[a - 32 lines; b - 36 lines]
1a)[line 1]מתן דםMATAN DAM - applying the blood of a Korban to the Mizbe'ach (ZERIKAS HA'DAM)
(a)The Dam ha'Nefesh (lifeblood) that exits the body of every Korban (sacrifice) following its slaughter is collected in a bowl (Kabalas ha'Dam). It is then applied to the Mizbe'ach. Depending upon the Korban, there are three possible ways that the blood is applied:
1.In the case of a Korban Chatas, it is applied to the Keranos (cubic Amah posts upon the corners of the Mizbe'ach) beginning with the southeastern corner of the Mizbe'ach and continuing to the northeastern, northwestern, and southwestern corners. The Kohen accomplishes this by dipping his finger into the bowl and then applying it to each corner.
2.The blood of Korbenos Olah (see Background to Kidushin 55:3), Asham, Shelamim (see Background to Kidushin 55:4), and Todah (see Background to Kidushin 51:7) is applied in a manner known as "Shtayim she'Hen Arba" - "two that are four." This means that the blood is applied twice, but to four sides of the Mizbe'ach. First the Kohen walks to the northeastern corner of the Mizbe'ach and applies the blood to the eastern and northern sides of the Mizbe'ach with a single swipe, and then he walks west and then south until he reaches the southwestern corner, at which point he applies the blood to the western and southern sides with a single swipe. This blood is applied below the Chut ha'Sikra (red line that horizontally divides the Mizbe'ach in half), whereas that of a Chatas is applied to the Keranos above the Chut ha'Sikra.
3.The blood of a Korban Pesach (see Background to Sukah 42:39), Bechor (see Background to Rosh Hashanah 28:41), or Ma'aser Behemah (see Background to Rosh Hashanah 18:15) is applied only once to the Mizbe'ach. This is accomplished through dashing it from the bowl within which it was collected against any side of the Mizbe'ach below the Chut ha'Sikra, with the exception of the southeastern corner.
(b)It is through this service that atonement is gained for he who offers the Korban (Vayikra 17:11). This is stated clearly in the Torah: "Ki ha'Dam Hu, ba'Nefesh Yechaper" - "for it is the blood that will atone for the soul" (Vayikra 17:11).
(c)The Gemara here teaches that any leftover blood in the bowl is poured onto the Yesod (see next entry).
b)[line 1]ליסודLA'YESOD - onto the Yesod, the base of the Mizbe'ach.
2)[line 3]"והנשאר בדם ימצה""VEHA'NISH'AR BA'DAM YIMATZEI"- "[He shall sprinkle from the blood of the Chatas upon the wall of the Mizbe'ach,] and the remainder of the blood shall be pressed out [toward the base of the Mizbe'ach]" (Vayikra 5:9).
3)[line 10]בזריקהB'ZERIKAH- with casting [the blood on the outer Mizbe'ach]
4)[line 10]בשפיחהB'SHEFICHAH- with pouring [the blood onto the Yesod of the Mizbe'ach]
5)[line 13]ברכת הפסחBIRKAS HA'PESACH- the blessing recited upon eating the meat of the Korban Pesach: "Baruch Atah HaSh-m... v'Tzivanu le'Echol ha'Pesach"
6)[line 13]פטר את של זבחPATAR ES SHEL ZEVACH- [if one has recited the blessing over the Korban Pesach,] he has exempted [himself of] the blessing over the Korban Chagigah (see Background to Pesachim 121:3 for the different opinions to what "Zevach" here refers)
8)[line 19]מעשרMA'ASER (MA'ASER BEHEMAH)
9)[line 32]תםTAM- an unblemished Bechor
10)[line 32]בעל מוםBA'AL MUM
(a)See Background to Zevachim 35:47.
(b)The Torah expresses the prohibition to offer a blemished animal as a Korban in three different verses: (a) Vayikra 22:20, (b) 22:22, and (c) 22:24. The Torah adds (22:25) that we do not accept a Ba'al Mum even from a Nochri. The Gemara here discusses why this prohibition is repeated so many times.
11)[line 6]ואין תמורתן קריבהV'EIN TEMURASAN KEREIVAH - [the Korbanos in the verse are holy enough to be offered] but their substitutes are not offered (TEMURAH)
12)[line 8]ויאכלו במומן לבעליםV'YE'ACHLU B'MUMAN LA'BE'ALIM- they are eaten by the owners when they become blemished; i.e. the Bechor and Ma'aser Behemah offerings can never be redeemed, and their sanctity is not transferable to money through redemption
13)[line 13]גמר עברה עברה מבכורGAMAR AVRAH AVRAH MI'BECHOR- he (Rebbi Yishmael) learns this through a Gezeirah Shavah of "Avarah-Avarah" from Bechor. With regard to Ma'asar Behemah it is written, "v'Chol Ma'asar Bakar va'Tzon, Kol Asher Ya'avor Tachas ha'Shavet, ha'Asiri Yiheyeh Kodesh la'Sh-m" (Vayikra 27:32). With regard to Bechor it is written, "v'Ha'avarta Chol Peter Rechem" (Shemos 13:12).
14)[line 16]אחר פסחACHAR PESACH- [the Temurah, or substitute, of a Korban Pesach that was substituted for the original Korban] after Pesach [is to be offered as a Korban Shelamim]
15)[line 24]קרנות קרנות קרנות"KARNOS" "KARNOS" "KARNOS"- the verse states three times that the blood of the Korban Chatas shall be placed on the top corners of the Mizbe'ach. From here Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel derive their respective opinions, as the Gemara relates.
16)[line 29]מקראMIKRA - the pronounced form of the word (YESH EM LA'MESORES / YESH EM LA'MIKRA)
Some words in the Torah, based on the Mesorah (the authoritative "Tradition"), are read differently from the way that they are written. There is no question how the verse is to be read when reading the Torah, since the Mesorah specifies a certain way of reading it. However, the Tana'im argue over how to learn Halachos from such verses. "Yesh Em la'Masores" means that we learn Halachos from the verse based on the way it is written; "Yesh Em la'Mikra" means that we learn Halachos from the verse based on the way it is read.
17)[line 29]מסורתMASORES- the verse is interpreted based upon the way it appears in its written state (see previous entry)
18)[line 30]לטפויי חדאLI'TEFUYEI CHADA- to add one
19)[line 30]לבצורי חדאLI'VETZUREI CHADA- to deduct one
20)[line 31]לטטפת לטטפת לטטפת"L'TOTAFOS" "L'TOTAFOS" "L'TOTAFOS"- the Torah refers to the head Tefilin as "Totafos" three times, twice without a Vav and once with a Vav, alluding to four Tefilin compartments
21)[line 32]חמישה בתי בעי למיעבדCHAMISHAH BATEI BA'EI L'ME'EVAD- one should be required to make five compartments in the Tefilin
22)[line 34]טט בכתפי שתיםTAT B'CHASPI SHETAYIM- the word "Tat" in a Caspian dialect means two
23)[line 34]פת באפריקי שתיםFOS B'AFRIKI SHETAYIM- the word "Pas" in an African dialect means two
24)[line 36]דפנתאDAFNASA- walls