POINT BY POINT OUTLINE
THE NEFF FAMILY MASECHES BERACHOS
prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
BERACHOS 12 - Dedicated by Mrs. G. Kornfeld for the Yahrzeit of her mother, Mrs. Gisela Turkel (Golda bas Chaim Yitzchak Ozer), on 25 Av. Mrs. Turkel was an exceptional woman with an iron will who loved and respected the study of Torah.
1) BERACHOS IN THE MIKDASH
(a) (R. Yitzchak bar Yosef): R. Zerika did not say this explicitly. It was inferred from something he said:
1. (R. Zerika): Since they said only one Berachah, this shows that the Berachos are not Me'akev each other.
2. We understand this if they blessed Yotzer Ohr. They would not bless Ahavah Rabah at all. We indeed learn that the Berachos are not Me'akev each other;
i. However, if they blessed Ahavah Rabah, this does not show that that the Berachos are not Me'akev each other. Perhaps they did not bless Yotzer Ohr because it was not yet time, and they would say it later in its time (when daylight comes)!
(b) Question: What difference does it make if it was inferred? (Surely, the inference is correct!)
(c) Answer: Perhaps they really blessed Ahavah Rabah, and they would bless Yotzer Ohr in its time;
1. R. Zerika taught that the order of the Berachos is not Me'akev!
(d) (Mishnah): They would say Aseres ha'Dibros, Shema, v'Hayah Im Shamo'a, va'Yomer, Emes v'Yatziv, Avodah and Birkas Kohanim.
(e) (Rav Yehudah): Chachamim wanted to enact saying Aseres ha'Dibros with Keri'as Shema outside the Mikdash, but they abolished this due to heretics (lest they say that Aseres ha'Dibros is the entire written Torah).
(f) Support (Beraisa - R. Nasan): Chachamim wanted to enact saying Aseres ha'Dibros with Keri'as Shema outside the Mikdash, but they abolished this due to heretics.
(g) Rabah bar bar Chanah in Sura, and Ameimar in Neharde'a, wanted to enact saying Aseres ha'Dibros with Keri'as Shema. Rav Chisda and Rav Ashi told them that this was abolished, due to heretics.
(h) (Mishnah): On Shabbos they gave an extra Berachah to the departing Mishmar.
(i) Question: What Berachah was this?
(j) Answer (R. Chelbo): The departing Mishmar would bless the entering Mishmar "the One who made His name dwell in this house should put among you Ahavah (love), Achvah (brotherhood), Shalom (peace), and Re'us (companionship)."
2) WHICH PART OF A BERACHAH IS PRIMARY?
(a) (Mishnah): Where Chachamim said that a long Berachah should be said...
(b) The following is obvious --
1. If one was holding a cup of wine, thinking that it was beer, and began to bless with intent to bless [sheha'Kol Niheyeh bi'Devaro] for beer, and he [remembered that it is wine, and] blessed [Borei Peri ha'Gafen] for wine, he was Yotzei (fulfilled his obligation).
2. This is clear, for even had he said sheha'Kol, he would have been Yotzei [b'Di'eved];
i. (Mishnah): If one said sheha'Kol Niheyeh bi'Devaro on anything, he was Yotzei.
(c) Question: If one was holding a cup of beer, thinking that it was wine, and began to bless for wine, and he [remembered, and] blessed for beer, what is the law?
1. If we consider his original intent [to say Borei Peri ha'Gafen], he was not Yotzei;
2. If it depends only on the end (he closed the Berachah with proper intent), he was Yotzei.
(d) Answer #1 (Beraisa): In the morning, if one began to say the blessing of Yotzer Ohr and concluded with ha'Ma'ariv Aravim, he was not Yotzei;
1. If he began to say ha'Ma'ariv Aravim and concluded Yotzer Ohr, he was Yotzei.
2. In the evening, if one began to say ha'Ma'ariv Aravim and concluded Yotzer Ohr, he was not Yotzei;
3. If he began to say Yotzer Ohr and concluded ha'Ma'ariv Aravim, he was Yotzei.
4. The general rule is, it all depends on the Chasimah (end) of the Berachah.
(e) Rejection #1: There is different, for the Chasimah itself ("Baruch Atah Hash-m Yotzer ha'Me'oros") is a full Berachah. (Regarding sheha'Kol, he says "Baruch" only once, and it was with mistaken intent!)
(f) Question: This is like Rav, who says that a Berachah without Hashem's name is not a Berachah. (He does not require mentioning Malchus, i.e. Hashem's kingship. Therefore, "Baruch Atah Hash-m Yotzer ha'Me'oros" is a Berachah by itself);
1. However, R. Yochanan holds that a Berachah without Malchus is not a Berachah. Therefore, the above rejection (e) is invalid!
(g) Rejection #2: Rabah bar Ula taught that the Berachos were formulated to mention the attribute of day at night, and the attribute of night during the day. Therefore, the beginning of the Berachah, which includes Hashem's name and Malchus, was proper.
(h) Answer #2 (Beraisa): The general rule is, it all depends on the Chasimah.
1. Question: What does "the general rule is" come to include?
2. Suggestion: It includes our case (when he started to bless Borei Peri ha'Gafen on beer)!
(i) Rejection: No, it includes bread and dates.
1. Question: What is the case?
i. Suggestion: He ate bread, but thought that he ate dates, and began to bless with intent to say "Al ha'Etz...," and he [remembered, and] blessed [Birkas ha'Mazon].
ii. Rejection: This is just like our question! (If so, our answer is valid.)
2. Answer: He ate dates, but thought that he ate bread, and began to bless with intent to say Birkas ha'Mazon, and he [remembered, and] blessed "Al ha'Etz." He was Yotzei;
3. [We cannot resolve our question from this, because] even had he blessed Birkas ha'Mazon, he would have been Yotzei.
4. Question: What is the reason?
5. Answer: Also dates give sustenance.
(j) (Rabah bar Chinena Sava): If one did not say Emes v'Yatziv in the morning, or Emes v'Emunah at night, he did not fulfill his obligation -- "Lehagid ba'Boker Chasdecha ve'Emunascha ba'Leilos." (Emes v'Yatziv recounts many Chasadim that Hash-m did for us.)
(k) (Rabah bar Chinena Sava and Shmuel citing Rav): When one bows during Tefilah, he bends his knees at "Baruch" and straightens himself ba'Shem (before saying 'Hashem').
(l) (Shmuel): He learns from "Hash-m Zokef Kefufim."
(m) Question: It says "u'Mipnei Shmi Nichas Hu"! (One should be submissive, i.e. bowed, when saying Hashem's name.)
(n) Answer: It does not say "bi'Shmi" ("when saying My name"), rather, "Mipnei Shmi" (before saying My name).
(o) Version #1 (Rashi): Rav Sheshes would bow (at once), like a stick (that one raps on a table);
(p) Version #2 (Aruch): He would bow his body and head, like a weed called Chizra; (end of Version #2)
1. He would straighten himself slowly, like a snake.
3) OTHER TEACHINGS OF RABAH BAR CHINENA SAVA
(a) (Rabah bar Chinena Sava): One always closes the third and eleventh Berachos of Shemoneh Esreh with "ha'Kel ha'Kadosh" and "Melech Ohev Tzedakah u'Mishpat," except during the 10 days of Teshuvah, when one says "ha'Melech ha'Kadosh" and "ha'Melech ha'Mishpat."
(b) (R. Elazar): Even if one said "ha'Kel ha'Kadosh" he was Yotzei -- "va'Yigbah Hash-m Tzevakos ba'Mishpat veha'Kel ha'Kadosh Nikdash bi'Tzedakah";
1. Question: When is Hash-m exalted in judgment?
2. Answer: This is during the 10 days of Teshuvah, and He is still called "ha'Kel ha'Kadosh"!
(c) Question: What was the conclusion?
(d) Answer #1 (Rav Yosef): One always says "ha'Kel ha'Kadosh" and "Melech Ohev Tzedakah u'Mishpat."
(e) Answer #2 (Rabah): During the 10 days of Teshuvah one says "ha'Melech ha'Kadosh" and "ha'Melech ha'Mishpat."
(f) The Halachah follows Rabah.
(g) (Rabah bar Chinena Sava): If one is able to pray for someone else and does not, he is called a sinner -- "... Chalilah Li me'Chato la'Shem me'Chadol Lehispalel Ba'adchem."
(h) (Rava): One must pain himself to the point of becoming sick due to a Chacham (who needs mercy).
(i) Question: What is the source of this?
1. Suggestion: He learns from "v'Ein Choleh Mikem Alai v'Goleh Es Azni." (They should have become sick over Shaul's plight.)
2. Rejection: Perhaps this applies only for a king!
(j) Answer: He learns from "va'Ani ba'Chalosam Levushi...." (Maharsha - "u'Sefilasi Al Cheiki Sashuv," I will become sick through this.)
(k) (Rabah bar Chinena Sava): If one sins and is embarrassed about it, all of his sins are forgiven -- "Lema'an Tizkeri va'Vosht... b'Chapri Lach l'Chol Asher Asisa."
(l) Question: That refers to the Tzibur. Perhaps we cannot learn to an individual!
(m) Answer: Rather, we learn from Shaul;
1. "V'Elokim Sar me'Alai v'Lo Anani Od Gam b'Yad ha'Nevi'im Gam ba'Chalamos" -- he did not mention that he was not answered through the Urim v'Tumim, because he was ashamed that he killed the Kohanim in Nov.
(n) Question: What is the source that his sins were pardoned?
(o) Answer #1 (R. Yochanan): Shmuel told him "u'Machar Atah u'Vanecha Imi" -- you will be in Gan Eden tomorrow (you will not need to endure punishment in Gehinom), in my place. (Surely, this is one of the highest rewards there is!)
(p) Answer #2 (Rabanan): "Ve'Hoka'anum la'Shem b'Giv'as Shaul Bechir Hash-m" -- a Bas Kol said this. (We must say so, for the Giv'onim were bitter. Surely they did not call him Hashem's chosen!]
4) WHAT SHOULD BE INCLUDED IN SHEMA
(a) (R. Avahu ben Zutarti): Chachamim wanted to make Parshas Balak part of Keri'as Shema. They did not, lest it burden the Tzibur (it is very long).
(b) Question: Why did they want to make it part of Shema?
1. Suggestion: It mentions "Kel Motzi'am mi'Mitzrayim."
2. Rejection: If so, we should say the Parshah of Ribis and unjust weights, which also mention Yetzi'as Mitzrayim!
(c) Answer (R. Yosi bar Avin): It is because it mentions "Kara Shachav ka'Ari uch'Lavi Mi Yekimenu" (like "uv'Shachbecha uv'Kumecha").
(d) Question: If so, they should have enacted to say just this verse! (It would not be a burden.)
(e) Answer: We have a tradition not to split (recite only part of) a Parshah in the Torah. (The "Parshiyos" we refer to are divided by spaces in the Torah. They are delineated by the letters "Samech" or "Pei" in the Chumash.)
(f) Question: Why did Chachamim make Parshas Tzitzis part of Keri'as Shema?
(g) Answer (Rav Yehudah bar Chavivi): It contains five things -- the Mitzvah of Tzitzis, Yetzi'as Mitzrayim, Ol (the yoke of) Mitzvos, prohibitions against heresy, thoughts of sin, and idolatry. (Tosfos ha'Rosh - idolatry is the same as heresy, so there are only five things.)
(h) Question: Three of these are explicit -- Ol Mitzvos ("u'Zechartem Es Kol Mitzvosai"), Tzitzis and Yetzi'as Mitzrayim;
1. Where do we find heresy, and thoughts of sin and idolatry?
(i) Answer (Beraisa): "Acharei Levavchem" refers to heresy -- "Amar Naval b'Libo Ein Elokim";
1. "Acharei Eineichem" refers to thoughts of sin. "Atem Zonim" refers to idolatry.
(j) (Mishnah): We [recite the third Parshah of Shema, and thereby] mention Yetzi'as Mitzrayim [even] at night.
(k) R. Elazar ben Azaryah says, I am like a man of 70, yet I was never able to prove that we mention Yetzi'as Mitzrayim at night until Ben Zoma expounded;
1. "Lema'an Tizkor Es Yom Tzeischa me'Eretz Mitzrayim Kol Yemei Chayecha" refers to the days. "Kol Yemei Chayecha" includes the nights;
2. Chachamim say, "Yemei Chayecha" refers to this world. "Kol Yemei Chayecha" includes the World to Come.
(l) (Beraisa - Ben Zoma): Will we mention Yetzi'as Mitzrayim in the World to Come?! It says "Hineh Yamim Ba'im... v'Lo Yomru Od... Asher He'elah Bnei Yisrael me'Eretz Mitzrayim Ki Im... Asher He'elah... me'Eretz Tzafonah umi'Kol ha'Aratzos"!
(m) Chachamim: We will still mention Yetzi'as Mitzrayim, just it will be secondary to the final redemption.
1. Similarly, "Lo Yikarei Shimcha Od Yakov Ki Im Yisrael" -- he is still called Yakov (at times), just his primary name is Yisrael.
2. [In the future,] "Al Tizkeru Rishonos" -- do not mention the redemptions from the kingdoms (of Bavel, Madai and Yavan). "V'Kadmoniyos Al Tisbonenu" -- do not contemplate Yetzi'as Mitzrayim. (However, you will mention it.)