BACKGROUND TO THE DAILY DAF
prepared by Kollel Iyun Hadaf of Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
[81a - 36 lines; 81b - 53 lines]
1) [line 4] מכאן ולהבא היא מטמאה MI'KAN UL'HABA HI METAM'AH - she is Teme'ah only from this point and onwards [if she has a bloody show once she has immersed herself in a Mikvah on the second day; it is not connected to the previous bleeding to give her the status of a Zavah Gedolah]
2) [line 5] זב ZAV
(a) A man who emits Zov at least twice, whether this occurs over the course of one day or two or consecutive days, is called a Zav. Zov is a clear discharge with the appearance of the white of a sterile or spoiled egg (in contrast to semen, which has the consistency of fresh egg white). Zov also may be a pus-like discharge resembling the liquid component of barley dough or soft barley batter. A Zav has the status of an Av ha'Tum'ah and may not enter "Machaneh Leviyah" (see ).
(b) A Zav must count seven "clean" days during which he experiences no discharge in order to start his purification process. On the seventh day or following, he immerses himself in a Mikvah during the daytime. At nightfall he becomes Tahor (assuming that he continues to experience no emissions; Zavim 2:2).
(c) If a Zav emits Zov only twice, he need not bring a Korban. If he has discharged Zov three times, however -- whether over the course of one day or over two or three consecutive days, he must offer a Korban after completing his seven clean days in order to be able to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or eat Korbanos.
(d) Similar to a Nidah and a Yoledes, a Zav causes an object underneath him to become an Av ha'Tum'ah whether or not he comes into contact with it. The status of such an object is that of a Tamei Midras (lit. that which is treaded upon), also known as a Mishkav or Moshav ha'Zav, or the "Tachton" of a Zav. An object beneath a Zav becomes a Midras only if it is designed for lying, sitting, or leaning upon. Earthenware objects (Klei Cheres) cannot receive Tum'as Midras.
(e) A person who touches (Maga) or carries (Masa) either a Midras of a Zav or a Zav himself gains the status of a Rishon l'Tum'ah. Not only the person himself, but even the clothes he is wearing and any other utensil (with the exception of earthenware utensils) that he is in contact with at the time become a Rishon l'Tum'ah.
(f) Utensils or clothing lying above a Zav also become a Rishon l'Tum'ah, whether or not they come into contact with the Zav. Such objects are referred to as the "Elyon" of a Zav.
(g) A Tahor person or object moved (or outweighed on a balance scale) by a Zav becomes a Rishon Tum'ah. This is called Tum'as Heset, and is an application of Tum'as Masa (see (e) above). Only a Zav, Zavah, Nidah, or Yoledes can be Metamei people or objects in this manner.
3) [line 10] מאי למפרע? מדרבנן MAI L'MAFRE'A? MID'RABANAN - what [did Rebbi Yosi mean when he stated that they transfer Tum'ah] retroactively? [That they do so only] mid'Rabanan.
4) [line 13] סותר את שלפניו SOSER ES SHE'LEFANAV - destroys what came before it; that is, he must restart his count of seven clean days
5) [line 17] לא יסתור ולא יומו LO YISTOR V'LO YOMO - he need not recount even the day [on which he emitted Zov]
6) [line 25] זבה גמורה היכי משכחת לה? ZAVAH GEMURAH HEICHI MISHKACHAS LAH? - The Gemara earlier posited that Rebbi Yosi is of the opinion that if a woman experiences bleeding during her days of Zivah, she may go to the Mikvah and become Tahor even if she subsequently bleeds that very day. If such bleeding has no connection to that of the day before, how does a woman ever gain the status of a Zavah Gedolah?
7) [line 26] בשופעת B'SHOFA'AS - when she bleeds continuously for three days
8) [line 27] שראתה כל שני בין השמשות SHE'RA'ASAH KOL SHNEI BEIN HA'SHEMASHOS - [she did not bleed for three days straight, but] she bled straight through [the] two evenings [which connect the three days of Zivah]. Since she was bleeding at the end of each day into the next, it is impossible to view the situation as if she had stopped her bleeding of the previous day and begun a new accounting.
9a) [line 34] במקום שלא הותרה לו טומאה ידועה MAKOM SHE'LO HUTRAH LO TUM'AH YEDU'AH - that which may never be offered when Tum'ah is unquestionably present [such as a Korban Nazir whose owner is Tamei, even if there are no Kohanim who are Tahor available]
b) [last line] מקום שהותרה לו טומאה ידועה MAKOM SHE'HUTRAH LO TUM'AH YEDU'AH - that which may be offered when Tum'ah is unquestionably present [such as a Korban Tamid when there are no Kohanim who are Tahor available]
10) [line 3] עצם כשעורה הלכה ETZEM K'SE'ORAH HALACHAH (NAZIR)
(a) One who vows to become a Nazir may not: (1) cut his hair; (2) become Tamei by touching or being in the same room as a corpse; or (3) consume any products of a grapevine (Bamidbar 6:1-7).
(b) If a Nazir comes into contact with or is in the same room as a corpse, whether this occurred willingly or unwillingly, he must first undergo the seven-day Taharah process for a Temei Mes (see ). He then shaves all of his hair on the seventh day. Following this, he offers a Korban consisting of either two doves or two pigeons -- one as an Olah and the other as a Chatas. Whatever amount of time he had been a Nazir until that point no longer counts; he must fulfill his vow of Nezirus again from the beginning (Bamidbar 6:9-12).
(c) A Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai states that the minimum amount of a corpse which will interrupt the Nezirus of a Nazir is one the size of an Adashah (grain of barley).
(d) Rebbi Akiva suggests the following logic: if an Adashah from a Mes, which does not generally transfer Tum'ah to a person, interrupts Nezirus, then a Revi'is of blood, which generally *does* transfer Tum'ah to a person, all the more so should interrupt Nezirus (Nazir 56b)!
11) [line 7] במחוורת עליוB'MECHUVERES ALAV - when it is clear to him (that he became Tamei)
12a) [line 14] עד דידע הוא AD D'YADA HU - [a source of Tum'ah should not be considered Tum'as ha'Tehom] unless he himself [previously] knew about it
b) [line 15] עד דידעי בה תרין AD D'YAD'I BAH TREIN - [a source of Tum'ah should not be considered Tum'as ha'Tehom] unless two people [previously] knew about it
c) [line 16] עד דידעי כולי עלמא AD D'YAD'I KULEI ALAMA - [a source of Tum'ah should not be considered Tum'as ha'Tehom] unless the entire world [previously] knew about it
13) [line 21] המוצא מת מושכב לרחבו של דרך HA'MOTZEI MES MUSHCHAV L'RACHVO SHEL DERECH - one who discovers [that he had traversed a spot where there was] a corpse buried widthwise across the path
14) [line 22] לתרומה TERUMAH
(a) Once a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify how much to give, the Rabanan set the requirement at between one fortieth and one sixtieth of the total crop. Kohanim and their wives, unmarried daughters, and Nochri slaves may eat Terumah, as long as they are Tehorim.
(b) If a Kohen or a member of his household discovers that he had traversed such a spot, he is considered Tamei to the point where he may not partake of Terumah.
15) [line 23] להבא הוא L'HABA HU - implies [that this ruling] is regarding future applications
16) [line 31] אף לתרומה טהור AF L'TERUMAH TAHOR (SAFEK TUM'AH BI'RESHUS HA'YACHID / BI'RESHUS HA'RABIM)
(a) When there is a doubt as to whether an object is Tahor or Tamei, its status depends upon its location. If the object is in a Reshus ha'Rabim the object may be considered Tahor. If it is in a private domain, then it must be considered Tamei.
(b) This is learned from the law regarding a woman suspected of being unfaithful to her husband. If two people witness the unfaithfulness of a Sotah, she is judged to be Teme'ah and therefore may not remain married to her husband. Similarly, when there are two people present when a doubt arises regarding the Tum'ah/Taharah status of a person or object, he or it is judged to be Tamei. Such a case is referred to as a Reshus ha'Yachid l'Tum'ah. If more than two people are in the area where the doubt arose, it is a Reshus ha'Rabim l'Tum'ah. In such a case, the person or object is judged to be Tahor.
(c) If it was possible that the person who walked over an area where a corpse was buried walked in between the body parts of the corpse, then as long as that area is a Reshus ha'Rabim he may consider himself Tahor.
17a) [line 32] משובר MESHUBAR - broken up
b) [line 32] ומפורק MEFURAK - dismembered
18) [line 32] בין הפרקים BEIN HA'PERAKIM - between the parts
19) [line 34] שהקבר מצרפו SHEHA'KEVER METZARFO - for the grave combines them; see below, entry #21:f
20) [line 35] טעון TA'UN - if he was carrying a load
21) [line 36] שלא יגע ולא יאהל SHE'LO YIGA V'LO YE'AHEL (TUM'AH: TUM'AS MES)
(a) A k'Zayis of the flesh of a Mes (corpse) is an "Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah" and causes other people or objects to become Tamei through Maga (contact), Masa (carrying), or Ohel (being in the same covered area as the person or object).
(b) When a dead body or the bones of a Mes are in a covered area which is at least one Tefach in length, width, and height (such as in a room of a house), the Ohel (lit. tent) causes all (Jewish) people, vessels, and food which has been Huchshar l'Kabel Tum'ah (see ) below it to become Tamei, while at the same time preventing anything above it from becoming Tamei. That is, an Ohel is Mevi Es ha'Tum'ah (spreads the Tum'ah underneath it) and is Chotzetz bi'Fnei ha'Tum'ah (intervenes between the Tum'ah and the space above the Ohel).
(c) In order for bones of a dead body to be Metamei b'Ohel, they must meet at least one of the following three conditions: 1. They constitute a quarter of a Kav (Rova ha'Kav); 2. They are the majority of the human body (this condition is fulfilled whether they are the majority of the build (Rov Binyano) of a body or whether they are the majority of the number* (Rov Minyano) of the 248 bones of a body); 3. The bone is either a complete skull or a complete spinal column. This is in contrast to the minimum requirement for a bone to be Metamei through Maga (touching) or Masa (carrying); for these Tum'os it is enough for the bone to be the size of a Se'orah (a grain of barley).
(d) In an Ohel ha'Mes, people, vessels, or food in the Ohel become Tamei even if the Mes only passes through without stopping. One who enters an Ohel ha'Mes becomes Tamei even if only part of his body enters the Ohel, and even if he enters backwards. A Mechitzah (partition) in an Ohel ha'Mes only prevents the spread of Tum'ah if it reaches the ceiling. (RASH to Kelim 1:4)
(e) Not every object which stands over Tum'ah is Mevi and Chotzetz. There are objects which are Mevi and not Chotzetz, others which are Chotzetz and not Mevi, and yet others which are neither Mevi nor Chotzetz (Ohalos 8:5). An object flying through the air such as a bird or a Talis carried or caught by the wind -- even if it is one Tefach wide -- is not an Ohel and is neither Mevi nor Chotzetz.
(f) A grave or any part of a grave is Metamei through Ohel, as the Torah specifically states (Bamidbar 19:16).
22) [line 37] במה דברים אומרים BA'MEH DEVARIM AMURIM - when is it true [that a Nazir or one on his way to offer a Korban Pesach is Tahor]
23a) [line 41] בתבן TEVEN - straw
b) [line 42] ובצרורות TZEROROS - pebbles
c) [line 43] באפילה AFEILAH - a dark place
d) [line 43] בנקיקי הסלעים NEKIKEI HA'SELA'IM - the crevices of rocks
24) [line 46] הבירה HA'BIRAH - the Beis ha'Mikdash
25) [line 46] מעצי המערכה ATZEI HA'MA'ARACHAH - wood designated as fuel with which to burn Korbanos on the Mizbe'ach
26) [line 47] והנותר NOSAR
(a) Any meat of a Korban which remains after the time within which it may be eaten must be burned, as the Torah states (Vayikra 19:6) "b'Yom Zivchachem Ye'achel umi'Macharas, veha'Nosar Ad Yom ha'Shelishi ba'Esh Yisaref" - "It shall be eaten on the day that you slaughter it and on the next, and that which remains until the third day shall be burned in fire."
(b) Regarding the Korban Pesach, the Torah writes, "v'Lo Sosiru Mimenu Ad Boker..." - "And do not leave over anything from it until the morning; anything left over from it until the morning must be burned in fire" (Shemos 12:10). If someone transgresses this prohibition, he also transgresses the Lav of "Lo Sosiru Mimenu Ad Boker" (Vayikra 22:30), which refers to all Korbanos (Pesulei ha'Mukdashin 18:9; Sefer ha'Chinuch #142 and Minchas Chinuch).
(b) If someone eats at a k'Zayis of Nosar intentionally he is Chayav Kares, as the Torah states (ibid. 19:8) "... v'Ochlav Avono Yisa... v'Nichresah ha'Nefesh ha'Hi me'Ameha" - ("... and one who eats it shall bear his sin... and that soul will be cut off from its nation." If he eats it unintentionally, he must bring a Korban Chatas. (Sefer ha'Chinuch Mitzvah 215)
27) [line 48] הציקנין HA'TZAIKANIN - the miserly
28) [line 50] מאי טעמא MAI TA'AMA - what is the reason [that one who allowed his Pesach to become at least mostly Tamei must burn it in front of the Beis ha'Mikdash]?
29) [line 52] בשר קדש BASAR KODESH - meat of Korbanos [which becomes Pasul as soon as it leaves Yerushalayim; see below, entry #31]
30) [last line] צופים TZOFIM - (lit. observation points) (a) the name of a village located on a mountain from which the Beis ha'Mikdash can be seen (RASHI 49a); further from that point the Beis ha'Mikdash is no longer visible (RASHI here); (b) any point from which Yerushalayim is still visible. (TOSFOS Pesachim 49a DH Im)
31) [last line] שורפו SORFO (YOTZEI: SEREIFASO)
The parts of the Korbanos that are eaten become Yotzei and are rendered unfit to be eaten if they leave their set boundaries (such as the Azarah for Kodshei Kodashim or Yerushalayim for Kodshim Kalim). Korbanos that were removed from the boundaries of the Azarah after they were slaughtered but before they were offered are also called Yotzei, and are forbidden to be offered on the Mizbe'ach. The Torah requires that all Yotzei be burned. This is known from a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai (Pesachim 82b); the Rambam (Hilchos Pesulei ha'Mukdashin 19:1), however, cites a verse (Vayikra 7:17) as the source for this Halachah.