BACKGROUND TO THE DAILY DAF
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
[24a - 48 lines; 24b - 32 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Gemara 24a [line 11]:
The words "Amar Lehu Rav Sheshes, k'Tefilah" אמר להו רב ששת כתפילה
should be "Amar Lehu Rava, k'Tefilah" אמר להו רבא כתפילה
(since this incident took place in Rava's house. This is the way it appears in the Rif and Rishonim. The footnotes of the Dikdukei Sofrim #40, however, point out that in some texts a different incident that happened in the house of the Reish Galusa is also related, in which Rav Sheshes said his words.)
1) [line 26] תעניות TA'ANIYOS
When a community suffered because of lack of rain or other troubles, the Beis Din enacted public fasts to cause the people to repent so that the divine decree would be rescinded. In all, thirteen fasts were enacted in groups of three, three and seven, respectively. The groups of three took place in a pattern of Monday-Thursday-Monday. During the last seven, which followed the pattern M-T-M-T-M-T-M, the Chazan would pray a special Shemoneh Esreh prayer which consisted of 24 blessings, as specified in Maseches Ta'anis 15a. The six extra blessings were inserted between the seventh and eighth blessings of the regular Shemoneh Esreh prayer.
2) [line 26] מעמדות MA'AMADOS
(a) The Mishnah in Ta'anis 26a states that the early prophets divided Bnei Yisrael into 24 groups, or Ma'amados. Each Ma'amad consisted of Kohanim, Leviyim and Yisra'elim (according to Rashi; according to the RITVA here, the Ma'amad consisted solely of Yisraelim). The Ma'amados worked in a 24-week rotation in conjunction with the Mishmeros Kehunah (see next entry), and took responsibility for the Korbanos of one week, twice each year.
(b) When each Ma'amad's turn arrived, the Kohanim and Leviyim would travel to the Beis ha'Mikdash to do the divine service. Some of the Yisra'elim also traveled to Yerushalayim (or lived there permanently), and it was their duty to be in Yerushalayim during their turn in order to witness and oversee the offering of the Korbenos Tamid and the other public offerings. (According to Rashi DH Korban Musaf, the members of the Ma'amad who were Kohanim actually helped offer the public Korbanos as well.) However, most of the Yisra'elim in the Ma'amad stayed in their own cities. It was the role of these Yisra'elim to pray that the week's Korbanos should be accepted by HaSh-m. They fasted, and they gathered together in the public areas in order to pray, read special portions of the Torah and recite the special Shemoneh Esreh of Ta'aniyos (mentioned above, entry #1).
3) [line 33] של חנוכה במוספין SHEL CHANUKAH B'MUSAFIN - That is, on Shabbos and Rosh Chodesh that come out during Chanukah, when one says Tefilas Musaf, should he mention Al ha'Nisim?
4) [line 12] סכנה SAKANAH - danger. The Chachamim ordained the Magen Avos prayer for Friday night in order to lengthen the services so that the people who came late would not be left alone in Shul (which was located in the fields).
5) [line 15] רב ברונא אמר רב RAV BRUNA AMAR RAV - when one adds oil that is fit for lighting to melted Chelev or liquefied fish intestines, Rav Bruna cites Rav's opinion that they may be used to light Neros Shabbos (Daf 21a)
6) [line 15] לא מסיימי LO MESAIMEI - it is not clear who holds which opinion
7) [line 17] עטרן ITRAN - the oil that flows from a pine tree after the pitch is removed
8) [line 19] שמן שומשמין SHEMEN SHUMSHEMIN - sesame oil
9) [line 20] שמן צנונות SHEMEN TZENONOS - radish-seed oil
10) [line 20] שמן פקועות SHEMEN PAKU'OS - oil of the desert gourd
11) [line 21] נפט NEFT - naphtha
12) [line 27] ליתן לו בקר שני לשריפתו LITEN LO BOKER SHENI L'SEREIFASO - to teach us that it is only burned on the second morning of Pesach (which is Chol ha'Moed)
13) [line 31] מכשירין MACHSHIRIN - preliminary actions that must be done in preparation for the Mitzvah, e.g. making a knife for Milah and building an oven to roast the Pesach sacrifice
14) [line 31] מילה שלא בזמנה MILAH SHE'LO B'ZEMANAH - (lit. Milah which is not in its time) Milah which is performed after the eighth day
15) [last line] דאתיא בקל וחומר D'ASYA B'KAL VA'CHOMER - that would otherwise have been permitted, since it may be learned through a Kal va'Chomer