BERACHOS 11 - Sponsored by Shlomo Wertenteil of Rechovot in memory of his wife, Esther Chaya Riva bas Kalman Zelig, who passed away on 29 Menachem Av 5761.

1)HOW AND WHEN TO SAY SHEMA

(a)(Gemara) Question: Beis Hillel explains his verse and that of Beis Shamai, but how does Beis Shamai resolve both verses?

(b)Answer: If the verse intends to teach about the time to say Shema, it should have said "ba'Erev uva'Boker";

1.Rather, "uv'Shochbecha uv'Kumecha" means, when you actually lie down and rise.

(c)Question: What does Beis Shamai learn from "uv'Lechtecha va'Derech"?

(d)Answer (Beraisa): "B'Shivtecha b'Veisecha" -- this exempts someone engaged in a Mitzvah (this entire Beraisa will be explained);

1."Uv'Lechtecha va'Derech" exempts a Chasan;

2.This is the source to exempt one who marries a virgin, and obligate one who marries a widow.

(e)Question: How do we learn this from the verse?

(f)Answer (Rav Papa): Sitting in your house (i.e. the time when you are obligated) is equated to going on the road;

1.Just like going on the road is Reshus (voluntary, and not a Mitzvah), the obligation to say Shema applies only when one is engaged in a voluntary activity (and not in another Mitzvah).

2.Question: Perhaps the Torah obligates even one who is traveling to do a Mitzvah!

3.Answer: If so, it should have said "b'Sheves" and "uv'Leches";

i.Rather, "b'Shivtecha" and "uv'Lechtecha" refer to when you are pursuing your own affairs, but one engaged in a Mitzvah is exempt.

4.Question: If so, even one who marries a widow should be exempt!

5.Answer: One who marries a virgin is distracted (he cannot concentrate), one who marries a widow is not distracted.

6.Question: If distraction exempts, then one who heard that his ship sank should be exempt!

i.Suggestion: Perhaps that is true!

ii.Rejection: R. Aba bar Zavda taught that an Avel (mourner) is obligated in all Mitzvos except for Tefilin, for Tefilin are called "Pe'er" (glory) -- "Pe'ercha Chavosh Alecha."

7.Answer: Distraction of a Mitzvah (such as a Chasan) exempts, distraction of Reshus (a loss of money, or mourning) does not.

(g)Question: Beis Shamai exempts one engaged in a Mitzvah from "uv'Lechtecha" -- what do they learn from "va'Derech"?

(h)Answer: That exempts someone on the way to do a Mitzvah.

(i)Beis Hillel agrees with these exemptions; however, they also infer that one who is on the way to a Reshus says Shema while going.

2)THE WAY TO SAY SHEMA

(a)(Beraisa - Beis Hillel): We may say Shema while standing, sitting, reclining, walking on the road, or working;

(b)A case occurred, R. Yishmael and R. Elazar ben Azaryah were sitting together, R. Yishmael was reclining and R. Elazar was erect; when the time for Shema came, R. Elazar reclined and R. Yishmael sat erect.

1.R. Elazar: You resemble a man who was praised for his nice long beard, and responded, "I will shave it off"!

i.At first, I was erect and you were reclining; when the time for Shema arrived, I reclined like you, and you sat erect!

2.R. Yishmael: I did like Beis Hillel, you did like Beis Shamai;

i.Also, perhaps Talmidim will see [us both reclining] and this will become the accepted Halachah for generations!

3.Question: Why did he need the second reason ("Also...")?

4.Answer: Perhaps you will say that Beis Hillel also permits reclining -- but this is only if one was already reclining;

i.Since you were erect until now, and now you reclined, onlookers will think that the Halachah follows Beis Shamai, perhaps this will become the Halachah.

(c)(Rav Yechezkeil - Beraisa): If one did like Beis Shamai, he was Yotzei (fulfilled his obligation); if one did like Beis Hillel, he was Yotzei.

(d)(Rav Yosef): If one did like Beis Shamai, he was not Yotzei!

1.(Mishnah - Beis Shamai): If the head and majority of a man are in a Sukah, and his table is in the house, it (the Sukah) is Pasul;

2.Beis Hillel is Machshir.

3.Beis Hillel: A case occurred, elders of Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel visited R. Yochanan ben ha'Choranis; his head and majority were in the Sukah, his table was in the house, and they did not comment about this!

4.Beis Shamai: No, they told him, "If you have always done so, then you have never fulfilled the Mitzvah!"

5.(Just like Beis Shamai says that one is not Yotzei in a Sukah that Beis Hillel is Machshir, Beis Hillel says that one who says Keri'as Shema like Beis Shamai is not Yotzei!)

(e)(Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): If one did like Beis Shamai, he is Chayav Misah (bi'Yedei Shamayim)!

1.(Mishnah - R. Tarfon): I was on the road and lied down to say Shema, like Beis Shamai -- I endangered myself on account of bandits.

2.Chachamim: You were liable to die for transgressing Beis Hillel's opinion!

3)THE BLESSINGS BEFORE AND AFTER SHEMA

(a)(Mishnah): In the morning one says two Berachos before Shema and one afterwards, in the evening one says two Berachos before Shema and two afterwards;

1.One of them (of the two afterwards) is long, the other is short;

2.Where Chachamim said that a long Berachah should be said, one may not say a short Berachah, and vice-versa.

3.Where Chachamim said to be Chosem (to end the Berachah with "Baruch..."), one must do so; where they said not to be Chosem, one may not.

(b)(Gemara) Question: What Berachos does one say (before the morning Shema)?

(c)Answer -- part 1 (R. Yakov): One Berachah is "Yotzer Or u'Vorei Choshech..."

11b----------------------------------------11b

(d)Interjection: Rather, we should say, "Yotzer Or u'Vorei Nogah"!

(e)Answer #1: We follow the wording of the verse.

(f)Objection: If so, we should conclude, "Oseh Shalom u'Vorei Ra"!

1.Rather, we say "[u'Vorei] ha'Kol" as a euphemism for "Ra" -- likewise, we should say "Nogah" (light) in place of "Choshech"!

(g)Answer #2 (Rava): We say "u'Vorei Choshech" for we want to mention the attribute of day at night, and the attribute of night during the day.

(h)Question: Granted, "u'Vorei Choshech" fulfills mentioning the attribute of night during the day;

1.Where do we mention the attribute of day at night?

(i)Answer (Abaye): We say "Golel Or Mipnei Choshech v'Choshech Mipnei Or."

(j)Question: What is the second Berachah before Shema?

(k)Answer #1 (Rav Yehudah and R. Elazar): It is Ahavah Rabah.

(l)Support (Beraisa): We do not say "Ahavas Olam," rather, "Ahavah Rabah";

(m)Answer #2 (Rabanan): We say "Ahavas Olam," as it is written, "v'Ahavas Olam Ahavtich."

4)BIRKAS HA'TORAH

(a)(Rav Yehudah): If one wakes up to learn before saying Keri'as Shema, he must bless (Birkas ha'Torah); if he already said Keri'as Shema, he does not bless, for Ahavah Rabah exempts him.

(b)(Rav Huna): One must bless for learning Mikra (Torah, Nevi'im or Kesuvim), but not for Midrash.

(c)(R. Elazar): One must bless for Mikra or Midrash, but not for Mishnah;

(d)(R. Yochanan): One must bless even for Mishnah, but not for Talmud (the reasons for the laws in the Mishnayos, and resolutions of the contradictions between them).

(e)(Rava): One must bless even for Talmud.

1.(R. Chiya bar Ashi): Many times I sat in front of Rav to learn Sifra d'Vei Rav (Midrash); he would wash his hands, bless and teach.

2.(Ritva (14b) - this supports R. Elazar, who says that one must bless for Medrash. Rashash assumes that it supports Rava -- perhaps they learned explanations on the Midrash, similar to Talmud. Alternatively, "Sifra d'Vei Rav" should be deleted from the text.)

(f)Question: What is the text of the blessing?

(g)Answer #1 (Rav Yehudah): It is "Asher Kidshanu b'Mitzvosav v'Tzivanu La'asok b'Divrei Sorah."

(h)R. Yochanan would conclude, "Ha'arev Na... Divrei Sorascha b'Finu... Baruch Atah Hash-m ha'Melamed Torah l'Amo Yisrael."

(i)Answer #2 (Rav Hamnuna): It is "Asher Bachar Banu mi'Kol ha'Amim v'Nasan Lanu Es Toraso, Baruch Atah Hash-m Nosen ha'Torah."

(j)(Rav Hamnuna; Rif's text - the Gemara itself says this): This is the greatest Berachah.

(k)Therefore, one should say all of them.

(l)(Mishnah): An appointed Kohen would tell them (the Kohanim of the Mishmar) to say one Berachah (before Shema); they said one Berachah, Aseres ha'Dibros, Shema, v'Hayah Im Shamo'a, va'Yomer, and blessed (with the people - Rosh deletes this from the text) three Berachos -- Emes v'Yatziv, [the Berachah of Retzeh on account of the] Avodah, and Birkas Kohanim;

1.On Shabbos, an extra Berachah was given to the departing Mishmar.

(m)Question: Which one Berachah did they say before Shema?

(n)Answer #1 (Rav Yehudah): It was Ahavah Rabah.

(o)Answer #2 (R. Zerika): It was Yotzer Or.

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