[24a - 50 lines; 24b - 43 lines]
1)[line 1]אמר קרא, "ושחט" "וחוקה"AMAR KRA, "V'SHACHAT" "V"CHUKAH"- the verses state "v'Shachat" - "and he shall slaughter" (Bamidbar 19:3) and [a word related to] "Chukah," (i.e. "Chukas," in the verse "Zos Chukas ha'Torah" - Bamidbar 19:2)
2)[line 3]והא גבי יום הכפורים דכתיב ביה "חוקה"V'HA GABEI YOM HA'KIPURIM DI'CHSIV BEI "CHUKAH"- but with regard to Yom ha'Kipurim, where [a word related to] "Chukah" (i.e. "l'Chukas," in the verse "v'Hayesah Zos Lachem l'Chukas Olam" - Vayikra 16:34) is mentioned,
3)[line 4]"... וְעָשָׂהוּ חַטָּאת.""V'ASAHU CHATAS"- "and he shall offer it (the Sa'ir la'Sh-m, see next entry) as a Korban Chatas" (Vayikra 16:9)
4a)[line 4]הגורל עושה חטאתHA'GORAL OSEH CHATAS - the Goral makes it into a Korban Chatas (GORAL)
(a)On Yom ha'Kipurim, a Goral (lottery) is performed by the Kohen Gadol to choose between two identical goats (Vayikra 16:7-10). One (the Sa'ir la'Sh-m) is offered as a Korban Chatas ha'Nisraf and its blood is sprinkled in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim (Vayikra 16:15); the other (the Sa'ir la'Azazel) is dispatched ("Mishtale'ach") to Azazel (a hard rocky cliff), from which it is pushed off to its death (Vayikra 16:21-22).
(b)A strip of crimson wool is tied between the horns of the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach before it is led to Azazel. The person who takes the goat to Azazel becomes Tamei and is required to immerse his body and clothes in a Mikvah (Vayikra 16:26). The remains of the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach are Asur b'Hana'ah.
(c)Before it is dispatched to Azazel, the Kohen Gadol performs Semichah upon the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach, confessing the sins of all of the people while doing so. According to Rebbi Yehudah, this confession achieves atonement for all of the people, for all sins except sins of Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav. According to Rebbi Shimon, this confession achieves atonement for all of the people except the Kohanim, for all sins except sins of Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav. (The second confession over the Par of the Kohen Gadol provides the Kohanim atonement for all other sins besides sins of Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav.)
b)[line 5]ואין השם עושה חטאתV'EIN HA'SHEM OSEH CHATAS- calling one goat "the Sa'ir la'Sh-m" or "the Chatas" does not designate it as the Korban Chatas (but rather, the Kohen Gadol must perform the Goral afterwards. If the Goral then designates the other goat as the Sa'ir la'Sh-m, we follow the designation of the Goral.)
5)[line 10]מיעט רחמנא גבי עגלה "הערופה"MI'ET RACHMANA GABEI EGLAH "HA'ARUFAH"- with regard to the Eglah ha'Arufah, the Torah (lit. the Merciful One) uses an exclusive word, "ha'Arufah" - "the one that is killed through Arifah" (Devarim 21:6)
6)[line 15]"... וְעָרְפוּ [שָׁם אֶת] הָעֶגְלָה ...""V'ARFU [SHAM ES] HA'EGLAH"- "and they shall perform Arifah upon the Eglah [there]" (Devarim 21:4) - The Gemara learns from the extra word "ha'Eglah" that the ceremony is only valid if Arifah, and not Shechitah, is performed upon the Eglah - MAHARSHAL)
7)[line 17]לויםLEVIYIM (AVODAS HA'LEVIYIM)
(a)While Bnei Yisrael were in the desert after the Exodus from Egypt, HaSh-m chose the Leviyim to officiate in the Divine Service to replace the Bechoros, who had been the Divine servants until then (Bamidbar 3:12, 18:6). He then separated the family of Aharon to become the Kohanim, the ones actually responsible for the performance of the Divine Service, while the Leviyim were to be their helpers (ibid. 18:1-7, Devarim 18:1-5). Anyone other than a Kohen or a Levi is known as a "Zar," "stranger," with regard to the specific actions that may be performed only by the Kohanim or Leviyim.
(b)While Bnei Yisrael encamped in the desert, the Leviyim were responsible for assembling, dismantling, and carrying the Mishkan. Carrying the parts of the Mishkan was limited to Leviyim between the ages of thirty and fifty. In addition, the Leviyim guarded the Mishkan and the Beis ha'Mikdash, and opened and locked the gates of the Beis ha'Mikdash. A Levi who opened gates was known as one of the "Sho'arim."
(c)Many of the sacrifices of the Mikdash required wine libations to be brought with them, as it states in Bamidbar 15:5-10. One of the appointments of the Leviyim in the Beis ha'Mikdash was to sing Tehilim and play musical instruments at the time that the wine libations were poured into special pipes at the top of the Mizbe'ach ha'Olah. At the time that the wine was poured, a signal was given for the Leviyim to begin singing the Tehilim. A Levi who sang in the Mikdash was known as one of the "Meshorerim." A Meshorer was not disqualified by age, but our Gemara rules that he was disqualified if he was not able to sing anymore.
8)[line 18]מומיןMUMIN - physical blemishes that render Kohanim unfit to perform the Avodah in the Beis ha'Mikdash (BA'AL MUM)
(a)It is forbidden for a Kohen who has a Mum (blemish) to do the Avodah in the Beis ha'Mikdash, whether the Mum is a Mum Kavu'a (a permanent blemish; e.g. an amputated hand or foot) or a Mum Over (a temporary blemish; e.g. boils). [According to the RAMBAM in SEFER HA'MITZVOS this is counted as two Lavin (#70 and 71). According to the RAMBAN they are counted as one Lav.]
(b)There are three types of blemishes (Bechoros 43a): 1. blemishes that invalidate a Kohen from doing the Avodah or invalidate an animal from being offered as a sacrifice on the Mizbe'ach; 2. blemishes that only invalidate a Kohen but not an animal; 3. blemishes that invalidate a Kohen and also an animal but only because of Mar'is ha'Ayin (for appearance sake).
(c)If a Kohen who had a Mum did the Avodah: 1. if he had a Mum that invalidates Kohanim and animals, his Avodah is Pesulah whether he did it b'Shogeg or b'Mezid, and he is liable to Malkus if he did it b'Mezid (according to the Rabanan. Rebbi rules that he is liable to Misah b'Yedei Shamayim.); 2. if he had a Mum that only invalidates Kohanim, his Avodah is Kesheirah (RAMBAM Hilchos Bi'as Mikdash 6:6); 3. if he had a Mum that only invalidates him because of Mar'is ha'Ayin, he does not receive Malkus and his Avodah is Kesheirah. (Sefer ha'Chinuch #275, 276)
9)[line 19]שניםSHANIM (LEVIYIM: PESUL SHANIM)
See above, entry #7:b.
10)[line 21]"זֹאת אֲשֶׁר לַלְוִיִּם [מִבֶּן חָמֵשׁ וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וָמַעְלָה יָבוֹא לִצְבֹא צָבָא בַּעֲבֹדַת אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד.]""ZOS ASHER LA'LEVIYIM [MI'BEN CHAMESH V'ESRIM SHANAH VA'MA'ALAH YAVO LI'TZVO TZAVA BA'AVODAS OHEL MO'ED.]"- "And this is [the law] with regard to the Leviyim: [from the age of twenty-five years and upwards, he shall come to serve in the legion of those who perform the service of the Ohel Mo'ed.]" (Bamidbar 8:24)
11)[line 22]"וּמִבֶּן חֲמִשִּׁים שָׁנָה יָשׁוּב [מִצְּבָא הָעֲבֹדָה, וְלֹא יַעֲבֹד עוֹד.]""UMI'BEN CHAMISHIM SHANAH YASHUV [MI'TZEVA HA'AVODAH, V'LO YA'AVOD OD.]"- "And from the age of fifty years he shall go back [from the legion of those who perform the service, and he shall work no more.]" (Bamidbar 8:25)
12)[line 33]בשילה ובבית עולמיםB'SHILOH UB'VEIS OLAMIM (BAMOS / MISHKAN SHILOH / BEIS HA'MIKDASH)
(a)BAMAH - A Bamah is a raised area used for sacrifices. Before the Beis ha'Mikdash was built (when the Mishkan was not in use), there were times when it was permitted to offer sacrifices on public altars (Bamas Tzibur or Bamah Gedolah) and private altars (Bamas Yachid or Bamah Ketanah) (see Insights to Pesachim 91:2).
(b)BAMAH GEDOLAH - Only one public altar was in use at any particular time. At various times in Jewish history, the Bamah Gedolah was in Gilgal (where the Mishkan stood before the land was completely conquered, until it was moved to Shiloh), Nov and Giv'on (after the Mishkan in Shiloh was destroyed, see Zevachim 112b). An individual could offer only voluntary sacrifices on a Bamah Gedolah. There is a difference of opinion among the Tana'im as to whether all communal sacrifices could be offered on a Bamah Gedolah or only the communal sacrifices that have a fixed time (Zevachim 117a).
(c)BAMAH KETANAH - Any person, even if he was not a Kohen, could build a Bamah Ketanah anywhere in Eretz Yisrael and offer upon it his personal sacrifices. Only voluntary sacrifices could be offered on a Bamah Ketanah.
(d)MIZBE'ACH - The Mishkan was built in Shiloh, a city in the portion of Efrayim, after the 14 years of conquest and apportionment of Eretz Yisrael. A Mizbe'ach (altar) was built to replace the Bamos, and as long as the Mishkan stood in Shiloh, sacrificing on the Bamos was prohibited. The Tana'im argue as to whether this Mizbe'ach was a stone structure or whether it was the hollow wooden Mizbe'ach overlaid with copper that was constructed for the Mishkan in the desert, filled with stones (Zevachim 61b). The Mishkan stood in Shiloh for 369 years (Seder Olam Raba 11).
(e)BEIS HA'MIKDASH - The Beis ha'Mikdash is known as the "Beis Olamim," the "Eternal Dwelling," because once it was chosen, it became the permanent dwelling place of the Shechinah. Once again the Bamos were prohibited, but this time permanently. The Mizbach ha'Chitzon (Outer Mizbe'ach), also know as the Mizbach ha'Olah (Mizbe'ach of the Korban Olah) of the Beis ha'Mikdash consisted of three concrete and stone platforms poured one on top of the other. (For a description of the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon, see Background to Menachos 97:9.)
13)[line 34]"... לַעֲבֹד עֲבֹדַת עֲבֹדָה וַעֲבֹדַת מַשָּׂא ...""... LA'AVOD AVODAS AVODAH VA'AVODAS MASA ..."- "to perform the service of singing (lit. the service of a service; singing is a part of the service of offering the Korbanos) and the service of carrying" (Bamidbar 4:47)
14)[line 35]לא אמרתי אלא בזמן שהעבודה בכתףLO AMARTI ELA BI'ZEMAN SHEHA'AVODAH BA'KASEF- I only said it (that a Levi is disqualified due to his advanced years) when the service [of carrying] was performed by [lifting the parts of the Mishkan onto their] shoulders [to carry them]
15a)[line 36]"... מִבֶּן חָמֵשׁ וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וָמַעְלָה ...""... MI'BEN CHAMESH V'ESRIM SHANAH VA'MA'ALAH ..."- "from the age of twenty-five years and upwards" (Bamidbar 8:24)
b)[line 37]"מִבֶּן שְׁלֹשִׁים [שָׁנָה וָמַעְלָה ...]""MI'BEN SHELOSHIM [SHANAH VA'MA'ALAH ...]"- from the age of thirty years and upwards" (Bamidbar 4:43)
16)[line 41]שלא ראה סימן יפה במשנתוSHE'LO RA'AH SIMAN YAFEH B'MISHNASO- who did not succeed (lit. see any good sign) in his learning
17a)[line 43]"... וּלְגַדְּלָם שָׁנִים שָׁלוֹשׁ ...""... UL'GADLAM SHANIM SHALOSH ...."- "and to raise them for three years" (Daniel 1:5)
b)[line 43]"... וּלֲלַמְּדָם סֵפֶר וּלְשׁוֹן כַּשְׂדִּים.""... ULE'LAMDAM SEFER U'LESHON KASDIM."- "and to teach them [the Chaldean] script (lit. [writing in a] book - METZUDAS TZIYON) and [Chaldean,] the language of the Kasdim" (Daniel 1:4)
18a)[line 44]דקלילD'KALIL- that it is easy [to learn]
b)[line 45]דתקיפיןD'TAKIFIN- that they are hard to learn [exactly how to dismantle the Mishkan, assemble it, fasten the Kerasim (the metal clasps of the curtain covers), set up the Kerashim (upright beams), sing the Tehilim and play the musical instruments]
19)[line 46]משיביא שתי שערותMISHE'YAVI SHTEI SE'AROS (SIMANIM)
(a)Simanim are the physical signs of maturity that confer the status of adulthood to a Jewish boy or girl with regard to their obligation in Mitzvos.
(b)From the time a child grows two pubic hairs, he is no longer considered to be a minor, and he is obligated in Mitzvos like a full-grown adult. The pubic hairs must fit certain criteria of length and location, and the child must also have reached a certain minimum age. The minimum age for a boy is 12 years, and for a girl is 11 years. If the hairs grew before the age of 12 for a boy and 11 for a girl, they are assumed to be the result of a mole and not pubic hair (Nidah 46a). If they grow between the ages of 12 and 13 for a boy, and between the ages of 11 and 12 for a girl, the Amora'im argue as to whether they confer the status of adulthood or not ("Toch Zeman k'Lifnei ha'Zeman" and "Toch Zeman k'Le'achar ha'Zeman" - ibid. 45b).
20)[last line]אין נפסלין אלא בקולEIN NIFSALIN ELA V'KOL- and they are only disqualified because of their voice (i.e. if they cannot sing - this presumably only applies to the Meshorerim - see above, entry #7:c)
21)[line 1]"וַיְהִי כְאֶחָד (למחצצרים) לַמְחַצְּרִים וְלַמְשֹׁרֲרִים לְהַשְׁמִיעַ קוֹל אֶחָד ...""VA'YEHI CHE'ECHAD LA'MECHATZRIM VELA'MESHORERIM L'HASHMI'A KOL ECHAD"- " It came to pass that when there was unison among the trumpeters and the singers, sounding out in one voice ..." (Divrei ha'Yamim II 5:13)
22)[line 3]עד שירתתAD SHE'YERASES- until he shakes (i.e. his hands and or feet shake because of weakness)
23)[line 4]בעל קריBA'AL KERI
A man who has emitted Keri (semen) becomes a Rishon l'Tum'ah. He may not enter the Machaneh Leviyah (i.e. the Temple Mount), nor may he eat Ma'aser, Terumah or Kodshim. After he immerses in a Mikvah during the day he becomes Tahor and may eat Ma'aser and enter Machaneh Leviyah once again (mid'Oraisa - the Rabanan however prohibited him from entering the Ezras Nashim until nightfall). He remains a "Tevul Yom" until nightfall, after which he may once again eat Terumah or Kodshim.
24)[line 4]ולא הטיל מיםV'LO HITIL MAYIM- and he did not urinate [before immersing in the Mikvah]
25)[line 11]חמין ושמן שסכתני אמי בילדותיCHAMIN VA'SHEMEN SHE'SACHTANI IMI B'YALDUSI- warm water and oil that my mother used to anoint me in my youth
26)[line 13]שליח ציבורSHALI'ACH TZIBUR- a public servant, such as the person who blows the Shofar, the person who administers the punishments of lashes and excommunication, etc.
27)[line 13]לירד לפני התיבהLEIRED LIFNEI HA'TEIVAH- to lead the congregation in prayer (the definition of the modern-day term "Shali'ach Tzibur")
28)[line 13]לישא את כפיוLISA ES KAPAV - (lit. to raise his hands) to administer the Birkas Kohanim (BIRKAS KOHANIM)
The Kohanim are required to bless the people with the three-fold blessing, as described in Bamidbar 6:22-27. (The Gemara (Menachos 44a) refers to the three verses as three separate Mitzvos Aseh.) In the Beis ha'Mikdash the blessing was said with the Shem ha'Meforash (the Tetragrammaton). According to Tosfos to Sotah 38a DH Harei Hu Omer, this is only true when there is Giluy Shechinah in the Beis ha'Mikdash. Since there was no Giluy Shechinah after the passing of Shimon ha'Tzadik, the Kohanim stopping saying Birkas Kohanim with the Shem ha'Meforash.
29)[line 17]"... וַיַּעֲמִידוּ אֶת הַלְוִיִּם מִבֶּן עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וָמַעְלָה לְנַצֵּחַ עַל מְלֶאכֶת בֵּית ה'.""... VA'YAMIDU ES HA'LEVIYIM MI'BEN ESRIM SHANAH VA'MA'ALAH L'NATZE'ACH AL MELECHES BEIS HASH-M."- "... and they appointed the Leviyim from the age of twenty years and upwards to supervise the work of the House of HaSh-m." (Ezra 3:8)
30)[line 18]לנצח שאניL'NATZE'ACH SHAINI- to perform difficult tasks that need supervision is different (RASHI)
31)[line 22]"אִישׁ מִזַּרְעֲךָ לְדֹרֹתָם ...""ISH MI'ZAR'ACHA L'DOROSAM ..."- "a man from your descendents throughout all their generations ..." (Vayikra 21:17)
32)[line 24]תםTAM- unblemished
33)[line 30]כלי חרשKLI CHERES (KLI CHERES: TUMA'ASO)
(a)Klei Cheres are clay and earthenware utensils. They do not receive Tum'ah when an object of Tum'ah touches their outside. They only become Tamei when Tum'ah enters them (even if the Tum'ah does not touch them). Therefore, when they are covered with a Tzamid Pesil (a tight seal) they cannot become Tamei even if they are in the Ohel of a Mes, as is stated in Bamidbar 19:15. If they do become Tamei, they make any food or drink items that enter them Tamei, even if the items did not touch their inside surface.
(b)If the clay and earthenware utensils become Temei'im, they remain so until they are broken beyond use. Immersing them in a Mikvah does not change their status.
(c)If the mouth of the utensil is so small that a person cannot insert his finger into it, it has no possibility of becoming Tamei through a Zav (see Background to Zevachim 23:8a). However, these utensils can become Tamei in the Ohel of a Mes, as long as they do not have a Tzamid Pasil to entirely seal them. Similarly, they can become Tamei if they come into contact with a k'Adashah of a Sheretz (see Background to Chulin 3:3; see also Insights to Chulin 21:1).
(d)For a further discussion of the principles of Tum'os and Taharos, see Background to Nazir 54:13.
34)[line 31]כל הכליםKOL HA'KELIM (KLEI SHETEF: TUM'ASAN)
(a)The term "Klei Shetef" refers to all vessels that can be immersed in a Mikvah to make them Tahor. This includes metal and wooden utensils, clothing, leather goods and sacks. They are called Klei Shetef based on the words of the verses, "and if it is cooked in a copper utensil, it must be emptied and immersed ("v'Shutaf") in a Mikvah" (Vayikra 6:21) and "If it is a wooden utensil, it must be immersed ("Yishatef") in a Mikvah" (Vayikra 15:12).
(b)For a further discussion of the principles of Tum'os and Taharos, see Background to Nazir 54:13.
35)[line 32]אויר כלי חרשAVIR KLI CHERES- see above, entry #33
36)[line 33]גבוGABO- its outer surface
37)[line 36]תוכוTOCHO- its inner space
38a)[line 38]נאמר "תוכו" לטמאNE'EMAR "TOCHO" L'TAMEI- the concept of the inner spaces of Klei Cheres was mentioned with regard to them making other things Tamei
b)[line 39]נאמר "תוכו" ליטמאNE'EMAR "TOCHO" LI'TAMEI- the concept of the inner spaces of Klei Cheres was mentioned with regard to them becoming Tamei
39)[last line]התורה העידה על כלי חרס ואפילו מלא חרדלHA'TORAH HE'IDAH AL KLI CHERES VA'AFILU MALEI CHARDAL- the Torah testified about Klei Cheres (that they make things inside of them Tamei) even if they are full of mustard seeds (where it is impossible for the seeds in the middle to be touching the inner surface of the utensil)