LAMAH LICH?- what are the sixty worth to you?

21)[line 25] ICHPAL V'OLID CHAD DEMI'SHITIN ZARIZ- (a) take another [wife] and give birth to one who will be more successful than the sixty. This refers to Ivtzan/Boaz, whose sixty children died during his lifetime, whereupon he married Ruth and gave birth to Oved, from whom David ha'Melech was descended (RASHBAM); (b) have more [children] and you will give birth to one who will be more successful that the sixty. This refers to Mano'ach, who eventually gave birth to Shimshon, who was more successful than Ivtzan's sixty children (RABEINU GERSHOM)

22)[line 25]( )(SIMAN MELECH AVRAHAM ESER SHANIM SHE'NIFTAR NISNASEI LEVADO)- this is a mnemonic device for remembering the following statements that were made by Rav Chanan bar Rava in the name of Rav:

1.Melech refers to "Elimelech v'Salmon u'Peloni Almoni..." (line 26)

2.Avraham refers to "Imei d'Avraham Amselai bas Karnevo..." (line 29)

3.Eser Shanim refers to "Eser Shanim Nechbash Avraham Avinu..." (line 32)

4.she'Niftar refers to "Oso ha'Yom she'Niftar Avraham Avinu..." (line 35)

5.Nisnasei Levado refers to "veha'Misnasei l'Chol l'Rosh..." (Daf 91b, line 2)

23a)[line 26]V'SALMON- and the son of Nachshon (Ruth 4:20, where he is also called "Salmah")

b)[line 27] U'PLONI ALMONI- and the relative who was one step closer than Boaz to be a Go'el for the family of Elimelech and Machlon

24a)[line 27] NACHSHON BEN AMINADAV- Nachshon ben Aminadav, a righteous man, was the Nasi of Shevet Yehudah during the Exodus from Egypt and the sojourn in the desert

b)[line 27] KULAN BENEI NACHSHON BEN AMINADAV- they were all the sons of Nachshon ben Aminadav

25)[line 30], V'SIMANICH: TAMEI TAMEI, TAHOR TAHOR- and the mnemonic is: Tamei Tamei (i.e. the name of the mother of the Tamei, defiled, person - Haman - was a Tamei animal, the raven), Tahor Tahor (i.e. the name of the mother of the Tahor, pure, person - Avraham Avinu - was a Tahor animal, the lamb)

26)[line 32] LI'TESHUVAS HA'MINIM- as a response to the heretics (who question what the name of Avraham's mother was, etc.)

27)[line 33]NECHBASH- was imprisoned

28)[line 33]KUSA- Cuth, a city in Bavel

29)[line 33]KARDU- (a) Kardu, a city in Bavel; (b) the region of the Ararat Mountains, which the Targum (Bereishis 8:4) renders, "Harei Kardu" (YA'AVETZ)

30)[line 34] IVRA ZE'IRA D'KUSA- (a) the place called Ivra Ze'ira, in Kusa (RASHBAM); (b) the small pass of Kusa (RABEINU GERSHOM)

31)[line 34] UR KASDIM- Ur of the Chaldeans, the name of a city in Bavel. It was there that Avraham Avinu was thrown into a fiery furnace by Nimrod in response to his belief in HaSh-m.

32)[last line]B'SHURAH- in the line in which people stand at a funeral and comfort the mourners.


33)[line 1]L'SEFINAH- to the boat

34)[line 1]KABARINTA- its captain

35)[line 2]" ""VEHA'MISNASEI L'CHOL L'ROSH"- "And [Yours, HaSh-m, is] the sovereignty over every leader" (Divrei ha'Yamim I 29:11).

36)[line 3] REISH GARGUSA- (a) the head well-digger (RASHI to Berachos 58a); (b) the appointed official who oversees the distribution of water for the farmers from the communal irrigation pits (RASHBAM here)

37)[line 5]SUBIN- bran flour (coarse flour that still has the bran in it); figuratively, this refers to something of inferior quality

38)[line 7]" ""B'ZA'AKECH YATZILUCH KIBUTZAYICH..."- "When you cry out, your colleagues will save you..." (Yeshayah 57:13) - The Gemara interprets this verse to mean, "When you cry out on behalf of your colleagues (those who are gathered with you), you will be saved" (see RASHBAM, RABEINU GERSHOM, MAHARSHA).

39a)[line 9] MA'OS B'ZOL U'FEIROS B'YOKER- money is cheap, and produce is expensive

b)[line 10] MA'OS B'YOKER- money is expensive (i.e. money is rare and difficult to procure)

40)[line 11]( )(SIMAN SELA PO'EL CHARUVA TALYA AMRIN)- this is a mnemonic device for remembering the following statements that were made by Rebbi Yochanan and Rebbi Elazar regarding the things that they remembered from earlier times:

1.Sela refers to "Kad Havu Kayamin Arba Se'in b'Sela" (line 13)

2.Po'el refers to "Kad Lo Havu Misgarin Po'alya" (line 15)

3.Charuva refers to "Kad Havah Batza Yenuka Charuva" (line 17)

4.Talya refers to "Kad Havu Metayalin Talya v'Talyesa" (line 22)

5.Amrin refers to "Kad Havu Amrin Bei Midrasha" (line 24)

41)[line 12]NEHIRNA- I remember

42)[line 13] V'HAVU NEFISHEI NEFICHEI CHAFAN- and there were many [people who died from being] bloated from famine

43)[line 14]TEVERYA- Tiberias, a city built by Herod Antipas (son of King Herod) in honor of the emperor Tiberias Julius Ceasar Augustus (Bereishis Rabah 23:1) approximately fifty years before the destruction of the Beis ha'Mikdash

44)[line 14] MID'LEIS ISAR- because of a lack of money ("Isar" is a small Roman coin that is the equivalent of 1/24 of a Dinar, which is 6-8 Perutos)

45)[line 15] KAD LO HAVU MISGARYAN PO'ALAYA- when workers could not be hired

46)[line 15] , L'MIDNACH KARTA, ME'REI'ACH PITA MAISIN- [to work] to the east of the city, because of the smell of bread that killed (either because the smell was so divine that it caused the people's souls to leave them, or because the people suffered such severe hunger that the smell of the bread caused their souls to leave them)

47)[line 17] KAD HAVAH BATZA YENUKA CHARUVA- when a child would split a carob

48)[line 17] V'HAVAH NAGID CHUTA D'DUVSHA AL TREIN DERA'OHI- and a line of honey (from the carob) would flow down his two arms

49)[line 19] KAD HAVAH NATIL ORVA BISRA- when a raven would take some meat

50)[line 20] V'NAGID CHUTA D'MISHCHA ME'REISH SHURA V'AD L'AR'A- and a line of oil would flow down from the top of the wall (whereupon the raven sat) until the ground

51a)[line 22]TALYA- a young man

b)[line 22]V'TALYESA- and a young woman

52a)[line 24] D'MODI LEHON- they who agree with them (the Nochrim)

b)[line 25] NAFIL B'YEDEIHON- will fall into their hands

53a)[line 25] D'MISRACHITZ ALEIHON- they who place their trust upon them (the Nochrim)

b)[line 25] DILEI DILHON- what belongs to them (to the Jews) will become theirs (the Nochrim)

54)[line 26]"[ ; . ] [ ; ]""[VA'YEHI BI'YEMEI SHEFOT HA'SHOFTIM VA'YEHI RA'AV BA'ARETZ; VA'YELECH ISH MI'BEIS LECHEM YEHUDAH LA'GUR BI'SDEI MOAV, HU V'ISHTO U'SHNEI BANAV. V'SHEM HA'ISH ELIMELECH, V'SHEM ISHTO NAOMI, V'SHEM SHNEI BANAV] MACHLON V'CHILYON [EFRASIM MI'BEIS LECHEM YEHUDAH, VA'YAVO'U SEDEI MOAV VA'YIHEYU SHAM]" - "[And it was in the days when the Shoftim judged, there was a famine in the land; and a man went from Beis Lechem in Yehudah to sojourn in the fields of Moav, he, his wife, and his two sons. And the name of the man was Elimelech, the name of his wife was Naomi, and the names of his two sons were] Machlon and Chilyon, [important men (or from Efrat - Beis Lechem), and they arrived in the fields of Moav, and they remained there.]" (Rus 1:1-2) (ELIMELECH AND THE FAMINE)

(a)Megilas Rus took place during the era of the Judges, before Shmuel crowned Sha'ul ha'Melech as the first king of Yisrael. The name of the Shofet who ruled during that period was Ivtzan (see 91a).

(b)Elimelech and his family left Eretz Yisrael during a time of famine, see notes 9 and 11 above.

(c)One sin led to another, until verse 4 informs us that his sons married non-Jewish women. Machlon married the daughter of Eglon, the king of Moav. The fact that the king took him as a son-in-law may well testify as to the family's importance. This did nothing, however, to save them from Divine wrath.

(d)HaSh-m struck at first by depriving them of their wealth, and then by killing them as well, leaving their poor mother, the righteous Naomi, with nothing but two non-Jewish daughters-in-law.

(e)See also Background to Sotah 42:53.

55)[line 26]"[ ...] ; ""[BENEI SHELAH VEN YEHUDAH...] V'YOKIM V'ANSHEI CHOZEVA V'YO'ASH V'SARAF ASHER BA'ALU L'MOAV V'YASHUVI LACHEM; VEHA'DEVARIM ATIKIM"- "[The sons of Shelah, the son of Yehudah were...] Yokim, the men of Kozeva, Yo'ash, and Saraf who presided over Moav, and Yashuvi-Lachem; these matters are based on ancient traditions" (Divrei ha'Yamim I 4:21-22) - The Gemara here asks why Machlon and Kilyon are represented by different names (Yo'ash and Saraf) in this verse. The Gemara later will expound the rest of this verse.

56)[line 28] SHE'NISYA'ASHU MIN HA'GE'ULAH- for they despaired of the redemption [from the famine] (RABEINU GERSHOM)

57)[line 29] SHE'NISCHAIVU SEREIFAH LA'MAKOM- for they became deserving of being punished by Sereifah (burning) by HaSh-m

58)[line 31] SHE'ASU GUFAN CHULIN- for they made their bodies profane (by leaving Eretz Yisrael and entering the land of the Nochrim, which is Tamei)

59)[line 31] SHE'NISCHAIVU KELAYAH LA'MAKOM- for they became deserving of being destroyed by HaSh-m

60)[line 34] SHE'HEIKIM SHEVU'AH L'ANSHEI GIV'ON - who established an oath for the people of Giv'on (NESINIM)

In the times of Yehoshua, the Giv'onim (a people of the Chivi, one of the seven nations whom the Jewish People were commanded to destroy upon entering Eretz Yisrael) came and presented themselves before Yehoshua as if they came from a far-off land. Since they claimed not to be residents of Eretz Yisrael, they requested to be converted and to make peace with the Jewish People. After Yehoshua agreed to accept them, it was discovered that they were one of the seven prohibited nations. Having already accepted them, Yehoshua did not want to break his oath and covenant with them (even though they tricked him and the oath was uttered in error) so as not to cause a Chilul HaSh-m (a desecration of HaSh-m's Name). Yehoshua accepted them and appointed them to be woodchoppers and water drawers to supply the needs for the sacrificial service on the Mizbe'ach (Yehoshua 9:3-27). Earlier, in the times of Moshe Rabeinu, Giv'onim also came to be converted as they did in the times of Yehoshua, and Moshe also made them woodchoppers and water drawers. (This incident is not written explicitly. It is stated in the Gemara Yevamos 79a, and is based on the verse in Devarim 29:10.) These people became known as "Nesinim" (from the root "Nasan," to give) since they were "given over" by Moshe and Yehoshua ["va'Yitenem..." - "And he appointed them..." (Yehoshua 9:27)] to perform the tasks of chopping wood and drawing water.

61)[line 34]KIZVU- they lied (see previous entry)

62)[line 37] " ", " "DI'CHESIV "MATZASI DAVID AVDI," U'CHESIV "SHTEI VENOSECHA HA'NIMTZA'OS"- for it is written, "I have found David, my servant" (Tehilim 89:21), and it is written, "[Arise, take your wife and] your two daughters who are present" (Bereishis 19:15). - By using the similar words "Matzasi" and "Nimtza'os" in these two verses, HaSh-m was alluding to the fact that David ha'Melech would descend from one of the daughters of Lot.

63)[line 37]" , ""HEMAH HA'YOTZRIM V'YOSHVEI NETA'IM U'GEDERAH, IM HA'MELECH BI'MELACHTO YASHVU SHAM"- "They were the potters, who dwelled in Neta'im and Gederah, with the king in his service they settled there" (Divrei ha'Yamim I 4:23) - The Gemara will expound each part of this verse.

64a)[line 38] BENEI YONADAV BEN RECHAV- the sons of Yonadav ben Rechav. Yonadav ben Rechav was a descendant of Yisro, who commanded his children (Kenite converts to Judaism), and all of his descendants never to drink wine, build a house, nor plant a vineyard, but rather to live in tents all of their lives (for such living is conducive to longevity). His descendants scrupulously observed the oath that they had taken to observe his command. Indeed, the prophet Yirmeyahu rebuked the Jewish people, who turned away from the Torah and did not observe the commandments of HaSh-m, by pointing out that these people scrupulously observed the command of their ancestor, while the Jewish people failed to observe the commandments of HaSh-m.

b)[line 39] SHE'NATZRU SHEVU'AS AVIHEM- who guarded the oath of their father (see previous entry)

65)[line 39] SHE'GADRU PIRTZOSEIHEN SHEL YISRAEL- they repaired (or "fenced-in") the breaches of the Jewish people

66)[line 40] BEN BENO SHEL BEN BENAH - the grandson of her grandson (Shlomo was the grandson of Yishai, who was the grandson of Rus). The lineage from Yehudah to Shlomo is as follows:







(g)Salmah (Salmon, the brother of Elimelech, Ploni Almoni, and Naomi's Father)

(h)Boaz - Rus





67)[line 41]" ""VA'YASEM KISEI L'EM HA'MELECH"- "And he fashioned a chair for the mother of the king" (Melachim I 2:19).

68)[line 41]"[ ,] ; [ ] ""[U'ZRA'TEM ES HA'SHANAH HA'SHEMINIS,] VA'ACHALTEM MIN HA'TEVU'AH YASHAN; [AD HA'SHANAH HA'TESHI'IS,] AD BO TEVU'ASAH, [TOCHLU YASHAN]"- "[You will sow in the eighth year,] and you will eat from the old crop; [until the ninth year,] until the arrival of its crop, [you will eat the old]" (Vayikra 25:22).

69)[line 41]SALAMANTON- something that prohibits grain from growing and aging properly, as the Gemara will explain

70a)[line 42]RETZINASA- a type of grain worm

b)[line 42]SHADIFA- blight; alternatively, SEREIFAH - burned (DIKDUKEI SOFRIM)

71)[line 44] AD SHE'TAVO TEVU'AH ME'ELEHA- until [new] crops grow on their own (to their full size)

72)[line 45]" , "VA'ACHALTEM YASHAN NOSHAN, V'YASHAN MIPNEI CHADASH TOTZI'U"- "You will eat very old grain, and you will need to remove the old [from the storehouses] because of the new" (Vayikra 26:10).

73a)[line 47]OTZAROS- storehouses (grain silos) in which grain is stored and aged

b)[line 47]GERANOS- threshing houses, in which new grain is kept before being moved to the storehouses

74)[last line] KOL MILEI ATIKA MA'ALYA- every item that has aged is beneficial

75)[last line]L'VAR- except for

76a)[last line]TAMREI- dates

b)[last line]SHICHRA- beer

c)[last line]HARSENA- small fish