1) [line 31] KULHU TASHLUMIN D'RISHON
(a) Every Jewish male is required to bring a Korban on each of the three festivals known as an Olas Re'iyah. This Korban, as all Olos are, is completely burned upon the Mizbe'ach. This obligation is derived from the Pasuk which states, "v'Lo Yera'eh Es Pnei HaSh-m Reikam" -- "And you should not be seen before HaSh-m empty-handed" (Devarim 16:16). If one has not offered this Korban on the first day of the Pesach, he may offer it on any of the ensuing six days of the festival. Likewise, on Shavu'os one may offer an Olas Re'iyah on either the day of Shavu'os or any of the six days following. The opportunity to offer the Olas Re'iyah extends throughout all eight days of the festival of Sukos.
(b) There is a dispute among the Amora'im as to whether or not one has a primary obligation to offer this Korban on the first day of the festival. There are those who rule that the Mitzvah is to offer the Olas Re'iyah on the first day of Yom Tov. If, however, one does not do so, then he has the opportunity to make up for having missed it for a time afterwards; the successive days serve as "Tashlumin" ("repayment") for the first day. Others maintain that the obligation is to bring a Korban on one of the days of the festival -- not necessarily the first (Chagigah 2a). According to this approach, the day upon which one is obligated in the Olas Re'iyah is the first day of the festival upon which he is Halachically fit to do so. Any successive days are Tashlumin for that day. One major difference resulting from this disagreement affects one who was not Halachically fit to offer this Korban on the first day (e.g. due to lameness or blindness) who is now fit on one of the subsequent days (e.g. he has been healed). According to the first opinion mentioned above, since such an individual was not obligated on the first day of the festival, he is exempt from offering an Olas Re'iyah for that entire festival. According to the second opinion, he has incurred an obligation on the day upon which he has become Halachically able to do so.
2) [line 34] D'AKAR SIKEI U'MASHKENEI V'RAHIT - that will uproot his tent-pegs and his tent and will run away from Yerushalayim?
3) [line 42] ABA - Rav (whom Shmuel referred to by this dignified name; RASHI Berachos 47a)
4) [line 6] HIGDILU ZAVIN AL HA'TEHORIN - the Zavin are added to the number of Tehorin (both of whom will not bring the Korban Pesach b'Tum'ah)
5) [line 9] NITZREFU ZAVIN IM TEME'EI MESIM - the Zavim (who have become Tahor -- RASHI) are joined to the Teme'ei Mesim (both of whom did not bring the Korban Pesach b'Tum'ah)
6) [line 16] TUM'AS HA'TEHOM
(a) Tum'as ha'Tehom (lit. Tum'ah of the deep) refers to a hidden, unknown Tum'ah, such as a corpse discovered lying beneath a road. If a Nazir or one on his way to offer a Korban Pesach become Tamei from Tum'as ha'Tehom prior to offering their Korbanos, they need not offer their Korbanos again. This is known from a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai.
(b) According to Rashi, if there is reason to suspect that one became Tamei in such a manner before he offers his Korbanos, then his Korbanos may not be offered. Only if his Tum'ah was not discovered until after the Shechitah of his Korban is his Korban accepted -- even if it has since become clear that he definitely was Tamei. The Rambam, however, rules that even one who has reason to suspect that he is Tamei before his Korban is offered may still do so, and only one who is certain of his Tum'ah is rejected until he becomes Tahor. (See Insights).
*7*) [line 24] TUM'ASO, B'SHOGEG HURTZAH, B'MEITZID LO HURTZAH - (This assertion was not necessary in order to answer the question that the Gemara posed; it was made in order to answer another question posed by the Gemara in Menachos 25b -- Tosfos DH Hu ha'Din)
8) [line 45] EIN SHOCHTIN V'ZORKIN AL TEME'EI SHERETZ - we do not perform the Shechitah and Zerikas ha'Dam of the Korban Pesach for someone who is Tamei Sheretz -- even though he is able to immerse in a Mikvah and will be Tahor in the evening when the Pesach is eaten.
9) [last line] SHOMERES YOM KENEGED YOM
(a) The eleven days which follow the seven days of Nidah (see Background to Shabbos 121:5) are termed days of Zivah. If a woman experiences uterine bleeding during this time for either one day or two consecutive days, she is known as a Zavah Ketanah and is Teme'ah. As long as she experiences no bleeding for the following night and day, she may immerse in a Mikvah to become Tehorah. She may even immerse the morning immediately following the bleeding, although whether or not she becomes Tehorah is contingent upon whether or not she sees blood later on that day. A woman in such a situation is called a Shomeres Yom Keneged Yom, for she must watch the following day in order to determine whether or not she has continued to bleed.
(b) If a woman has a show of blood for three consecutive days during her eleven days of Zivah, she attains the status of a Zavah Gedolah. In order to become Tehorah, she must count seven "clean days" during which she experiences no further bleeding. On the morning of the seventh clean day she may immerse in a Mikvah. As long as she experiences no further bleeding over the rest of that day she is Tehorah and no longer a Zavah. She must then offer a Korban Zavah in order to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or partake of Kodshim. This Korban consists of two regular doves or turtle-doves, one offered as an Olah and the other as a Chatas.
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