BACKGROUND TO THE DAILY DAF
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
[25a - 25 lines; 25b - 37 lines]
1) [line 12] להסיקה תחת תבשילך L'HASIKAH TACHAS TAVSHILCHA - to use it as fuel to cook your food
2) [line 14] "ולא בערתי ממנו בטמא" "V'LO VI'ARTI MIMENU B'TAMEI" - "I have not consumed any of it (Ma'aser Sheni) while Tamei" (Devarim 26:14)
3) [line 22] ומה ראית? U'MAH RA'IS? - what did you see that made you decide to interpret the verses in this manner, and not the opposite way?
4) [line 23] פיגול PIGUL
(a) A sacrifice that was slaughtered (or any of the other three main actions involved in offering a sacrifice: Kabalas ha'Dam, Holachas ha'Dam, Zerikas ha'Dam — see ) with the intention of eating it or offering it Chutz li'Zemano (after its allotted time) becomes disqualified. Similarly, a Minchah that was offered with intentions of offering it (i.e. doing one of its essential Avodos) or eating it after its allotted time becomes disqualified.
(b) It is forbidden to eat such a Korban, as the verse states, "v'Im He'achol Ye'achel mi'Besar Zevach Shelamav ba'Yom ha'Shelishi, Lo Yeratzeh, ha'Makriv Oso Lo Yechashev Lo, Pigul Yiheyeh" - "If [the person offering the sacrifice plans] to eat it on the third day, [the sacrifice] will not be accepted. It is considered Pigul (putrid, rejected) and it will not be counted in his favor" (Vayikra 7:18).
(c) If a person eats a k'Zayis of Pigul b'Mezid (intentionally) after Hasra'ah (being forewarned), he is punished with Malkus (lashes); the Lav for eating Pigul is learned from the verse of the Milu'im (Shemos 29:34). If he was not given Hasra'ah, he is Chayav Kares. If he eats it b'Shogeg (unintentionally), he must bring a Korban Chatas (as with all sins for which one is liable to Kares b'Mezid) (SEFER HA'CHINUCH Mitzvah #144.)
5) [line 23] נותר NOSAR
(a) If any meat of a Korban remains after the time that was allotted for it to be eaten, it must be burned, as the Torah states, "b'Yom Zivchachem Ye'achel umi'Macharas, veha'Nosar Ad Yom ha'Shelishi ba'Esh Yisaref" - "It shall be eaten the same day that you slaughter it and on the next day, and anything that remains until the third day shall be burned in fire" (Vayikra 19:6; see ).
(b) If a person eats a k'Zayis of Nosar b'Mezid (intentionally) after Hasra'ah (being forewarned), he is punished with Malkus (lashes); the Lav for eating Nosar is learned from the verse of the Milu'im, "v'Im Yivaser mi'Besar ha'Milu'im u'Min ha'Lechem Ad ha'Boker, v'Sarafta Es ha'Nosar ba'Esh, Lo Ye'achel Ki Kodesh Hu" - "And if any flesh or bread of the Milu'im sacrifices is left over until the (following) morning, you shall burn the remnants in fire, it shall not be eaten since it is holy" (Shemos 29:34). If he was not given Hasra'ah, he is Chayav Kares. If he eats it b'Shogeg (unintentionally), he must bring a Korban Chatas (as with all sins for which one is liable to Kares b'Mezid) (SEFER HA'CHINUCH Mitzvah #215).
6) [line 24] מעילה ME'ILAH
(a)It is forbidden to derive personal benefit from anything that is Hekdesh, as the Torah states, "Lo Suchal le'Echol b'Sha'arecha... u'Nedarecha Asher Tidor" - "You may not eat in your settlements... and your pledges [to Hekdesh] that you will pledge" (Devarim 12:17) (RAMBAMHilchos Me'ilah 1:1-3; see Insights). The minimum amount for which one transgresses this prohibition is a Perutah's worth of benefit.
(b)If someone benefited from Hekdesh b'Mezid (intentionally), he is liable to Malkus (according to the Rabanan; according to Rebbi he is liable to Misah b'Yedei Shamayim - Sanhedrin 83a) and must pay to Hekdesh the amount that he benefited. However, the object from which he benefited remains Hekdesh.
(c)If someone benefited from Hekdesh b'Shogeg (unintentionally), the object loses its Kedushah. He must bring a Korban Asham Me'ilos (as described in Vayikra 5:15-16) and repay Hekdesh the value of his benefit plus an additionalfifth(of the ensuing total, or a quarterof the original value). This is true of any object that has Kedushas Damim (i.e. its value is consecrated to Hekdesh). An object that has Kedushas ha'Guf (i.e. an object with intrinsic Kedushah, such as the utensils used in the Beis ha'Mikdash or a live Korban that is used in the Beis ha'Mikdash "as is") does not lose its Kedushah under any circumstances (Rosh Hashanah 28a).
7) [line 24] אונן ONEN - a mourner during the time between death and burial
8) [last line] מיתה MISAH- the punishment that a non-Kohen and a Kohen who is Tamei receive for eating Terumah Tehorah is Misah bi'Yedei Shamayim. (MISAH B'YEDEI SHAMAYIM)
(a)Some sins are so severe that they are punished with untimely death. There are two types of untimely death that are used as heavenly punishments: Kares, and Misah b'Yedei Shamayim. Kares means "being severed" from the world and dying before one's time. Misah b'Yedei Shamayim means "death at the hands of heaven." These punishments are not administered by the courts, but through divinely administered justice.
(b)One who deliberately transgresses a commandment that is punishable with either Kares or Misah b'Yedei Shamayim is punished even if there are no witnesses to his act, and even if he was not warned at that time of his transgression that his violation will result in his untimely death.
(c)The commentaries explain that there are two major differences between Kares and Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (seeTOSFOStoYEVAMOS2a DH Eshes Achiv;RABEINU YONAHin Sha'arei Teshuvah, 3:6;TIFERES YISRAELto Sanhedrin 9:6):
1.One who is punished with Kares will die before age 60 (according to Moed Katan 28a, or before the age of 50, according to the Yerushalmi Bikurim 2:1). One punished with Misah b'Yedei Shamayim will die after the age of 60 but before his time has come (according to Moed Katan ibid., or before the age of 60, according to the Yerushalmi ibid.)
2.When one is punished with Kares, even his children (who are minors at the time of his sin) die, and he bears no further children. When one is punished with Misah b'Yedei Shamayim, only he is punished and not his children (Yevamos 55a andRASHIthere). (See, however,RIVAin Tosfos to Yevamos 2a DH Eshes, who maintains that Kares only involves the death of one's children in the two cases where the Torah adds the word "Ariri." However, he might be referring to the death of children who arenot minors.)
3.Some add that when punished with Kares, the sinner's cattle and possessions slowly expire until he is left destitute — seeInsights to Yevamos 73:2.
(d)For a number of specific sins, the Torah assigns a form of Kares in which the sinner not only dies before his time but is not granted a portion in the World to Come (Sanhedrin 64b, 90b).
9) [last line] חומש CHOMESH
(a) After a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah from the crop, which he gives to a Kohen. Kohanim and members of their households are allowed to eat Terumah, as long as they are Tehorim.
(b) If a non-Kohen eats or benefits from Terumah in a normal fashion without knowing that it was Terumah, he must pay the amount that he benefited to the Kohen who owns the Terumah, plus an additional fifth (of the ensuing total, or a quarter of the original value), which is given to any Kohen (Terumos 6:2). The payment for the original amount must be made in the form of a food which can itself become Terumah (i.e. it is not already Ma'aser, etc.)
(c) If he benefited in an abnormal fashion, such as by drinking olive oil, he pays only the value of the object destroyed (i.e. the normal law of damages applies to him).
10) [line 1] הנך נפישן HANACH NEFISHAN - these properties are greater in number
11) [line 3] "[ראשית דגנך תירשך ויצהרך...] תיתן לו" "[REISHIS DEGANCHA TIROSHCHA V'YITZHARECHA...] TITEN LO" - "[The first portion of your grain, wine, and oil...] give to him (the Kohen)" (Devarim 18:4)
12) [line 14] עריבה AREIVAH - a basin
13) [line 16] בסדינין המצוייצין SADININ HA'METZUYATZIN - a linen cloak with woolen Tzitzis
14) [line 17] מחבין ממנו MECHABIN MIMENU - hide from him
15) [line 21] גזירה משום כסות לילה GEZEIRAH MISHUM KESUS LAILAH - the Chachamim decreed not to put woolen Tzitzis on linen garments because he might put them on a garment that is only used at night which is not obligated in Tzitzis, thereby violating the prohibition of Kil'ayim
16) [line 21] "ותזנח משלום נפשי נשיתי טובה" "VA'TIZNACH MI'SHALOM NAFSHI, NASHISI TOVAH" - "My soul has loathed seeking peace, I have forgotten that which is good" (Eichah 3:17)
17) [line 26] כלים נאים שעליה KELIM NA'IM SHE'ALEHA - the pleasant bedspreads and linens that are upon it
18) [line 27] מטה מוצעת MITAH MUTZA'AS - a bed that is laid out with its bedding
19) [line 28] נחת רוח NACHAS RU'ACH - pleasure, satisfaction
20) [line 35] צרי TZARI - the sap of the balsam tree, Commiphora Opobalsamum, which grows wild in Yemen and around Mecca
21) [line 36] ריחו נודף REICHO NODEF - its fragrance wafts into the air