POINT BY POINT OUTLINE
THE NEFF FAMILY MASECHES BERACHOS
prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
1) NAMES THAT CHANGED
(a) (Rav Yosef - Beraisa): "Hineni Oseh Chadashah Atah Sitzmach" this refers to the war of Gog and Magog;
1. This is like a man who was walking on the road. A wolf came, and he was saved from it. He went around recounting the incident. A lion came, and he was saved from it. He went around recounting the incident with the lion. A snake came, and he was saved from it. He forgot the previous incidents, and went around recounting the last incident.
2. Similarly, Yisrael's new afflictions cause them to forget their previous ones.
(b) "Avram Hu Avraham" -- at first, he was the AV (patriarch) of ARraM (where he was born). Later, he became Av of the whole world ("AV HaMon Goyim." Since the Reish was previously in his name, it remained);
(c) At first, "Sarai" (singular) was empress of her nation. Later, she is called "Sarah," empress of the whole world.
(d) (Bar Kapara - Beraisa): One who calls Avraham "Avram" transgresses an Aseh -- "v'Hayah Shimcha Avraham";
(e) R. Eliezer says, he transgresses a Lav -- "v'Lo Yikarei Od Es Shimcha Avram."
(f) Question: If so, one who calls Sarah "Sarai" also transgresses!
(g) Answer: Hash-m commanded only Avraham (but not us) to call her "Sarah" and not "Sarai" ("Sarai Ishtecha Lo Sikra Es Shemah...").
(h) Question: If so, it should be forbidden to call Yakov "Yakov"!
(i) Answer: This cannot be, for the Torah itself [sometimes] calls him Yakov afterwards -- "va'Yomer Elokim... Yakov Yakov."
(j) Question (R. Yosi bar Avin): We find "Avram" later in Tanach -- "Atah Hu Hash-m Elokim Asher Bacharta b'Avram"!
(k) Answer: There, the Navi praises Hash-m for choosing [Avraham while he was still called] Avram, and changing his name.
PEREK HAYAH KOREI
2) SHEMA REQUIRES INTENT
(a) (Mishnah): If one was reading [Parshas Shema] in the Torah, and it was time to recite Keri'as Shema -- if he had intent, he was Yotzei.
(b) R. Meir says, between the Perakim (breaks between Parshiyos or Berachos of Shema) one may greet someone to whom one must show honor (if he comes), and one may respond (return a greeting);
1. In the middle (of the Parshiyos or Berachos) one greets someone whom one fears, and responds;
2. R. Yehudah says, in the middle one greets due to fear, and responds due to honor;
3. Between the Perakim, one greets due to honor and responds to anyone.
(c) The following are the points called "between the Perakim":
1. Between the first two Berachos, between the second Berachah and Shema, between Shema and v'Hayah Im Shamo'a, between v'Hayah Im Shamo'a and va'Yomer, between va'Yomer and Emes v'Yatziv;
2. R. Yehudah says, one may not interrupt between va'Yomer and Emes v'Yatziv.
(d) R. Yehoshua ben Korchah says, we say Shema before v'Hayah Im Shamo'a in order to accept Ol (the yoke of) Malchus Shamayim before Ol Mitzvos;
1. We say v'Hayah Im Shamo'a before va'Yomer, because the former [discusses learning Torah, which] applies during the day and night, whereas va'Yomer [discusses Tzitzis, which] applies only during the day.
(e) (Gemara) Inference: Our Mishnah teaches that Mitzvos require intention!
1. It says that he was Yotzei only if he had intent, i.e. to fulfill the Mitzvah!
(f) Rejection: No, it means, if he had intent to read.
(g) Question: It says that he was reading!
(h) Answer: He was proofreading. (Tosfos - he was Yotzei only if he intended to read the words properly. Ra'ah explains that there are three levels of intention: intent to fulfill the Mitzvah, intent to do the Ma'aseh Mitzvah (to recite the words, as opposed to proofreading), and to think about the meaning of the words. The last intent applies only to the first verse of Shema. The Gemara did not discuss this.)
3) MUST SHEMA BE RECITED IN HEBREW?
(a) (Beraisa - Rebbi): Keri'as Shema must be recited like it is written (in Hebrew);
(b) Chachamim say, it may be recited in any language.
(c) Question: What is Rebbi's reason?
(d) Answer: It says "v'Hayu [ha'Devarim ha'Eleh]" -- they will be, like they are [in the Torah, in Hebrew].
(e) Question: What is Chachamim's reason?
(f) Answer: It says "Shema" -- hear, in any language you understand.
(g) Question: How does Rebbi expound "Shema"?
(h) Answer: It teaches that one must say the words audibly to his own ears.
1. Chachamim hold like the opinion that one is Yotzei even if it is not audible to his ears.
(i) Question: How do Chachamim expound "v'Hayu"?
(j) Answer: This teaches that one may not recite Shema out of order.
1. Question: What is Rebbi's source that one may not recite out of order?
2. Answer: It could have said "Devarim". The extra "Hei" in "ha'Devarim" teaches this.
3. Chachamim do not expound the "Hei."
(k) Inference: Rebbi holds that Torah (Tosfos - Parshiyos that one must recite, such as Parshas Zachor or Keri'as Bikurim) may be recited in any language;
1. If he held that Torah must be recited in Hebrew, he would not need "v'Hayu" to teach that Shema must be recited in Hebrew!
(l) Rejection: He could hold that it must be recited in Hebrew. We need "v'Hayu", lest we learn from "Shema" to permit any language.
(m) Inference: Chachamim hold that Torah must be recited in Hebrew;
1. If they held that Torah may be recited in any language, they would not need "Shema" to permit Keri'as Shema in any language!
(n) Rejection: They could hold that Torah may be recited in any language. We need "Shema", lest we learn from "v'Hayu" to require Hebrew.
4) READING WITH INTENT
(a) Version #1 (Beraisa - R. Eliezer): "v'Hayu" teaches that one may not recite Shema out of order;
1. Suggestion: Perhaps "ha'Devarim... Al Levavecha" obligates intent during the entire Parshah!
2. Rejection: "Ha'Eleh" -- only until here (Rashi - "Al Levavecha"; Tosfos - "uv'Chol Me'odecha") requires intent.
(b) R. Akiva says, "... Asher Anochi Metzavcha ha'Yom Al Levavecha" obligates intent during the entire Parshah.
(c) (Rabah bar bar Chanah): The Halachah follows R. Akiva.
(d) Version #2 (Beraisa): One who recites Shema must have intention;
(e) R. Acha says, if he had intent during the first Perek (Parshas Shema), he was Yotzei;
(f) (Rabah bar bar Chanah): The Halachah follows R. Acha. (end of Version #2)
(g) (Beraisa): "V'Hayu" teaches that one may not recite out of order;
(h) "Al Levavecha" -- R. Zutra says, one must have intention until here (the first Parshah). After this, the Mitzvah is Keri'ah (to say the words);
(i) R. Yoshiyah says, until here the Mitzvah is Keri'ah. After this, one must have intention.
(j) Question: Presumably, R. Zutra requires Keri'ah of the second Parshah because it says "Ledaber Bam." He should require also Keri'ah of the first Parshah, for it says "v'Dibarta Bam"!
(k) Answer: Indeed, R. Zutra means that intent and Keri'ah are required in the first Parshah. After this, the Mitzvah is just Keri'ah.
(l) Question: Presumably, he requires intent and Keri'ah in the first Parshah because it says "Al Levavecha" and "v'Dibarta Bam." He should require both also in the second Parshah, for it says "Al Levavchem Ledaber Bam"!
(m) Answer: He expounds "Al Levavechem" like R. Yitzchak;
1. (R. Yitzchak): "V'Samtem Es Devarai Eleh [Al Levavchem... u'Keshartem]" -- Tefilin (Shel Yad) must be next to the heart.
(n) (Beraisa - R. Yoshiyah): Until here, one must have intent. After this, the Mitzvah is Keri'ah.
(o) Question: Presumably, he requires intent in the second Parshah because it says "Al Levavchem." He should require intent also in the first Parshah, for it says "Al Levavecha"!
(p) Answer: Indeed, he means that intent and Keri'ah are required in the first Parshah. After this, the Mitzvah is just intent. Keri'ah is not required.
(q) Question: Presumably, he requires both in the first Parshah because it says "Al Levavecha" and "v'Dibarta Bam." He should require both also in the second Parshah, for it says "Al Levavchem Ledaber Bam"!
(r) Answer: He holds that "Ledaber Bam" refers to Divrei Torah. One should teach his sons (by heart) in order that they will speak Divrei Torah.
(s) (Beraisa - R. Meir): "Shema Yisrael Hash-m Elokeinu Hash-m Echad" -- intent is required until here.
(t) (Rava): The Halachah follows R. Meir.
5) RECITATION OF THE FIRST VERSE
(a) (Beraisa - Sumchus): If one prolongs the word "Echad," his days and years are lengthened.
(b) (Rav Acha bar Yakov): This refers to prolonging the "Dalet" of "Echad" (This is possible if one pronounces Dalet like "th", e.g. like Temanim. In most traditions of pronunciation, one cannot extend a Dalet.)
(c) (Rav Ashi): One must be careful not to rush the (Rashi - Kamatz under the) "Ches" in order to prolong the "Dalet." (Rashi's names for the Nekudos (vowels) are different than ours.)
(d) R. Yirmeyah was prolonging "Echad" excessively. R. Chiya bar Aba told him that it suffices to extend it long enough to accept Hashem's kingship above, below, and in the four directions.
(e) (R. Nasan bar Mar Ukva): "Al Levavecha" must be said standing (in one place, i.e. stationary).
(f) Objection: Surely, the obligation to stand still is not just for these two words!
(g) Correction: Rather, until "Al Levavecha" should be said while stationary. The rest of the Parshah need not be said while stationary.
(h) (R. Yochanan): The entire Parshah must be said while stationary.
(i) This is like R. Yochanan taught elsewhere:
1. (Rabah bar bar Chanah citing R. Yochanan): The Halachah follows Rav Acha. (The entire first Parshah requires intent.)
(j) (Beraisa): "Shema Yisrael Hash-m Elokeinu Hash-m Echad" is Rebbi's Keri'as Shema (what is required mid'Oraisa. The rest is mid'Rabanan.)
(k) Question (Rav): When Rebbi teaches us, I do not see him interrupt to accept on himself Ol Malchus Shamayim at the time of Keri'as Shema!
(l) Answer (R. Chiya): He does so when he passes his hand over his face.
(m) Question: Does he finish Keri'as Shema later?
(n) Answer #1 (Bar Kapara): He does not.
(o) Answer #2 (R. Shimon, son of Rebbi): He does.
(p) Question (Bar Kapara): According to me, we understand why Rebbi always teaches something pertaining to Yetzi'as Mitzrayim at the time;
1. However, if he reads the rest of Shema later, why must he teach about it now? (The third Parshah mentions Yetzi'as Mitzrayim!)
(q) Answer (R. Shimon): This is in order to mention Yetzi'as Mitzrayim at the time of Shema.
6) SAYING SHEMA WHILE DROWSY
(a) (R. Ila): If one said "Shema Yisrael Hash-m Elokeinu Hash-m Echad" and was overcome by sleep, he was Yotzei;
(b) Rav Nachman (to his slave): If you see me falling asleep during the first verse, arouse me so that I say it properly. After this, do not disturb me.
(c) Question (Rav Yosef, of Rabah's son Rav Yosef): How did your father conduct himself regarding Shema?
(d) (Rav Yosef brei d'Rabah): He would exert himself to say the first verse properly (even if he was very tired). More than this, he would not exert himself.
(e) (Rav Yosef): One should not say Keri'as Shema while Perakdan (lying on his back; Me'iri - or face down).
(f) Inference: Only Keri'as Shema is forbidden, but one may sleep Perakdan!
(g) Objection: R. Yehoshua ben Levi cursed one who sleeps this way!
(h) Answer: Keri'as Shema is forbidden even if he leans a bit to the side, but one may sleep leaning a bit to the side.
(i) Question: R. Yochanan would say Shema this way!
(j) Answer: He was stout. (It was hard for him to turn totally onto his side, therefore he was permitted to lean slightly.)
7) GREETING PEOPLE DURING SHEMA
(a) (Mishnah - R. Meir): Between the Perakim (one may greet due to honor and respond).
(b) Question: To whom does one respond?
1. It cannot be due to honor. One may even greet such a person, so there is no need to teach that one may respond!
(c) Answer #1: One greets due to honor and responds to anyone.
(d) Question: R. Meir continues "in the middle one may greet due to fear and respond";
1. Question: To whom does one respond?
i. It cannot be due to fear. One may even greet such a person, so there is no need to say that one may respond!
2. Answer: One greets due to fear and responds due to honor.
3. Summation of question: If so, R. Meir and R. Yehudah do not argue!
(e) Answer #2: The Mishnah is abbreviated. It means as follows:
1. R. Meir says, between the Perakim one greets due to honor, and we need not say that he responds [due to honor];
i. In the middle, one greets due to fear, and we need not say that he responds [due to fear];
2. R. Yehudah says, in the middle one greets due to fear and responds due to honor;
i. Between the Perakim, one greets due to honor and responds to anyone.