[a - 38 lines; b - 36 lines]
1a)[line 5]לשמוLI'SHMO- with the intention that it should be a Korban Pesach (which is valid only on Erev Pesach after midday)
b)[line 5]שלא לשמוSHE'LO LI'SHMO- with the intention that it should be a different Korban [such as a Korban Shelamim, in which case it would be valid as such if offered properly]
(a)If any of the four primary Avodos of a Korban (see Background to 61:32) are performed she'Lo Lishmah (with a different owner or Korban in mind), it is Kosher and may be offered upon the Mizbe'ach. However, if its owner was obligated to bring that particular Korban, he must bring another sacrifice in its stead to fulfill his obligation. Since the Avodos were performed she'Lo Lishmah, the original designation of the Korban was "uprooted" (Akar), and it is not considered to have been offered for the sake of its original owners. Exceptions to this rule are the Korban Pesach and Korban Chatas. When these Korbanos are not designated for any individual, they are Pasul.
(b)This is true for a Korban Pesach slaughtered she'Lo Lishmo on the afternoon of Erev Pesach, which is the time when it may be slaughtered as a Korban Pesach. If a Korban Pesach is offered before Erev Pesach it has the status of a Shelamim (see Background to 62:32). In order for this to be true, however, the Korban must undergo an "Akiras Shem." This means that the owner of the animal must declare or otherwise demonstrate that he no longer considers this animal to be a Pesach.
(c)A Korban Pesach slaughtered after that time ("Mosar ha'Pesach"; see Background to Pesachim 70:18) mostly has the status of a Korban Shelamim, and consequently when slaughtered she'Lo Lishmo (as a Shelamim or any another Korban) it is Kosher. There are those, however, who maintain that even such an animal - though it will never again be possible to offer it as a Korban Pesach - requires an Akirah in order for it to be considered a Shelamim (Pesachim 64a [see TOSFOS 60b DH b'She'ar]; Yoma 63a). Whenever an Akiras Shem is necessary and the animal is slaughtered without one, it is still considered a full-fledged Pesach and is Pasul as it was not slaughtered during its proper time (see Pesachim 60b).
(d)If one offers his animal which he had previously designated as a Pesach "she'Lo Lishmo" - with intent that it be a regular Shelamim or other Korban - this qualifies as an Akirah, and the animal has the status of a regular Korban Shelamim.
3)[line 9]מתני להו בדרבהMASNI L'HU BED'RABAH- learned [the two statements of Rav Chisda - that of Ho'il and that of Pesach she'Shachto ba'Chutz ... --] in the name of Rabah
4)[line 17]עקירת חוץAKIRAS CHUTZ- an Akirah performed outside of the Beis ha'Mikdash (where it is forbidden to offer Korbanos)
5)[line 21]מחוסר זמן ... בגופוMECHUSAR ZMAN ... B'GUFO- if an animal is less than eight days old [in which case it may not be offered as a Korban (Vayikra 22:27; see below, entry #19)
(a)A Zav, a man who emits Zov two or three times (see Background to Shabbos 84:1), whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days, is an Av ha'Tum'ah. Zov is a clear discharge with the appearance of the white of a sterile or spoiled egg, in contrast with semen, which has the consistency of fresh egg white. Zov can also be a pus-like discharge resembling the liquid from barley dough or soft barley batter.
(b)A man who emits a discharge that may be Zov is "checked " to determine whether or not he becomes a Zav. If the discharge came about b'Ones (due to an external cause), he is Tahor. Some examples of Ones are: 1. eating too much; 2. drinking too much; 3. jumping; 4. being sick; etc. (see Zavim 2:2).
(c)A Zav must count seven "clean" days in which he sees no Zov in order to start his purification process (Vayikra 15:13). On the seventh day or afterwards, he must immerse in a spring. At nightfall he becomes Tahor, as long as he did not emit Zov again beforehand (ibid.).
(d)If a Zav emits Zov only two times, he does not bring a Korban. If he emitted Zov three times, whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days, he must offer a Korban in order to permit him to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or to eat Kodshim. The Korban consists of two Torim (turtledoves) or two Bnei Yonah (common doves), one offered as an Olah and one as a Chatas.
(a)The eleven days that follow the seven days of Nidah (see Background to Pesachim 112:62) are "days of Zivah." If a woman experiences bleeding during these days for one or two consecutive days, she becomes a Zavah Ketanah and is Teme'ah.
(b)If she does not experience bleeding the following night and day, she may immerse in a Mikvah to become Tehorah. She may even immerse on the morning immediately following the day on which she saw blood, but her Tum'ah and Taharah are contingent upon whether or not she sees blood afterwards on that day. She is called a Shomeres Yom Keneged Yom, because she must watch the following day to confirm whether or not she sees blood.
(c)If a woman has a show of blood for three consecutive days during her 11 days of Zivah, she becomes a Zavah Gedolah. In order for her to become Tehorah, she must count seven "clean days" during which she verifies that she has no other show of blood. On the morning of the seventh clean day she immerses in a Mikvah. If she does not experience bleeding during the rest of the day she is Tehorah and no longer a Zavah. A Zavah Gedolah must offer a Korban Zavah to permit her to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or to eat Kodshim. The Korban consists of two Torim (turtledoves) or two Bnei Yonah (common doves), one offered as an Olah and one as a Chatas.
(a)In discussing the laws of Tum'ah and Taharah, the Torah (Vayikra 12:1-8) states that a woman may not enter the Beis ha'Mikdash nor eat Kodshim immediately childbirth. How long she must wait is divided into two terms. 1) During the initial term, she has the status of a Nidah (even if she had not seen any blood during the process). If she gave birth to a boy, this term lasts for seven days. If a girl was born, this term lasts for two weeks. At the end of this term, she may go to the Mikvah. 2) During the second stage, any blood that she sees does not cause her to have the status of a Nidah as it normally would. The blood that she sees during this period is called "Dam Tohar". (The current practice is to consider a woman a Nidah even during the period of Dam Tohar - see Insights to Nidah 25a.) She still may not eat Kodshim nor enter the Beis ha'Mikdash, however. This term lasts for thirty-three days following the first seven after birth of a boy, and sixty-six days following the first fourteen after the birth of a girl. Thus, the total waiting period following the birth of a boy is forty days, and following the birth of a girl, eighty days.
(b)At the end of this period, any blood that the Yoledes sees is no longer considered Tahor, and will cause her to have the status of a Nidah. At this point she must bring a Korban Yoledes, after which she may eat Kodshim and enter the Beis ha'Mikdash. The Korban consists of a male sheep as a Korban Olah, and a dove or a turtledove as a Korban Chatas. If she can not afford the sheep, she may bring two doves or two turtledoves, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas.
(c)A woman who miscarries her child must follow the above procedure as well.
9)[line 23]מצורעMETZORA- see Background to 61:13
10)[line 23]שהקריבו חטאתם ואשמם בחוץ פטוריןSHE'HIKRIVU CHATASAM VA'ASHAMAM B'CHUTZ PETURIM- if their Chatas or the Asham [of the Metzora] is slaughtered outside of the Beis ha'Mikdash, they have not transgressed the prohibition against Shechitas Chutz. This is because these Korbanos are not valid as is since the time has not yet arrived for them to be offered, nor may they as voluntary offerings (she'Lo li'Shmo) since a Chatas and Asham must remain specific to their owner (see above, entry #2).
11)[line 28]בעי עקירהBA'I AKIRAH- they must be uprooted [from their current status as a Korban Chatas or Asham]
12)[line 29]פסח בשאר ימות השנה שלמים נינהוPESACH B'SHE'AR YEMOS HA'SHANAH SHELAMIN NINHU- A Korban Pesach is automatically considered a Korban Shelamim at any time of year other than Erev Pesach [even without Akirah]
13)[line 30]כדאמרינןKED'AMRINAN- following the opinion of Ravin in the name of Rebbi Yirmeyah in the name of Rebbi Yochanan
14)[line 1]אי קרבןIY KORBAN- if [the verse had stated the word] "Korban" [only]
15)[line 1]קדשי בדק הביתKODSHEI BEDEK HA'BAYIS (KEDUSHAS HA'GUF / KEDUSHAS DAMIM)
(a)There are two classifications into which all items consecrated to Hekdesh fall. These are:
1.KEDUSHAS HA'GUF - that which holds intrinsic Kedushah, such as an animal fit to be offered upon the Mizbe'ach, or a utensils fit to be used in the performance of the Avodah in the Beis ha'Mikdash (RAMBAM Hilchos Me'ilah 6:5). This is also termed KODSHEI MIZBE'ACH.
2.KEDUSHAS DAMIM - that which is not fit to be used in its present state in the Beis ha'Mikdash, but whose value is consecrated to Hekdesh. Such items are sold, and the proceeds go toward any day-to-day needs of Hekdesh. This is also termed KODSHEI BEDEK HA'BAYIS.
16)[line 2]"וַנַּקְרֵב אֶת-קָרְבַּן יְהוָה; [אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר מָצָא כְלִי-זָהָב אֶצְעָדָה, וְצָמִיד, טַבַּעַת, עָגִיל, וְכוּמָז לְכַפֵּר עַל-נַפְשֹׁתֵינוּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה.]""VA'NAKREV ES KORBAN HASH-M; [ISH ASHER MATZA CHLI ZAHAV ETZ'ADAH, V'TZAMID, TABA'AS, AGIL, V'CHUMAZ L'CHAPER AL NAFSHOSEINU LIFNEI HASH-M.]"- "And let us bring an offering (Korban) to Hash-m; everyone who has found any golden items [such as] an anklet, a bracelet, a ring, an earring, or a body ornament [wishes to offer it] to atone for our souls before Hash-m" (Bamidbar 31:50). During the war against Midyan, no Jewish soldiers fell. In order to express their gratitude to Hash-m, the soldiers wished to make a donation to the Mishkan. This Pasuk was the statement of the captains and generals of the army.
17)[line 7]פרת חטאתPARAS CHATAS (PARAH ADUMAH)
(a)The Parah Adumah, an exclusively red-haired female cow is burned on Har ha'Zeisim and its ashes are used for making a person Tahor if he is Tamei Mes. A place is prepared for its slaughter on Har ha'Zeisim, opposite the gate to the Azarah (the courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash). After it is slaughtered, its blood is sprinkled in the direction of the Beis ha'Mikdash seven times. A cedar branch, some hyssops (Ezov) and a piece of crimson wool are burned along with the cow. (Bamidbar 19:1-22)
(b)If a person (or utensil) became Tamei through touching a Mes, he must wait seven days to become Tahor. On the third and seventh days he must have spring water mixed with the ashes of the Parah Adumah (Mei Chatas) sprinkled on him. A person who is Tahor dips three hyssops which have been bound together into the mixture and sprinkles them on the person who is Tamei. On the seventh day, he immerses in a Mikvah after the mixture is sprinkled on him to complete his Taharah.
(c)Although it is not a Korban and, indeed, no part of the process involving it is performed inside the Beis ha'Mikdash, the Parah Adumah is referred to in the Torah as a Chatas (Bamidbar 19:9,17).
18)[line 10]שאין מיוחדין לשםSHE'EIN MEYUCHADIM LA'SH-M- that [both the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach and the Parah Adumah] are not offered as Korbanos to Hash-m
19)[line 11][שׁוֹר אוֹ-כֶשֶׂב אוֹ-עֵז כִּי יִוָּלֵד, וְהָיָה שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תַּחַת אִמּוֹ; וּמִיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי, וָהָלְאָה,] יֵרָצֶה לְקָרְבַּן אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה.""[... UMI'YOM HA'SHEMINI VA'HAL'AH,] YERATZEH L'KORBAN ISHEH LA'SH-M."- "[When a bull, sheep, or goat is born, it shall remain with its mother for seven days; and from the eighth day and onward,] it shall be desirable as a Korban to Hash-m" (Vayikra 22:27).
20)[line 11]אלו אישיםELU ISHIM- this [teaches us that offering an animal that is less than eight days old upon] the fire [of the Mizbe'ach is considered Mechusar Zman]
21)[line 12]שלא יקדישנו מחוסר זמןSHE'LO YAKDISHENU MECHUSAR ZEMAN- that one cannot consecrate an animal as a Korban before it is eight days old?
22)[line 20]אפילו דם בכוס מביא חבירו ומזווג לוAFILU DAM B'KOS, MEVI CHAVEIRO U'MEZAVEG LO- even if the blood of the Sa'ir la'Shem is collected in a bowl [and the Sa'ir la'Azazel dies], bring another goat and pair them. Our Gemara assumes that this means that Chanan ha'Mitzri does not require a lot to be drawn in such a situation. Therefore, the Goat brought to replace the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach need not be fit for the Sa'ir la'Shem.
23)[line 22]דחוייןDECHUYIN- [that the blood of the Sa'ir la'Shem is] rejected [if the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach dies unlike Rebbi Yehudah in our Mishnah]
24)[line 23]מייתי ומגרילMAISI U'MAGRIL- [Chanan ha'Mitzri meant that] he should bring [another pair of goats] and draw lots [between them, although the blood of the first Sa'ir la'Shem is still valid]
25a)[line 27]שהומםSHE'HUMAM- that developed a Mum
b)[line 27]וחיללו על אחרV'CHILELO AL ACHER- and he transferred its Kedushah to another [which need not be fit for the Sa'ir la'Shem in such a case]
26)[line 28]"[ עַוֶּרֶת אוֹ שָׁבוּר אוֹ-חָרוּץ אוֹ-יַבֶּלֶת אוֹ גָרָב אוֹ יַלֶּפֶת - לֹא-תַקְרִיבוּ אֵלֶּה, לַה';] וְאִשֶּׁה לֹא-תִתְּנוּ מֵהֶם [עַל-הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לה'.]""... V'ISHEH LO SITNU ME'HEM [AL HA'MIZBE'ACH LA'HASH-M]"- "[a blind animal, a lame animal, an animal with a cataract, an animal with a wart, an animal with a tumor, an animal with a growth - do not offer these to Hash-m; and an offering of them do not place on the Mizbe'ach to Hash-m." (Vayikra 22:22).
27)[line 29]חלביםCHALAVIM (HEKTER CHALAVIM V'EVARIM)
(a)All of the service performed in the Beis must be performed during the day. This includes the slaughter of the Korban and all of the subsequent Avodos up to and including the application or dashing of its blood upon the Mizbe'ach. If there was no time to burn its Chalavim (certain fats, also called Pedarim) and Evarim (limbs) during the day, however, then they may be placed on the fire atop the Mizbe'ach for the entire following night. As long as the Zerikas ha'Dam was performed before nightfall, the Korban is kosher.
(b)The limbs burned upon the Mizbe'ach depend upon the type of Korban offered. The fats burned include the layer of fat covering the stomachs, all other fat attached to the stomachs, the two kidneys, the fat on the kidneys, and the Yoseres, which is either the diaphragm (RASHI, RADAK) or a certain lobe of the liver (RAV HAI GA'ON) (Vayikra 3:3-4).
28)[line 29]מקצתןMIKTZASAN- a k'Zayis worth
29)[line 30]זריקת דמיםZERIKAS DAMIM (ZERIKAS HA'DAM)
(a)The Dam ha'Nefesh (lifeblood) that exits the body of every Korban following its slaughter is collected in a bowl (Kabalas ha'Dam). In the case of a Chatas, it is then applied to the sides of all four Keranos (cubic Amah posts placed upon the corners of the Mizbe'ach). The Kohen begins with the southeastern Keren and proceeds to his right, continuing with the northeastern corner, etc.
(b)It is through this service that atonement is gained for he who offers the Chatas. This is stated clearly in the Torah: "Ki ha'Dam Hu, ba'Nefesh Yichaper" - "for it is the blood that will atone for the soul" (Vayikra 17:11).
30)[line 35]דמאיסD'MA'IS- that it is [rejected due to that which it is] disgusting [to Hash-m as a Korban]