[13a - 41 lines; 13b - 29 lines]

1)[line 1]לא עייל כללLO AYIL KLAL- [the verse is discussing produce] that had not grown at all [when Rosh Hashanah arrived]

2)[line 1]תשמט ותיזילTISHAMET V'TEIZIL- the laws of Shemitah should continue to apply

3)[line 3]"וחג האסיף בצאת השנה [באספך את מעשיך מן השדה]""V'CHAG HA'ASIF B'TZES HA'SHANAH, [B'ASPECHA ES MA'ASECHA MIN HA'SADEH.]"- "... and the festival of gathering when the year leaves (i.e., ends), [when you gather your work from the field]" (Shemos 23:16)

4a)[line 4]אסיפהASIFAH- gathering [that produce that had been harvested and then left to dry in the field]

b)[line 5]קצירKATZIR- harvesting [that produce that is still growing in Tishrei]

5)[line 5]וקים להו לרבנןKIM LEHU L'RABANAN- the Rabanan are able to expertly determine

6)[line 9]לאו אמינא לךLAV AMINA LACH- have I not told you

7)[line 9]לא תפיק נפשך לבר מהלכתא?LO SAPIK NAFSHACH L'VAR ME'HILCHESA?- not to place yourself outside of the Halachah; that is, not to question the accuracy of the Shi'urim established by the Chachamim?

8)[line 11]בארבעים סאה הוא טובלB'ARBA'IM SE'AH HU TOVEL (MIKVAH)

(a)If a person (or utensil) becomes Tamei, then he (or it) must be immersed in either a Mikvah (a cavity of gathered rainwater) or a spring as part of the purification process.

(b)A Mikvah must contain at least forty Se'ah of rainwater for it to be Metaher. This is equal to approximately 288, 331.78 or 576 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions.

9)[line 12]קורטובKORTOV (measurements of volume)

(a)

1 Se'ah = 6 Kav

1 Kav = 4 Log

1 Log = 64 Kortov

(b)A Se'ah contains approximately 7.2, 8.29, or 14.4 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions. As there are therefore 1536 Kortov in a Se'ah, one Kortov is equal to either 4.7, 5.4 or 9.4 ml.

10)[line 13]כביצה מטמא טומאת אוכליןK'BEITZAH METAMEI TUM'AS OCHLIN

(a)All objects belong to one of three categories:

1.Sources of Tum'ah

2.Objects that can become Tamei

3.Objects that cannot become Tamei

(b)A source of Tum'ah is called an Av ha'Tum'ah. The exception to this is a corpse, which is referred to as the "Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah," due to the fact that it can generate more Tum'ah than any other object. When an object becomes Tamei from coming into contact with an object which is Tamei, that object does not receive the same Tum'ah as that of the first object, but rather a level of Tum'ah one degree weaker than the first. If an object came into contact with an Av ha'Tum'ah, it is called a Rishon l'Tum'ah, or Vlad ha'Tum'ah. Tum'ah received from a Rishon creates a Sheni l'Tum'ah, and that from a Sheni creates a Shelishi (in certain cases), etc.

(c)A metal utensil can become an Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah, an Av ha'Tum'ah, or a Rishon l'Tum'ah (see Insights to Pesachim 14b); a person and all utensils other than earthenware can become an Av ha'Tum'ah or Rishon l'Tum'ah (although Chazal decreed that one's hands sometimes have the status of a Sheni l'Tum'ah); earthenware utensils can only become a Rishon l'Tum'ah; food and liquids which are Chulin can become a Rishon l'Tum'ah or a Sheni l'Tum'ah; Terumah can become a Shelishi l'Tum'ah as well; and Hekdesh can receive the status of a Revi'i l'Tum'ah.

(d)Food becomes Tamei when it comes into contact with a source of Tum'ah only if it first came into contact with one of the seven liquids that enable food to become Tamei. This is called Hechsher. From then on, even after it dries, it can still become Tamei. The seven liquids which enable food to become Tamei are water, dew, oil, wine, milk, blood, and bee's honey.

(e)The minimum amount of food which can become Tamei is the equivalent of the volume of an egg - a k'Beitzah. This is equivalent to either 0.05, 0.0576 or 0.1 liter, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions.

(d)Once food becomes Tamei, it cannot become Tahor by immersing it in a Mikvah.

11)[line 14]שומשוםSHUMSHUM- [an amount equal in volume to] a sesame seed

12)[line 14]שלשה על שלשה מטמאמדרסS HELOSHAH AL SHELOSHAH METAMEI MIDRAS

(a)A Zav (see Background to Yoma 63:6), Zavah (see Background to Yoma 63:7), Yoledes (see Background to Yoma 55:17), or Nidah (see Background to Pesachim 23:62) cause objects underneath them to become Avos ha'Tum'ah whether or not they come into contact with them. The status of such an object is that of a Tamei Midras (lit. that which is treaded upon), also known as a Mishkav or Moshav ha'Zav/Zavah, or the "Tachton" of a Zav or Zavah. An object beneath a Zav or a Zavah becomes a Midras only if it is designed for lying, sitting, or leaning upon. Earthenware objects (Klei Cheres) cannot receive Tum'as Midras.

(b)One who comes into contact with or carries a Midras becomes a Rishon l'Tum'ah. As well, his clothes and any other utensils (other than earthenware utensils) that he is touching receive this level of Tum'ah.

(c)A piece of cloth must be at least three Tefachim square in order to become Tamei from Tum'as Midras. Cloth smaller than this is not considered fit to be sat upon.

13)[line 16]נימאNIMA- a thread

14)[line 17]לאו מילתא היא דאמריLAV MILSA HI D'AMRI- that which I asked was not a question

15)[line 17]חברייאCHAVRAYA- colleagues

16)[line 18]עומרOMER (KORBAN HA'OMER)

(a)It is a Mitzvah to offer the Korban ha'Omer on the second day of Pesach. A large quantity of barley is reaped after nightfall following the first day of Pesach. At this time the grain is still moist, and the process of extracting one Omer (approximately 2.2, 2.5 or 4.3 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of barley flour is extremely difficult. The flour is then baked and offered as a Korban Minchah on the sixteenth of Nisan, which is also known as the Yom ha'Nef (the day of waving). This is because Tenufah - waving in the four directions of the compass as well as up and down - is performed with this Minchah. (This Korban is also referred to as the Minchas Bikurim - Vayikra 2:14-16). A lamb is offered as an Olah along with the Minchah (Vayikra 23:12).

(b)Chadash refers to grain that begins to take root after the Korban ha'Omer is brought on the second day of Pesach. This grain may not be eaten until the following year's Korban ha'Omer is offered (Vayikra 23:14). When there is no Beis ha'Mikdash, Chadash may not be eaten until after the second day of Pesach, which is when the Korban Omer would have been offered.

17)[line 22]"ויאכלו מעבור הארץ ממחרת הפסח [מצות וקלוי בעצם היום הזה]""VA'YOCHLU ME'AVUR HA'ARETZ MI'MACHARAS HA'PESACH [MATZOS V'KALUY; B'ETZEM HA'YOM HA'ZEH]"- "And they ate from the produce of the land on the day following the [eating of the Korban] Pesach, [Matzos, and roasted grain; on that very day.]" (Yehoshua 5:11) - Klal Yisrael were nourished by the Man until the sixteenth of Nisan, when they offered the Korban ha'Omer and were permitted to eat Chadash (see previous entry).

18)[line 25]כל שלא הביא שליש ביד נכריKOL SHE'LO HEVI SHLISH B'YAD NOCHRI- as long as the grain had not grown a third while in the possession of a Nochri [it is considered to have grown in the possession of the Jews]

19)[line 28]ריבעאRIV'A- a fourth

20)[line 30]בעשור לחדשBE'ASOR LA'CHODESH- on the tenth of the month [of Nisan]

21)[line 30]"והעם עלו מן הירדן בעשור לחדש הראשון ויחנו בגלגל בקצה מזרח יריחו""V'HA'AM ALU MIN HA'YARDEN B'ASOR LA'CHODESH HA'RISHON VA'YACHANU BA'GILGAL BI'KETZEH MIZRACH YERICHO" "And the people came out of the Yarden on the tenth of the first month, and they encamped in Gilgal on the eastern edge of Gilgal." (Yehoshua 4:19) (ENTERING ERETZ YISRAEL)

(a)Yisrael crossed the Jordan River into Eretz Yisrael on the first Yahrtzeit of Miriam ha'Nevi'ah, five days short of forty years after leaving Egypt.

(b)According to some opinions, Gilgal was actually a sixty-Mil distance from the point where they crossed, and they miraculously arrived there on the same day that they crossed (see Malbim).

22)[line 32]דנקאDANKA- a sixth

23)[line 34]"ויעש הבא אליו כרצונו ואין עומד לפניו ויעמד בארץ הצבי וכלה בידו""VA'YA'AS HA'BA ELAV KI'RETZONO V'EIN OMED LEFANAV V'YA'AMOD B'ERETZ HA'TZVI V'CHALAH B'YADO" - "And the one who came from the north did with him as he wished, and he could not stand before him, and he stood in the land that is like a deer, and he destroyed it with his hordes." (Daniel 11:16) (ANTIYOCHUS, MIGHTY KING OF GREECE)

(a)Daniel describes how eventually Alexander Mokdon (Alexander the Great) would die, and his vast kingdom would be split into four. He then details some of the interplay between the kings of each respective quadrant.

(b)The MALBIM explains that this verse refers to the successes of Antiyochus, King of Greece. He first defeated Mitzrayim, and then turned his attention to Eretz Yisrael. He was eventually defeated miraculously by the Chashmona'im, leading to the events that precipitated the miracle which we celebrate during Chanukah.

24)[line 36]"[חג הסכת תעשה לך שבעת ימים] באספך מגרנך ומיקבך""[CHAG HA'SUKOS TA'ASEH LECHA SHIV'AS YAMIM,] B'ASPECHA MI'GORNECHA UMI'YIKVECHA"- "[You shall make for yourself the holiday of Sukos for seven days,] when you gather from your threshing floor and from your press." (Devarim 16:13) - The simple understanding of the second clause in this verse is that it is a description of the time of year during which Sukos falls.

25)[line 37]בפסולת גורן ויקב הכתוב מדברB'PESOLES GOREN V'YEKEV HA'KASUV MEDABER- the verse is referring to that which remains from the threshing floor and press (i.e., denuded stalks of wheat, olive branches, and grape vines and clusters). This derivation teaches that one must use that which has grown from the ground and cannot become Tamei for the Sechach of his Sukah. Rebbi Chanina therefore suggests that the verse quoted by the Gemara earlier can be read as, "... and the festival during which that which is gathered from the fields is used to build Sukos when the year leaves (i.e., ends), which occurs at the time of year that you gather your work from the field."

26)[line 38]הא מילתאHA MILSA- this thing (i.e., the source for that which grains, grapes, and olives belong to the year in which they grew one third of their growth for Ma'aser purposes]

27)[line 39]שדא ביה נרגאSHADA BEI NARGA- swung an ax at it; i.e., cut this down as a possible source

28)[last line]"[וצויתי את ברכתי לכם בשנה הששית] ועשת את התבואה לשלש השנים""[V'TZIVISI ES BIRCHASI LACHEM BA'SHANAH HA'SHISHIS,] V'ASAS ES HA'TEVU'AH LI'SHLOSH HA'SHANIM"- "[And I shall visit my blessing upon you in the sixth year,] and I shall make the grain last for three years." (Vayikra 25:21) - This is the response given by HaSh-m to those who question how it is possible to survive a Shemitah year in which no crops are planted.

13b----------------------------------------13b

29a)[line 4]האורזOREZ- (a) (O.F. mil) millet (RASHI); (b) rice (TOSFOS to Berachos 37a DH RASHI.)

b)[line 5]והדוחןDOCHAN- (a) (O.F. panil, paniz) panic grass; a subspecies of millet (RASHI); (b) (O.F. mil) millet (TOSFOS to Berachos 37a)

c)[line 5]והפרגיןPERAGIN- (O.F. mac) poppy seeds

d)[line 5]והשומשמיןSHUMSHEMIN- sesame seeds

30)[line 5]שהשרישוSHE'HISHRISHU- that took root

31)[line 6]ומותרין בשביעיתMUTARIN BI'SHEVI'IS- it is permitted [to treat] them [in a normal fashion] on Shemitah [when it falls on the following year]

32)[line 8]אילן בתר חנטהILAN BASAR CHANATAH- [fruits of] a tree belong to [the year in which] they begin to grow [for Ma'aser purposes]

33)[line 11]שעשויין פרכין פרכיןASUYIN PERACHIN PERACHIN- they are [harvested and] husked bit by bit. This easily leads to a situation in which some will end up harvested before Rosh Hashanah and some after, in which case it would be forbidden to separate Terumah or Ma'aser from one group in order to fix the other.

34)[line 12]ויצבור גורנו לתוכוV'YITZBOR GORNO L'SOCHO- he should pile [all of] the [grain in the] silo in the middle [mix it well, and simply separate Ma'aser from the mixture]

35)[line 15]פול המצרי שזרעוPUL HA'MITZRI SHE'ZAR'O L'ZERA- a) Egyptian bean (Taro); b) (O.F. feisol) haricot bean (the common green bean) that was planted with the intention of eating the beans [in which case it is considered a legume (Kitnis), as opposed to the entire pods, in which case it is considered a vegetable]

36)[line 23]יש בילה/ אין בילהYESH BILAH / EIN BILAH

Whether or not that which is removed from a mixture can be assumed to contain the two ingredients in the same proportion as the original mixture is the subject of a Tana'ic disagreement. Rebbi Shimon Shezuri rules that Yesh Bilah (we may consider it to be well mixed), whereas the Rabanan maintain that Ein Bilah.

37)[line 28]חוץ מייןושמןC HUTZ MI'YAYIN V'SHEMEN- with the exception of wine and oil [or for that matter, any liquid]

38)[line 28]אשתמיטתיהISHTEMITETEI- it escaped [Rebbi Zeira's] notice

39)[last line]הכל הולך אחר גמר פריHA'KOL HOLECH ACHAR GEMAR PRI- all [produce] (with exception of grains, grapes ,and olives, as the Gemara will make clear) follows the year in which it fully ripens [for Ma'aser purposes]

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