[a - 37 lines; b - 33 lines]

1)[line 2]מדאגבהיה נפק ביהMID'AGBEHEI NAFAK BEI!- from the time that he picks it up, he has fulfilled the Mitzvah [to take the Arba Minim]!

2)[line 3]כשהפכוKESHE'HAFCHO- when he turned [the species] upside down [in which case he has not fulfilled the Mitzvah, since that requires that they be held in the direction in which they grew]

3)[line 6]דרך כבודDERECH KAVOD- in an honorable manner [such as by wrapping a scarf around the Lulav]

4)[line 6]דרך בזיוןDERECH BIZAYON- in a dishonorable manner [such as by carrying them in a plate]

5)[line 7]עולת העוףOLAS HA'OF

(a)The offering of a bird as a Korban Olah consists of four procedures:

1.MELIKAH - Standing on the Sovev (see Background to Yoma 22:15) of the Mizbe'ach, on the southeastern corner, the Kohen holds the bird in his right hand and pierces its neck from the back with his right thumbnail, making sure to cut through one Siman (either the trachea or the esophagus).

2.MITZUY - The Kohen presses the cut neck of the bird to the Mizbe'ach, squeezing its blood onto the Mizbe'ach above the Chut ha'Sikra (red line) that horizontally divides the Mizbe'ach in half.

3.HAKTARAS HA'ROSH - The Kohen salts the head and throws it on to the fire atop the Mizbe'ach.

4.HAKTARAS HA'GUF - The Kohen removes the crop and surrounding feathers of the bird (according to some Tana'im, the crop and the intestines - Zevachim 65a) and throws them on to the pile of ash at the side of the ramp of the Mizbe'ach. He then tears the bird apart (Shesiyah), salts it, and throws it into the fire.

(b)Although Melikah is generally performed upon the Olas ha'Of on the southeastern corner of the Mizbe'ach, if that corner is so full of Kohanim doing so that there is no more space to stand there then a Kohen may move over to the southwestern corner and be Molek an Olas ha'Of there. This is the corner whereupon Melikah is performed upon a Chatas ha'Of (see below, entry #8).

6)[line 8]בין אגפייםBEIN AGAPAYIM- amongst a pile of winged [birds that were jerking spasmodically following Melikah, lying to the side of the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach]

7)[line 8]וכסבורU'CHESAVOR- and [a Kohen] thought

8)[line 8]חטאת העוףCHATAS HA'OF

(a)The offering of a Chatas ha'Of consists of three procedures:

1.MELIKAH - Standing on the floor near the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach, the Kohen holds the bird in his right hand and pierces its neck from the back with his right thumbnail, making sure to cut through one Siman (either the trachea or the esophagus).

2.HAZAYAH - The Kohen sprinkles the blood of the bird on the Mizbe'ach (directly from its neck) below the Chut ha'Sikra (a red line which ran from halfway up one end of the Mizbe'ach to the other, dividing it in half).

3.MITZUY - The Kohen presses the cut neck of the bird to the Mizbe'ach, squeezing its blood onto the Mizbe'ach.

(b)After this process is complete, the Chatas ha'Of is eaten by the Kohanim.

9)[line 9]טעה בדבר מצוה פטורTA'AH B'DEVAR MITZVAH PATUR

(a)If one transgresses a sin b'Shogeg (unintentionally) for which he is liable to receive the punishment of Kares (see Background to Pesachim 32:16) b'Mezid (intentionally), he must offer a Korban Chatas. One who commits certain other sins, such as benefiting from Hekdesh b'Shogeg as a Kohen who mistakenly eats an Olas ha'Of has (Me'ilah; see Background to Yoma 58:25) must offer a Korban Asham.

(b)If one transgresses an Aveirah that would normally obligate him in a Korban Chatas or Asham while under the mistaken impression that he was actually performing a Mitzvah (a "To'eh bi'Dvar Mitzvah"), there is a difference of opinion among the Tana'im as to whether or not he must bring a Korban Chatas. Rebbi Eliezer says that such a scenario is included in the definition of "unintentional"; Rebbi Yehoshua maintains that a To'eh b'Dvar Mitzvah is Patur from a Chatas.

(c)Within the opinion of Rebbi Yehoshua who maintains that a To'eh b'Dvar Mitzvah is Patur, there are various opinions among the Tana'im and Amora'im with regard to exactly when this Petur applies and when it does not.

1.There is a Machlokes Tana'im whether Rebbi Yehoshua exempts one from a Korban Chatas only if he actually ends up performing a Mitzvah (Tana Kama), or even if he does not perform an actual Mitzvah through his actions (Rebbi Meir; Pesachim 72a).

2.Some say that the Petur of To'eh b'Dvar Mitzvah only applies when the Mitzvah that he wishes to perform may only be accomplished within a limited time period, and he is therefore rushed ("Zemano Bahul"). If he has the option of performing the Mitzvah at a later date, To'eh b'Dvar Mitzvah will not exempt him from a Chiyuv Chatas. (This is the reasoning of the Gemara Pesachim 72b, opposing the opinion of Rebbi Yochanan.)

3.Rebbi Meir (according to the Gemara's explanation on 72a-b) maintains that Rebbi Yehoshua exempts one from a Chatas only if he was still required to perform the Mitzvah at the time when he thought he was doing so. If he had already performed the Mitzvah earlier - even if he was unaware of doing so - he must offer a Chatas.

(For more details of this Halachah, see the discussion of the Gemara in Pesachim 72a-73b.)

10)[line 10]היינו הך!HAINU HACH!- this is exactly the same [point made by Rebbi Yosi in our Mishnah; why does Rav Huna find it necessary to make it again]?

11)[line 14]תמידTAMID (KORBAN TAMID)

(a)The Korban Tamid consists of two male sheep which are younger than one year old. One sheep is offered in the morning, known as the Tamid Shel Shachar, and the second - called the Tamid Shel Bein ha'Arbayim - is offered in the afternoon. One tenth of an Eifah (approx. two quarts) of flour, mixed with one quarter of a Hin (approx. one quart) of hand pressed olive oil, is offered with each sheep as a Minchah (meal offering). One quarter of a Hin of wine is offered with each sheep as a wine libation (Bamidbar 28:5).

12)[line 15]מבוקר כהלכתוMEVUKAR K'HILCHASO

(a)Any animal sacrificed as a Korban must be checked (Mevukar) over the course of four days prior to its offering in order to be sure that it is free of Mumim (blemishes).

(b)The Mishnah (Erchin 13a) teaches that there may not be less than six sheep available for the Korban Tamid at any time. These are housed in a chamber in the Beis ha'Mikdash called the Lishkas ha'Tela'im. Each day, two are used for the Korban Tamid (see previous entry), and an additional two are brought to replace them. In this manner, each pair remains in the Lishkah for three full days prior to their offering on the fourth day.

13)[line 16]בר מינה דההיאBAR MINAH DEHA'HI- with the exception of that case

14)[line 20]לשכה שאינן מבוקריןLISHKAH SHE'EINAN MEVUKARIN- a chamber in [the Beis ha'Mikdash] containing lambs that had not been checked [for blemishes over the course of four days]

15)[line 20]מקבלת אשהMEKABELES ISHA- a woman may accept [the Arba Minim]

16)[line 21]מחזירתו למיםMACHZIRASO L'MAYIM- one may return [the Arba Minim] to [the] water [that they were stored in at the onset of Shabbos in order to keep them fresh]

17)[line 22]בשבתB'SHABBOS- This word modifies both of the two cases discussed thus far in the Mishnah.

18)[line 23]במועד מחליפיןB'MO'ED MACHLIFIN- on Chol ha'Mo'ed [it is a Mitzvah to] exchange the water [for fresher, colder water]

19)[line 24]לנענעL'NA'ANE'A- to shake (see Insights)

20)[line 26]לא תקבלLO SEKABEL- she should not take [the Arba Minim since they are Muktzah (items which one has no intention to use on Shabbos or Yom Tov; see below, entry 56b) for her]

21)[line 28]להתעטףL'HIS'ATEF- to wrap [himself in a Talis]

22)[line 28]לשמור תפיליןLISHMOR TEFILIN- to guard [himself while wearing] Tefilin [from a) entering an outhouse (RASHI); b) sleeping or passing flatulence (Shulchan Aruch 37:3)

23)[line 31]"תּוֹרָה צִוָּה-לָנוּ מֹשֶׁה; מוֹרָשָׁה קְהִלַּת יַעֲקֹב.""TORAH TZIVAH LANU MOSHE; MORASHAH KEHILAS YAAKOV."- The Torah was commanded to us by Moshe; an inheritance for the congregation of Yaakov" (Devarim 33:4). This concept, together with the declaration of Hash-m's unity in the first verse of Shema, form the basis of our belief system.

24a)[line 33]היודע לשמור גופוHA'YODE'A LI'SHMOR GUFO- [a child] who is able to guard his body (other than his hands) [from coming into contact with Tum'ah]

b)[line 33]אוכלין על גופו טהרותOCHLIN AL GUFO TAHAROS- one may eat Kodshim after they have come into contact with his body

25)[line 34]לשמור את ידיוLI'SHMOR ES YADAV- [a child] who is able to guard his hands [from coming into contact with Tum'ah]. This implies a child older than one who is able to control the status of his body.

26)[line 35]היודע לישאלHA'YODE'A LISHA'EL- [a child] who is able to [respond intelligently] when asked [a question]

27)[line 36]ברשות היחיד, ספיקו טמא; ברשות הרבים, ספיקו טהורB'RESHUS HA'YACHID, SEFEIKO TAMEI; B'RESHUS HA'RABIM, SEFEIKO TAHOR (SAFEK TUM'AH B'RESHUS HA'YACHID / B'RESHUS HA'RABIM)

(a)When there is a doubt as to whether an object is Tahor or Tamei, its status depends upon its location. If the object is in a Reshus ha'Rabim the object may be considered Tahor. If it is in a private domain, then it must be considered Tamei.

(b)This is learned from the law regarding a women suspected of being unfaithful to her husband. If two people witness the unfaithfulness of a Sotah, she is judged to be Teme'ah and therefore may not remain married to her husband. Similarly, when there are two people present when a doubt arises regarding the Tum'ah/Taharah status of a person or object, he or it is judged to be Tamei. Such a case is referred to as a Reshus ha'Yachid l'Tum'ah. If more than two people are in the area wherein the doubt arose, it is a Reshus ha'Rabim l'Tum'ah. In such a case, the person or object is judged to be Tahor.

(c)If a child who is able to respond intelligently touched Kodshim that are Tahor, and he does not know whether or not he came into contact with Tum'ah beforehand, then the status of the Taharos depends upon where they were at the time that the child touched them.

28)[line 36]לפרוס כפיוLI'FROS KAPAV- to spread his hands [to serve as a conduit for Hash-m's blessing during Birkas Kohanim (see Background to Yoma 39:34), if he was a Kohen]

29)[last line]חולקיןCHOLKIN- they distribute

30)[last line]תרומהTERUMAH

(a)Once a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify how much to give, the Rabanan set the requirement at between one fortieth and one sixtieth of the total crop. Until Terumah and Ma'asros have been properly separated, the produce is termed "Tevel" and may not be eaten.

(b)Terumah must be eaten by Kohanim or their wives, unmarried daughters, and Nochri slaves, when they are Tehorim. If the wife of a Kohen is not herself the daughter of a Kohen, she may eat Terumah only as long as her husband or at least one of their sons is alive (Vayikra 22:11, Bamidbar 18:11; see Nidah 44a).

(c)The Gemara (Yevamos 99b) lists ten Kohanim who may not receive Terumah publicly. Since it is not apparent that they are able to guard the Terumah from becoming Tamei, it is disgraceful to do so. If they are indeed able to watch their Terumah according to Halachah, then they may receive it privately at their place of residence. One of the ten listed is a child under the age of Bar Mitzvah. Once he is able to perform Birkas Kohanim (see Background to Yoma 39:34), which may only be performed by a Kohen who has reached physical maturity, then it is clear that he is able to properly guard his Terumah and he may receive it in public.

31)[last line]בית הגרנותBEIS HA'GERANOS- the [public] threshing floor

42b----------------------------------------42b

32)[line 2]עומד על גביוOMED AL GABAV- is standing behind him [to supervise]

33)[line 3]דגןDAGAN- [bread made from one of the five] grain[s: wheat, barley, spelt, oats, and rye]

34)[line 3]מרחיקיןMARCHIKIN- one must distance himself [if he wishes to pray Shemonah Esrei or recite Kri'as Shema]

35a)[line 3]צואתוTZO'ASO- his excrement

b)[line 3]מימי רגליוMEIMEI RAGLAV- his urine

36)[line 5]בכדי אכילת פרסB'CHEDEI ACHILAS PRAS

(a)As a general rule, when the Torah requires one to fulfill a Mitzvah through eating, he must eat a minimum amount within a specific length of time. The minimum amount termed an Achilah is one k'Zayis, the equivalent of an average sized olive including its pit. This is also the amount that one must consume of that which is prohibited to eat (such as blood or certain fats) in order to be liable for punishment. Additionally, the Chachamim ruled that once a child is able to consume a k'Zayis of bread, one must distance himself from his excrement or urine if he wishes to recite Divrei Kedushah (holy words, such as Berachos, Shemonah Esrei, Kri'as Shema, etc.).

(b)The minimum length of time within which he must consume the k'Zayis is called "Kedei Achilas Pras." This refers to how long it takes to eat half of a standard loaf of wheat bread, dipped in relish, while he is reclining. This is the equivalent of either three or four Beitzim, depending on the differing opinions; see Eruvin 82b).

37)[line 8]"... וְיוֹסִיף דַּעַת יוֹסִיף מַכְאוֹב.""... V'YOSIF DA'AS YOSIF MACH'OV."- "... and one who adds knowledge adds pain" (Koheles 1:18). Our Gemara interprets "Mach'ov" as "stench", leading to the statement that one old enough to have acquired maturity excretes foul-smelling excrement even when he has not consumed a k'Zayis of bread bi'Chedei Achilas Pras.

38)[line 9]צליTZLI- roast meat

39)[line 9]שוחטין עליו את הפסחSHOCHTIN ALAV ES HA'PESACH (KORBAN PESACH)

(a)In the times of the Beis ha'Mikdash, every adult Jew is obligated to offer a Korban Pesach on the fourteenth of Nisan in the afternoon, as the Torah commands, "And the whole assembly of the congregation of Yisrael shall slaughter it towards evening" (Shemos 12:6). A Korban Pesach must be an unblemished male lamb or goat within its first year. The Korban may be slaughtered in any part of the Azarah (see Zevachim 56b).

(b)The body of the Korban is roasted in its entirety, and is eaten after nightfall together with Matzah and Maror. The Korban must be eaten within the walls of Yerushalayim (Zevachim 56b).

(c)In order to eat from the Korban Pesach, one must be "appointed" to the Korban before it is slaughtered, as the Torah states, "If one's household is too small for a lamb, then he and a close neighbor may obtain a lamb together, as long as it is for specifically designated individuals. Individuals shall be designated for a lamb according to the amount that each will eat" (Shemos 12:4). This appointment is called "Minuy." A person may be granted or may withdraw his share from a Korban Pesach as long as it has not been slaughtered (Pesachim 89a).

(d)The Korban is sacrificed in the name of all of the people who were appointed for that specific animal. The appointees eat their shares of the Pesach together in a group, or "Chaburah." No one may belong to more than one Chaburah, nor may he eat his share of the Pesach in more than one place. Therefore, if one partook of a k'Zayis of his Pesach once nightfall - the time that one may fulfill his obligation to eat from the Korban - arrives, he may no longer eat from that Korban Pesach along with his Chaburah elsewhere.

(e)Our Gemara teaches that a child old enough to eat roast meat may be included in the Chaburah. This is derived from the verses quoted above in (c).

40)[line 11]לבררLEVARER- to select

41)[line 11]צרורTZROR- a stone

PEREK #4 LULAV VA'ARAVAH

42)[line 14]לולבLULAV (ARBA MINIM)

(a)Every adult Jewish male must hold four types of branches or fruits on the first day of Sukos. These four species consist of Pri Etz Hadar (an Esrog; a citron, which is closely related to the lemon), Kapos Temarim (a Lulav; a branch from a palm tree cut prior to the opening and spreading of its leaves), Anaf Etz Avos (Hadasim; myrtle branches) and Arvei Nachal (Aravos; willow branches) (Vayikra 23:40). It is customary to hold one Esrog, one Lulav, three Hadasim, and two Aravos. The Esrog is held in the left hand, whereas the other three species are held together in the right.

(b)According to Torah law, these species must be taken only on the first day of Sukos anywhere but in the Beis ha'Mikdash. Once the Beis ha'Mikdash was destroyed, Rebbi Yochanan ben Zakai decreed that all of Klal Yisrael should take them for all seven days of Sukos in commemoration of the way in which they were taken in the Mikdash.

(c)One must own his set of Arba Minim in order to fulfill the biblical commandment on the first day of Sukos. It is insufficient to borrow a set, even with the permission of the owner. This is because the Torah commands that one take the Lulav etc. "for yourself" (ibid.).

43)[line 14]ערבהARAVAH

(a)When the Beis ha'Mikdash stood, long willow branches were cut during each of the first six days of Sukos from Motza, an area just outside of Yerushalayim. They were placed in a standing position surrounding the Mizbe'ach, and they were long enough that their tips hung over the top of the Mizbe'ach. Kohanim made a circuit around the Mizbe'ach while reciting certain prayers. (According to one opinion (Sukah 43b), the Kohanim carried he Aravah branches as they circled.)

(b)On Hoshana Rabah, the seventh day of Sukos, the Kohanim made seven circuits around the Mizbe'ach, while fervently praying to Hash-m for spiritual growth, salvation, and bountiful crops.

(c)If one of the first six days fell on Shabbos, then this ceremony was not held. If Hoshana Rabah was on Shabbos, however, then the willow branches were cut the day before (Sukah 45a, RAMBAM Hilchos Lulav 7:20-21).

(d)Aba Shaul derives the source of this Mitzvah from that which the verse detailing the Mitzvah of Arba Minim (see previous entry) mentions willows in the plural form. One refers to the Aravah of Arba Minim; the other to the surrounding of the Mizbe'ach with Aravah branches all seven days of Sukos. The Chachamim maintain that the source of this Mitzvah is a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai (Daf 34 and 44).

(e)On Hoshana Rabah, everyone takes a bundle of five Aravos, even outside of the Beis ha'Mikdash. Prayers beseeching Hash-m for salvation are uttered, and the bundle is either waved (RASHI) or beaten upon the ground (ROSH). This is either a Mitzvah or a custom instituted by the Chagai, Zecharyah, and Mal'achi, the last of the Nevi'im (Daf 44).

6

44)[line 14]ששה ושבעהSHISHAH V'SHIV'AH- [took place in the Beis ha'Mikdash over the course of either] six or seven [days]

45)[line 14]ההללHA'HALEL- the [recitation of the unabridged] Halel

46)[line 15]שמחהSIMCHAH

(a)There is a Mitzvah to be happy on the three holidays of Pesach, Shavu'os and Sukos (Devarim 27:7). This is practically understood as a commandment to partake of meat from sacrifices every day of the holiday. If no meat from a sacrifice is readily available, one offers a Korban known as Shalmei Simchah for the express purpose of fulfilling this Mitzvah. Both men and women are obligated in this Mitzvah (RAMBAM Hilchos Chagigah 1:1).

(b)The Mitzvah of Simchah applies in a more general sense as well. The purchase of food or clothing which one enjoys is a fulfillment of this Mitzvah. Included in the Mitzvah is bringing the happiness on Yom Tov to other people, especially the poor and downtrodden. If one gorges himself while ignoring others, this is considered Simchas Kereiso (lit. happiness of the stomach; i.e. pure physical gratification) rather than Simchah Shel Mitzvah (RAMBAM Hilchos Yom Tov 6:17-18).

47)[line 15]ניסוך המיםNISUCH HA'MAYIM

(a)A Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai teaches us that on Sukos in the Beis ha'Mikdash there is a Mitzvah of Nisuch ha'Mayim (lit. pouring of the water). Three Lugim (approx. 1.5 liter) of water are drawn from the Shilo'ach spring, which is located to the south of the Temple Mount. This water is then brought to the Azarah amidst a joyous procession, in fulfillment of the Pasuk, "u'She'avtem Mayim b'Sason ..." ("and you shall draw water with rejoicing ..." - Yeshayah 12:3).

(b)The Kohen who is chosen to pour the water ascends the Mizbe'ach and pours the water from a golden flask into one of the Sefalim (silver libation pipes located in the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach). The Nisuch ha'Mayim takes place each day of Sukos at the time of the morning Tamid sacrifice amidst much rejoicing.

(c)Every night of Sukos, the nation gathered at the Beis ha'Mikdash to sing Hash-m's praises. The Leviyim played more musical instruments than they usually did. The greatest Torah Scholars and Tzadikim danced, juggled, or otherwise celebrated. Many torches and fires were lit, until the streets of Yerushalayim were bright as they were during the day. This celebration, called the Simchas Beis ha'Sho'evah, continued all night long until it was time to draw the water in the morning. The Mishnah (Sukah 51a) states that "one who has not seen the rejoicing of the Simchas Beis ha'Sho'evah has never seen rejoicing in his life!"

48)[line 16]החלילHE'CHALIL- the flute [that was played at the Simchas Beis ha'Sho'evah]

49)[line 18]שאר כל הימיםSHE'AR KOL HA'YAMIM- [if the first day of Sukos fell on] any other day

50)[line 19]יום השביעי של ערבהYOM HA'SHEVI'I SHEL ARAVAH- the seventh day of [Sukos, which was the seventh day that the] Aravah [ceremony was held; Hoshana Rabah]

51)[line 23]מוליכין את לולביהןMOLICHIN ES LULVEIHEN- would bring their Arba Minim [on Erev Shabbos]

52)[line 24]חזניןCHAZANIN- Gaba'im; officials [who took care of the needs of those on Har ha'Bayis]

53)[line 25]איצטבאITZTEVA- the double colonnade [that was situated along the inside of the wall of Har ha'Bayis]

54)[line 25]מניחין את שלהן בלשכהMANICHIN ES SHELA'HEN B'LISHKAH- would place theirs in a chamber [inside the Beis ha'Mikdash, so that they would not be injured in the jostling for Arba Minim on the morrow]

55)[line 29]מחטפיןMECHATFIN- would grab

56a)[line 31]אמאי?AMAI?- why [were the Arba Minim not taken in the Beis ha'Mikdash, where it was a Mitzvah mid'Oraisa to do so, on Shabbos when it fell during the last six days of Sukos]?

b)[line 31]טלטול בעלמא הוא!TILTUL B'ALMA HU! (MUKTZAH)

(a)Muktzah literally means "set aside" or "designated". With regard to Shabbos, this term is used to describe items which one has no intention to use on Shabbos, such as wood stacked in a barn. Anything that a person had no intention to use during Bein ha'Shemashos at the start of Shabbos (or Yom Tov) - for any reason - is included in the category of Muktzah and may not be moved on Shabbos.

(b)Our Gemara asks that taking the Arba Minim is no worse than carrying branches, which is prohibited on Shabbos due to Muktzah. This should not prevent one from fulfilling a Mitzvah d'Oraisa!

57)[last line]בקיBAKI- a [Halachic] expert

58)[last line]ללמודLI'LMOD- to learn [the proper Berachah and/or manner of shaking

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