[a - 28 lines; b - 22 lines]

1)[line 2]מגדל עדרMIGDAL EDER- an ancient settlement located on a hill halfway between Chevron and Beis Lechem, in the area of present-day Gush Etzyon, and mentioned in Bereishis (35:21). TARGUM YONASAN BEN UZIEL comments that it will be in Migdal Eder that Mashi'ach will reveal himself.

2)[line 2]כמדתה לכל רוחK'MIDASAH L'CHOL RU'ACH- the same distance in any direction; i.e., within a circle that has Yerushalayim as its center whose radius is equal to the distance from Yerushalayim to Migdal Eder

3)[line 2]זכרים עולותZECHARIM OLOS (KORBAN OLAH - A Burnt Sacrifice)

(a)An Olah sacrifice has the status of Kodshei Kodashim (see Background to 52:32), and is sometimes required of the public (e.g., the Korban Tamid) and sometimes of an individual. An Olah must be offered by an individual to atone for the transgression of an Asei (a positive commandment), a Lav she'Nitak l'Asei (see Background to Yoma 36:19), or certain sinful thoughts (see Vayikra Rabah 7:3). Voluntary Olos (Olos Nedavah) may be offered as well. A Korban Olah must be a male cow, sheep, or goat.

(b)One who offers a Korban Olah first leans on the animal with all his might (Semichah) in the northern area of the Azarah. He then recites Viduy, confessing his sin and asking Hash-m for forgiveness. Because an Olah is in the category of Kodshei Kodshim (a greater degree of Kedushah), it must be slaughtered in the northern part of the Azarah (as opposed to Kodshim Kalim, which may be slaughtered anywhere in the Azarah). The blood of the Olah is applied to the northeastern and southwestern Keranos (cubic Amah posts on the corners of the Mizbe'ach) only, in such a way that there is Dam on all sides of the Mizbe'ach (Shenayim she'Hen Arba). The Korban is then skinned and dismembered. An Olah is unique in that the meat of the animal is burned in its entirety. The skin of the animal, however, is given to the Kohanim. An Olah must be burned on the same day that it is slaughtered. Nesachim (see Background to Yoma 31:30) are offered together with a Korban Olah.

(c)At this point, Our Gemara assumes that the Mishnah in Shekalim (7:4) teaches that if one finds a male animal within the prescribed distance from Yerushalayim, he may assume that it is a lost Korban and should offer it as an Olah on behalf of its owner.

4)[line 3]נקבות זבחי שלמיםNEKEIVOS ZIVCHEI SHELAMIM (KORBAN SHELAMIM - The Shelamim Sacrifice)

(a)One may offer a Korban in the Beis ha'Mikdash as a Nedavah (voluntary sacrifice; Vayikra 1:2). One type of sacrifice available as a Nedavah is a Korban Shelamim. Some of this Korban is offered upon the Mizbe'ach, others are given to Kohanim, and yet others belong to the owner of the Korban.

(b)Korbenos Shelamim may consist of male or female sheep, cows, or goats. They are in the category of Kodshim Kalim (a lighter category of Kedushah), and may therefore be slaughtered anywhere in the Azarah (as opposed to Kodshei Kodshim, which are limited to the northern part). Before its slaughter, the owner places his hands on the head of his animal and leans on it with all of his might (Semichah). The blood of the Shelamim is applied to the northeastern and southwestern Keranos (cubic Amah posts on the corners of the Mizbe'ach) only, in such a way that there is Dam on all sides of the Mizbe'ach (Shenayim she'Hen Arba). Nesachim (see Background to Yoma 31:30) are offered together with a Korban Olah.

(c)The Chazeh (breast) and Shok (thigh) of the Shelamim are given to a Kohen (Vayikra 7:34). Certain fats and other parts of the Korban are burned upon the Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 3:3-4, 9-10, and 14-15). The owner and his guests, who may be either men or women, may eat the rest of the Korban within the borders of Yerushalayim. The meat may be cooked in any fashion, and must be consumed within two days and the intervening night.

(d)At this point, Our Gemara assumes that the Mishnah in Shekalim (7:4) teaches that if one finds a female animal within the prescribed distance from Yerushalayim, he may assume that it is a lost Korban and should offer it as an Shelamim on behalf of its owner.

5)[line 3]אלא זכרים עולות הוא דהוו, זבחי שלמים לא הוו?ELA ZECHARIM OLOS HU D'HAVU, ZIVCHEI SHELAMIM LO HAVU?- must all male animals be Korbenos Olah, and not Korbenos Shelamim?

6)[line 5]בבא לחוב בדמיהן עסקינןB'VA LACHUV BI'DEMEIHEN ASKINAN- the case [of the Mishnah] is one in which he [who has found the animal] has [voluntarily] decided to take responsibility [and see to it that this animal is offered properly in the case that it is a Korban] through [taking two animals or sums of] money [equal in value to the animal found and a) then stipulating that if the animal is an Olah, its Kedushah should be transferred to one sum while the other should be sanctified with the Kedushah of a voluntary Shelamim, whereas if the animal is a Shelamim, its Kedushah should be transferred to the other sum while the first should be sanctified with the Kedushah of a voluntary Olah (RASHI); b) intend to steal the animal from its original owner, and then stipulate as above (TOSFOS DH Amar)]. Presumably, if the animal is not a Korban at all, then both animals or sums are sanctified toward voluntary Korbanos. See Insights to Shekalim 20:1 for a complimentary commentary on our Sugya.

7)[line 6]רבי מאיר היא דאמר הקדש במזיד מתחללREBBI MEIR HI D'AMAR HEKDESH B'MEZID MISCHALEL- [the Mishnah] expresses the opinion of Rebbi Meir who maintains that that which is sanctified to Hekdesh loses its sanctity when one intentionally attempts to deconsecrate it [and it is therefore possible to remove and transfer the Kedushah of the lost Korban]

8)[line 7]קדושת הגוףKEDUSHAS HA'GUF- see Background to 52:35:a

9a)[line 8]אין מועל אחר מועלEIN MO'EL ACHAR MO'EL- it is not possible to transgress the prohibition of Me'ilah (see Background to 53:29) [with a consecrated item] after one has already transgressed Me'ilah [with that item, since it lost its sanctity as a result of the first Me'ilah]

10a)[line 9]בהמהBEHEMAH- an animal [that has been consecrated and remains fit to be offered as a Korban]

b)[line 9]בכלי שרתKLEI SHARES- vessels sanctified for use in the service performed in the Beis ha'Mikdash

11)[line 14]הא ר' מאירHA REBBI MEIR- [whereas the Mishnah in Shekalim expresses the opinion of] Rebbi Meir

12)[line 14]מדרבי יהודה נשמע לרבי מאירMID'REBBI YEHUDAH NISHMA L'REBBI MEIR- from [that which] Rebbi Yehudah [rules regarding one who unintentionally attempted to deconsecrate Hekdesh] we can understand [what] Rebbi Meir [rules regarding one who intentionally attempted to deconsecrate Hekdesh, since their disagreement revolves around this point and not that of whether the level of sanctity was that of Kedushas ha'Guf or Kedushas Damim]

13)[line 16]מתחלאMISCHALEI- become non-consecrated

14)[line 18]התם לא קא מכוין לאפוקינהו לחוליןHASAM LO KA MECHAVEIN L'AFUKINHU L'CHULIN- (the Gemara answers) there [in the case of the Mishnah attributed to Rebbi Yehudah] he did not intend to deconsecrate [the Kedushas ha'Guf, and his attempt was therefore unsuccessful due to the degree of sanctity]

15)[line 20]קדשי קדשיםKODSHEI KODASHIM- see Background to 52:32; see also Insights

55b----------------------------------------55b

16)[line 1]תהי בהTAHI BAH- wondered and delved into [the ruling of Rebbi Oshaya]

17)[line 1]וכי אומרים לו לאדם, "עמוד וחטא בשביל שתזכה"?V'CHI OMRIM LO L'ADAM, "AMOD V'CHATEI BISHVIL SHE'TIZKEH"?- Do we tell someone, "Transgress a prohibition so that a) [another] will merit?" (RASHBA to 69a); b) he [himself] will merit [to offer the lost Korban of another]?" (TESHUVOS TASHBE"TZ 2:53)

18)[line 3]ממתין לה עד שתומםMAMTIN LAH AD SHE'TUMAM- he [who found the animal] should [let it graze and] wait until it develops a Mum (physical blemish that invalidates it as a Korban)

19)[line 4]מתנהMASNEH- stipulate (as above, entry #6)

20)[line 4]תודהTODAH- see Background to 51:11

21)[line 5]דמייתי נמי תודהD'MAISI NAMI TODAH- (the Gemara answers) [the ruling of the Mishnah includes] that [which] he [who found the animal] must bring [a third animal] as well [and stipulate that if the lost animal is] a Korban Todah [then its Kedushah should be transferred to the third animal]

22)[line 5]לחםLECHEM- the forty loaves that accompany a Korban Todah; see Background to 51:11

23)[line 6]אשםASHAM (KORBAN ASHAM - The Asham Sacrifice)

(a)The Torah specifies five cases in which a Korban Asham must be offered. This Korban usually consists of a ram worth a minimum of two Sela'im. The first three cases involve transgressions:

1.ASHAM ME'ILOS: One who benefits from Hekdesh b'Shogeg must offer a ram in its second year as a Korban Asham, aside from that which he is obligated to repay 125% of the value of that which he benefited (Vayikra 5:14-16; see Background to 53:29).

2.ASHAM GEZEILOS: If one steals money from his fellow Jew, swears in Beis Din that he holds no such money, and later admits to his sin, then he must first repay 125% of the value of that which he stole, and then offer a ram in its second year as a Korban Asham in order to receive atonement (Vayikra 5:20-26).

3.ASHAM SHIFCHAH CHARUFAH: If one had relations with a Shifchah Charufah (see Background to Yevamos 55:5), then he must offer a ram in its second year as a Korban Asham whether he transgressed this sin b'Mezid or b'Shogeg (Vayikra 19:20-22).

4.ASHAM NAZIR: If a Nazir (see Background to Beitzah 35:23) becomes Tamei during his period of Nezirus, he must offer a sheep within its first year as an Asham (Bamidbar 6:12; see also Background to Nazir 60:2).

5.ASHAM METZORA: When a Metzora completes his Taharah process (see Background to Sukah 13:10:a:III), he must offer a sheep within its first year as an Asham (Vayikra 14:12).

(b)If one is in doubt as to whether or not he committed a transgression for which he must offer a Korban Chatas (see below, entry #32), then he offers a ram worth two Sela'im as a Korban Asham Taluy (dependant; Vayikra 5:17-19). Should he later discover that he did indeed sin, he must then offer a proper Korban Chatas; the Asham Taluy provides only temporary atonement as long as he is unsure of his requirement (see Background to Nazir 23:2b).

(c)The offering of an Asham is similar to that of a Chatas. The main distinction between them is that the blood of an Asham is applied to the northeastern and southwestern Keranos only, in such a way that there is Dam on all sides of the Mizbe'ach (Shenayim she'Hen Arba).

24a)[line 6]אשם בן שתי שניםASHAM BEN SHTEI SHANIM- a Korban Asham [must be two years old in the cases of an Asham Me'ilos, Asham Gezeilos, or Asham Shifchah Charufah]

b)[line 7]ואישתכח בן שנהV'ISHTACHACH BEN SHANAH- and he found a yearling sheep. The Gemara cannot answer that a fourth animal is brought, since there is no such thing as a voluntary Asham.

25)[line 8]אשם מצורע ... אשם נזירASHAM METZORA ... ASHAM NAZIR- these Korbenos Asham are indeed yearling sheep; see above, entry #23

26)[line 9]פסחPESACH (KORBAN PESACH - The Pesach Sacrifice)

(a)When the Beis ha'Mikdash stands, every adult Jew is obligated to offer a Korban Pesach on the afternoon of the fourteenth of Nisan (Shemos 12:6). The Korban Pesach consists of an unblemished male lamb or goat within its first year. Since it has the status of Kodshim Kalim (a lighter category of Kedushah), it may be slaughtered anywhere in the Azarah (as opposed to Kodshei Kodshim, which are limited to the northern part) (see Zevachim 56b).

(b)The body of the Korban is roasted in its entirety, and is eaten after nightfall together with Matzah and Maror. The Korban must be eaten within the walls of Yerushalayim (Zevachim 56b).

(c)One who is able to offer the Korban Pesach and neglects to do so receives the punishment of Kares (see Background to Gitin 55:42). The Mitzvah of Korban Pesach is one of only two positive commandments that are punishable by Kares.

27)[line 9]בזמנו מזהר זהירי ביהBI'ZEMANO MIZHAR ZEHIRI BEI- in its time (i.e., before Pesach, when it is fit to be offered as a Korban Pesach) [its owners] are careful with it [and it is not likely that it was lost]

28)[line 10]שלא בזמנו שלמים הואSHE'LO BI'ZEMANO SHELAMIM HU (PESACH SHE'AVAR SHENASO - The Status of a Pesach Sacrifice that was not Offered)

(a)Goats or sheep are fit to be offered as a Korban Pesach only during their first year of life. If such an animal was designated as a Korban Pesach but was not offered on the first Pesach after its birth, it becomes a Korban Shelamim (since it no longer qualifies as a Korban Pesach). (See Insights)

29)[line 10]בכורBECHOR (BECHOR BEHEMAH TEHORAH - The Redemption of a First-Born Male Kosher Animal)

(a)An ox, goat, or sheep first-born to its mother in the possession of a Yisrael is automatically Kadosh (sanctified). Nevertheless, its owner should verbally sanctify it by declaring that it has the Kedushah of a Bechor, similar to the way in which one sanctifies a Korban (Erchin 29a, based on Devarim 15:19). He must then give it to a Kohen; it may not be redeemed.

(b)If the animal is unblemished, the Kohen must offer it as a Korban during its first year of life. After its blood and Emurim (see Background to Yevamos 7:8 and 100:9) are offered on the Mizbe'ach, it may be eaten in Yerushalayim over the following two days and intervening night.

(c)An unblemished Bechor may not be redeemed by the Kohen with money. If the animal was born with or developed a Mum (a blemish that invalidates it as a Korban), then it becomes the personal property of the Kohen, who must slaughter and eat it in its first year of life. If it developed a Mum after its first year, then it must be slaughtered and eaten within thirty days. A Kohen may give away or sell a Bechor with a Mum, even to a non-Kohen. It may not, however, be sold in a meat market nor weighed in the usual manner.

(d)Following the destruction of the Beis ha'Mikdash, a Kohen must care for a Bechor until it develops a Mum. He may alternatively sell it even if it has no Mum to a non-Kohen, who may then eat it after it develops a Mum. He may not, however, sell it to an investor who wishes to sell it for a profit.

30)[line 11]מעשרMA'ASER- this refers to Ma'aser Behemah; see Background to 51:5

31)[line 11]למאי הילכתא; למיכלינהו במומן?L'MAI HILCHESA; L'MICHLINHU B'MUMAN?- (the Gemara answers) for what Halachic purpose [did we suggest that it may be a Bechor or Ma'aser Behemah]; that it should be eaten [by its owner only] after it develops a Mum [but not sold in a meat market nor weighed in the usual manner]?

32)[line 15]חטאתCHATAS (KORBAN CHATAS - The Chatas Sacrifice)

(a)Should one transgress a sin b'Shogeg (unintentionally) for which he is liable to receive the punishment of Kares (see Background to Gitin 55:42) had he done so b'Mezid (intentionally), he must offer a Korban Chatas. This Korban consists of a female goat or sheep.

(b)One who offers a Korban Chatas first leans on the animal with all his might (Semichah) in the northern part of the Azarah (inner courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash). He then recites Viduy, confessing his sin and asking Hash-m for forgiveness. The animal is then immediately slaughtered. The blood of the Chatas is applied to the Keranos (cubic Amah posts on the corners of the Mizbe'ach) beginning with the southeastern corner of the Mizbe'ach and continuing to the northeastern, northwestern, and southwestern corners. The remaining blood is then spilled onto the Yesod (base) of the Mizbe'ach. The Emurim (parts of a Korban that are burned upon the Mizbe'ach; see below, entry #34) of the Chatas are offered on the Mizbe'ach. Certain parts of the Korban are eaten by Kohanim in the Azarah; they must be consumed before the day following its offering (Vayikra 4:27-31).

33)[line 15]חטאת שעברה שנתהCHATAS SHE'AVRAH SHENASAH (CHAMESH CHATA'OS MESOS - Five Chatas Sacrifices that are Left to Die)

(a)There are five categories of Korbenos Chatas which are left locked up without food or water until they expire, as per Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai (oral tradition that Moshe Rabeinu received from Hash-m at Har Sinai). These are:

1.The offspring of a Chatas (which also has the Kedushah of a Chatas)

2.The Temurah (see Background to Pesachim 96:17) of a Chatas

3.A Chatas whose owner has passed away

4.A "Chatas she'Avrah Shenasah - a sheep or goat designated as a Korban Chatas which is now older than one year (and therefore invalidated as a Korban Chatas)

5.A Chatas which was lost and later found with a Mum, whose owner has in the interim offered a different Chatas to atone for his sin (Temurah 21b).

34)[line 19]"... עז בת שנתה לחטאת.""... EZ BAS SHENASAH L'CHATAS."- This is a quote from a verse (Bamidbar 16:27) which discusses one who inadvertently worshipped Avodah Zarah. Our Gemara at this point understands that Chanina ben Chachina'i rules that one should offer such an animal as a Korban Chatas on behalf of its owner.

35)[line 19]לחטאת סלקא דעתך?L'CHATAS SALKA DAITACH?- is it really possible [to offer the animal] as a Korban Chatas? [It may be a Shelamim or a Todah!]

36)[line 20]כונסה לכיפהKONSAH L'CHIPAH V'HI MESAH ME'ELEHA- one should bring it into a domed chamber (for example; see RASHI) and it is left to expire

37)[last line]אין לוקחים בהמה במעות מעשר שניEIN LOKCHIN BEHEMAH B'MA'OS MA'ASER SHENI- one may not purchase an animal with money that has the status of Ma'aser Sheni (see Background to 52:33) [outside of Yerushalayim, since a) the Kedushah of Ma'aser Sheni cannot be transferred to anything other than minted coins outside of Yerushalayim (RASHI, first explanation); b) the animal may weaken and thereby depreciate along the way (RASHI, second explanation); c) he may be tempted to keep the animal in order to raise herds/flocks beyond the time of Bi'ur (see Background to 54:22) (TOSFOS DH Ein, based upon Sukah 40b)]

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