(a)Rejection #1: It says "He will slaughter it"; and it says "Chukas (statute)" (which implies that everything must be done exactly like said, i.e.) through Shechitah, and not by Arifah.

(b)Objection: "Chukas" does not say that we cannot learn from a Kal va'Chomer!

1.It says "Chukas" regarding Yom Kipur;

2.(Beraisa): "He will make it a Chatas" teaches that the Goral (lottery) fixes the goat to be a Chatas, but calling it a Chatas does not.

i.Suggestion: We should learn from a Kal va'Chomer! Calling a bird a Chatas makes it a Chatas, but a Goral does not. A Goral makes one of the goats of Yom Kipur a Chatas, all the more so calling it a Chatas should work!

ii.Rejection: The verse teaches that this is not so.

iii.If not for the verse, we would have learned a Kal va'Chomer, even though it says "Chukas"!

(c)Rejection #2: "Ha'Arufah" teaches that the calf is Arufah, but something else (Parah Adumah) is not.

(d)Suggestion: A Kal va'Chomer should teach that Shechitah should be valid for Eglah Arufah;

1.Arifah is not valid for Parah Adumah, but Shechitah is. Arifah is valid for Eglah Arufah, all the more so Shechitah should be valid!

(e)Rejection: "They will break the calf's neck" teaches that Arifah is valid, but Shechitah is not.


(a)(Mishnah): What is valid for Kohanim is invalid for Leviyim. What is valid for Leviyim is invalid for Kohanim.

(b)(Gemara - Beraisa): Kohanim are disqualified by blemishes, but not by age. Leviyim are disqualified by age, but not by blemishes.

1.What is valid for Kohanim is invalid for Leviyim; what is valid for Leviyim is invalid for Kohanim.

(c)Question: What is the source for this?

(d)Answer (Beraisa): "After 50 years of age, a Levi will cease serving" teaches that age disqualifies a Levi.

1.Suggestion: A Kal va'Chomer should teach that blemishes disqualify a Levi.

i.Age does not disqualify Kohanim, but blemishes disqualify them. Age disqualifies Leviyim, so all the more so blemishes should disqualify them!

2.Rejection: "This is that is to the Leviyim" teaches that age disqualifies Leviyim, and nothing else.

3.Suggestion: A Kal va'Chomer should teach that age disqualifies a Kohen.

i.Blemishes do not disqualify Leviyim, but age disqualifies them. Blemishes disqualify Kohanim, all the more so age should disqualify them!

4.Rejection: "That is to the Leviyim", but not to the Kohanim.

5.Suggestion: Age should disqualify Leviyim even from serving in the Mishkan at Shilo and in the Mikdash.

6.Rejection: "To perform service, and the service of carrying" teaches that age disqualifies them only when the service is carrying (the Mishkan) on the shoulder.

(e)Contradiction: One verse says "from the age of 25", and another says "from 30 years"!

(f)Answer: From the age of 25 they learn the laws of service. At age 30, they start serving.

1.This is the source that a Talmid who does not see success in his learning within five years will never see success.

2.R. Yosi says, he must see success within three years - "three years to teach them to read and the language of the Babylonians (Arame'ic)."

i.Chachamim do not learn from this, for the language of the Babylonians is easy, therefore three years suffice.

ii.R. Yosi dos not learn from the Leviyim, for laws of service are hard, therefore five years are needed.

(g)(Beraisa): A Kohen may serve from the time he brings two hairs (adulthood) until he gets old. A blemish disqualifies him.

(h)A Levi may serve from the age of 30 until 50. Age disqualifies him.

1.This applies to the service in the Mishkan, in the Midbar; in Shilo and the Mikdash, he is disqualified only by inability to coordinate his voice.

2.R. Yosi: We learn from "the trumpeters and singers will be together like one voice".


(i)Question: What is considered too old?

(j)Answer (R. Chanina): It is when he quivers.

(k)(Mishnah): If a man had a seminal emission and immersed before urinating, when he next urinates, he is Tamei (for not all the semen left with the emission. The remainder is Metamei him when it leaves with the urine);

(l)R. Yosi says, this is if he is old or sick. If he is young and healthy (all the semen left with the emission, so) he remains Tahor.

1.Question: What is considered young?

2.Answer (R. Ilai): While standing on one leg, he can take off and put on a shoe on the other leg.

i.R. Chanina was able to do this at the age of 80.

ii.R. Chanina: My strength in my old age is due to the warm baths and lubricating oil that my mother gave to me in my youth.

(m)(Beraisa): When a man's beard is full, he is proper to be appointed to exempt the congregation in prayer and to bless Birkas Kohanim;

(n)He may serve in the Mikdash from the time he brings two hairs;

(o)Rebbi permits from the time he is 20.

1.(Rav Chisda): Rebbi learns from "they stood up the Leviyim from the sage of 20 to sing";

i.Chachamim hold that singing is different that other Avodah.

2.Objection: This verse discusses Leviyim! (How can Rebbi learn about Kohanim?)

3.Answer: R. Yehoshua ben Levi taught that in 24 verses, Kohanim are called Leviyim.

(p)(Beraisa - R. Elazar): "A man of (Aharon's) seed for generations (who has a blemish)" teaches that a minor, even unblemished, may not serve.

1.He may serve after he brings two hairs, but the older Kohanim would not allow anyone to serve before 20.

i.Version #1: This is like Rebbi. Below 20 there is no Isur to serve, just a custom that he does not serve.

ii.Version #2: Rebbi disqualifies from serving even below 20. R. Elazar holds like Chachamim. L'Chatchilah he may not serve. B'Di'eved, if he served, it is valid.


(a)(Mishnah): The part of Klei Cheres (earthenware) that is (always) Tahor, this part of other Kelim is (able to become) Tamei. The part of other Kelim that is Tahor, this part of Klei Cheres is Tamei.

(b)(Gemara - Beraisa): The interior (airspace) of Klei Cheres is Tamei, and the back (outer surface) is Tahor. The interior of other Kelim is Tahor, and the back is Tamei.

1.The part of Klei Cheres that is Tahor, this part of other Kelim is Tamei. The part of other Kelim that is Tahor, this part of Klei Cheres is Tamei.

(c)Question: What is the source of this?

(d)Answer (Beraisa): "(A Kli Cheres becomes Tamei if Tum'ah enters) its inside", even though it did not touch the Kli.

1.Suggestion: Perhaps it is only if it touched!

2.Rejection (R. Yonason ben Avtulmus): It says "its inside" regarding foods in the Kli becoming Tamei, and also regarding the Kli becoming Tamei;

i.Just like the former is even if the contents do not touch the Kli, also the latter is even if the Tum'ah does not touch the Kli.

ii.Question: How do we know that the contents become Tamei without touching?

iii.Answer (R. Yonason): The Torah declared that the contents of a Kli Cheres are Tamei, even if it is full of mustard seeds (even though the interior seeds are separated by many layers of seeds from the Kli. If they are Chulin, seeds that do not touch the Kli could not be Metamei other seeds.)