BACKGROUND TO THE DAILY DAF
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
[23a - 53 lines; 23b - 48 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Gemara 23b [line 23]:
"d'Rebbi Avin... d'Havah Ragil b'Sheragei Tuva... d'Vei Nasha d'Rav Shizvi... d'Havah Ragil bi'Shragei Tuva" דרבי אבין ... דהוה רגיל בשרגי טובא ... דבי נשא דרב שיזבי ... דהוה רגיל בשרגי טובא
Rebbi Avin's house was blessed with two sons who became Talmidei Chachamim while Rav Shizvi's (father's or) father-in-law's house was blessed with only one. Two reasons are given to explain this difference, and they depend on the correct Girsa in the Gemara. (Incidentally, the manuscripts lack the word "Tuva" in both instances.)
(a) The Rif, Rosh, and Sefer ha'Itim in the name of "Yesh Mefarshim ha'Girsa" are Gores in the case of Rebbi Avin, "d'Havah Ragili b'Shragei" (plural), and in the case of Rav Shizvi, "Ragili b'Shraga" (singular). Rebbi Avin was meticulous in both Ner Chanukah and Ner Shabbos, and therefore he merited to have two sons who became Talmidei Chachamim (see Maharsha).
(b) Tosfos DH Hachi Garsinan, however, is Gores in the case of Rebbi Avin, "d'Havu Ragili b'Shraga," meaning Rebbi Avin and his wife. In Rav Shizvi's case, Tosfos is Gores, "d'Havas Ragilah b'Shraga," which refers only to Rav Shizvi's mother or mother-in-law. Therefore, he merited to produce only one Talmid Chacham. This Girsa is also found in Dikdukei Sofrim #6, the Oxford manuscript, and the manuscript of the Rif. This is also Rashi's intent when he writes (in DH b'Shraga) that even the story of Rebbi Avin refers only to Ner Shabbos, which is the Mitzvah of the woman of the house. Only Rav Shizvi's mother or mother-in-law was meticulous with regard to Ner Shabbos in their house, while in Rebbi Avin's house Rebbi Avin himself took care to help his wife in the Mitzvah.
 Rashi 23b DH u'Mipnei Bitul Aniyim : ד"ה ומפני ביטול עניים
The words "Masai Yiktzor Osam" מתי יקצור אותם
should be "Masai Yekatzeh Osah" מתי יקצה אותה (RASHASH)
1) [line 1] עששית ASHASHIS - a lantern
2) [line 13] אכסנאי ACHSENA'I - a lodger
3) [line 14] בי רב BEI RAV - in the Yeshiva
4) [line 14] משתתפנא בפריטי בהדי אושפיזא MISHTATEIFNA B'PERITEI BAHADEI USHPIZA - I would make myself a partner with the host by giving him some money
5) [line 16] בגו ביתאי B'GO BEISA'I - in my house
6) [line 18] מן המובחר MIN HA'MUVCHAR - is the best way to do the Mitzvah (lit. is the choicest kind)
7) [line 18] מריש ME'REISH - at first
8) [line 18] הוה מהדר מר HAVAH MEHADER MAR - Rabah would try to obtain
9) [line 19] משחא דשומשמי MISHCHA D'SHUMSHEMEI - sesame oil
10) [line 19] משך נהורי טפי MASHACH NEHOREI TFEI - its light lasts longer
11) [line 21] אמשחא דזיתא MISHCHA D'ZEISA - olive oil
12) [line 21] צליל נהוריה טפי TZALIL NEHOREI TFEI - its light is clearer and brighter
13) [line 23] לגבל L'GABEL - to mix [soot produced by burning olive oil under an overturned glass vessel with a small amount of olive oil]
14) [line 24] לעשן L'ASHEN - to produce soot of olive oil
15) [line 28] השרפין HA'SERAFIN - types of sap
16) [line 29] שרף קטף SERAF KETAF - and the sap of the balsam tree, Commiphora Opobalsamum, which grows wild in Yemen and around Mecca
17) [line 39] דמאי DEMAI
(a) Produce bought from an Am ha'Aretz (an unlearned Jew who is lax in his Torah-observance; see Berachos 47b) is referred to as Demai ("Da Mai?" - "What is this?").
(b) Yochanan Kohen Gadol decreed that Terumas Ma'aser and Ma'aser Sheni (see ) must be separated from this produce since a minority of Amei ha'Aretz cannot be trusted to have separated them before selling the produce. Terumah Gedolah, however, because of its stringency, is presumed to have been separated. Ma'aser Rishon and Ma'aser Ani are separated from the produce, but they are eaten by the owner and not given to the Levi or the Ani (in keeping with the principle "ha'Motzi me'Chaveiro Alav ha'Re'ayah").
18) [line 39] מערבין בו ומשתתפין בו ME'ARVIN BO U'MISHTATFIN BO - we may make an Eruv (both an Eruv Chatzeiros and an Eruv Techumin) and a Shituf Mavo'os with food of Demai (see previous entry) (ERUV CHATZEIROS / ERUV TECHUMIN) (See )
(a) ERUV CHATZEIROS - King Shlomo decreed that transferring objects from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another is forbidden unless an Eruv Chatzeiros (lit. a "mixing of the courtyard" - Rambam Hilchos Eruvin 1:6; or a "fraternization of the courtyard" - Eruvin 49a) is created on Friday, before Shabbos begins (Shabbos 14b, Eruvin 21b). The equivalent of an Eruv Chatzeiros for an alley or a city is called a Shituf Mavo'os. This is accomplished by all of the neighbors collectively setting aside a loaf of bread, in one common container, in one of the houses of the courtyard (or, in the case of Shituf, in one of the courtyards of the alleyway). This shows that all neighbors have an equal share in all of the Reshuyos ha'Yachid, just as they all have a share in that bread. Through this act, they can be considered one Reshus again (RAMBAM ibid. 1:4-9). (In the case of an alley or city, any food is permissible to use as an Eruv, except for water, salt and mushrooms.) There must be enough food for two meals for one person.
(b) ERUV TECHUMIN - A person is allowed to walk only a distance of 2000 Amos, approximately 960 meters (3147 feet) or 1,152 meters (3774 feet), depending upon the differing Halachic opinions, from his city (or dwelling place if he is not in a city) on Shabbos or Yom Tov. If he wants to walk another 2000 Amos, he must make an Eruv Techumin. This is accomplished by placing an amount of food that would be used for two meals nearly 2000 Amos away from his present location, in the direction in which he wishes to walk. The location where his food is placed is considered his new dwelling or place of Shevisah for that Shabbos or Yom Tov, and he may walk 2000 Amos in any direction from there.
19) [line 44] דלא לזילזולי בה D'LO L'ZILZULEI BAH - so that they should not treat it (Yom Tov Sheni) disrespectfully, as if it was not holy
20) [line 46] חשדא CHASHADA - suspicion (that he did not light candles)
21) [line 47] בני מתא BNEI MASA - the residents of the city
22) [line 50] אמר רבי שמעון AMAR REBBI SHIMON - (Rebbi Shimon used to suggest logical reasons for the Torah's commandments - "Darish Ta'ama di'Kra," as in Yevamos 23a)
23) [line 51] פיאה PE'AH
(a)The corner, or end, of the harvest of grain must be left in the field for the poor, as it states, "Lo Sechaleh Pe'as Sadecha Liktzor... le'Ani vela'Ger Ta'azov Osam" - "Do not completely harvest the corner of your field... you shall leave them (the gifts of Pe'ah, Leket, Olelos and Peret) for the poor and the stranger" (Vayikra 19:9-10).
(b)The requirement to leave Pe'ah for the poor applies to trees as well, as Chazal learn from the verse, "Ki Sachbot Zeisecha, Lo Sefa'er Acharecha; la'Ger, la'Yasom vela'Almanah Yiheyeh" - "When you beat your olive trees to shake off the fruit, do not remove all of its splendor; it (the amount that you leave as Pe'ah - Chulin 131b) shall be for the convert, the orphan and the widow" (Devarim 24:20). Pe'ah does not apply to vegetables, as is explained in Pesachim 56b.
24) [last line] שעה פנוייה SHA'AH PENUYAH - a time when the poor people are not around
25) [line 3] תבא מארה TAVO ME'EIRAH - a curse should come
26) [line 7] שני פיות SHNEI PIYOS - two holes for wicks
27) [line 9] הקיפה פתילות HIKIFAH PESILOS - and he put wicks all around it
28) [line 12] נר ביתו NER BEISO - the candle a person is obligated to light for Friday night (Ner Shabbos)
29) [line 13] שלום ביתו SHELOM BEISO - peace in his household
30) [line 17] פרסומי ניסא PIRSUMEI NISA - publicizing the miracle
31) [line 22] גרבי יין GARVEI YAYIN - kegs of wine
32) [line 23] חליף ותני CHALIF V'TANI - would often pass by
33) [line 24] דרבי אבין נגרא REBBI AVIN NAGRA - Rebbi Avin the Carpenter
34) [line 24] חזא דהוה רגיל בשרגי טובא CHAZA D'HAVAH RAGIL BI'SHRAGEI TUVA - he saw that he was accustomed to light many Shabbos candles
35) [line 25] גברי רברבי GAVREI RAVREVEI - great people
36) [line 28] דבי נשא דרב שיזבי D'VEI NASHA D'RAV SHIZVI - of the house of the father of Rav Shizvi; alt. of the house of the father-in-law of Rav Shizvi
37) [line 37] דרחים רבנן D'RACHIM RABANAN - one who loves the Chachamim
38) [line 37] דמוקיר רבנן D'MOKIR RABANAN - one who honors the Chachamim
39) [line 38] חתנוותא CHASNEVASA - sons-in-law
40) [line 40] משתמען מיליה MISHTAM'AN MILEI - his words will be heeded
41) [line 40] ולא בשמן שריפה V'LO B'SHEMEN SEREIFAH - (The Gemara interrupts the discussion of the laws of Chanukah in order to finish explaining our Mishnah, before resuming the Chanukah discussion; see )
42) [line 42] תרומה שנטמאה TERUMAH SHE'NITME'AH (TERUMAH TEME'AH)
(a) After a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah Gedolah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop. After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that remains must be designated "Ma'aser Rishon," and given to a Levi. The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser, to be given to a Kohen, as it states in Bamidbar 18:26.
(b) A non-Kohen may not eat Terumah or Terumas Ma'aser. Even Kohanim and their families and slaves may not eat Terumah unless they and the Terumah are Tehorim (ritually pure). A Kohen who is Tamei who eats Terumah that is Tehorah is liable to Misah b'Yedei Shamayim, as is learned from the verse in Vayikra 22:9.
(c) If Terumah becomes Teme'ah, it may not be eaten, as the Torah states, "b'Chol Kodesh Lo Siga" (Vayikra 12:4). In addition, there is a Mitzvah to burn it (Shabbos 25a). The Rishonim argue whether this is a Mitzvah d'Oraisa or a Mitzvah d'Rabanan (see ). The Kohanim may benefit from it while it is being burned, such as by using it as fuel for a fire (Shabbos 25b).
43) [line 46] אין שורפין קדשים ביום טוב EIN SORFIN KODSHIM B'YOM TOV (SEREIFAS KODSHIM U'TERUMAH)
(a) It is a Mitzvah to burn Kodshim that became Teme'im or Pesulim and Terumah that became Tamei.
(b) The Mitzvah to burn Kodshei Kodashim that are Teme'im or Pesulim and Kodshim Kalim that are Teme'im is learned from the verse "ba'Esh Yisaref" (Vayikra 7:19). The Mitzvah to burn Kodshim Kalim that are Pesulim is a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai (Pesachim 82b). Although it is also a Mitzvah to burn Terumah that becomes Temei'ah, as the Gemara states (Shabbos 25a), the Rishonim argue as to the source for this Mitzvah. RASHI (ibid. DH Mitzvah and 23b DH she'Mitzvah) explains that it is a Mitzvah mid'Rabanan, either to prevent accidental consumption, or because of its similarity to Kodshim. TOSFOS (ibid. 25a DH Kach), on the other hand, writes that mid'Oraisa it is a Mitzvah to burn it, like Kodshim Pesulim, since Terumah is also called "Kodesh" (Vayikra 22:10 et seq.). It is similarly evident from Tosfos elsewhere (to Pesachim 82b DH Aval, citing the RASH) that there is a Mitzvah mid'Oraisa to burn Terumah Temei'ah (see MITZPEH EISAN and other Acharonim there).
(c) Nevertheless, it is prohibited to burn Kodshim Pesulim and Terumah Temei'ah on Yom Tov. The Gemara (Daf 24b) brings four ways to learn this from the verses.
(d) Burning for the sake of preparing food (l'Tzorech Ochel Nefesh) is permitted on Yom Tov, as long as an existing fire is used. The Gemara Beitzah 12b teaches that since it is permitted l'Tzorech, burning in general (she'Lo l'Tzorech) is also permitted. However, there must be at least some benefit (Tzorech ha'Yom Ketzas) that is derived from it on that day of Yom Tov. Since burning Kodshim Teme'im is a Mitzvah, if a person burns them on Yom Tov, the benefit that he derives is considered subordinate to the Mitzvah he performs. Therefore it is considered as though there was no Tzorech ha'Yom at all. Therefore burning Kodshim is prohibited mid'Oraisa (TOSFOS 24b DH Lefi).