POINT BY POINT OUTLINE
prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
1) THE TIME FOR SAYING KERI'AS SHEMA
(a) (Mishnah) Question: From (and until) when do we say Keri'as Shema at night?
(b) Answer #1 (R. Eliezer): The Mitzvah is from the time at which Kohanim may eat Terumah until the end of the first Mishmar (these will be explained).
(c) Answer #2 (Chachamim): The Mitzvah is until midnight.
(d) Answer #3 (R. Gamliel): The Mitzvah is until dawn.
(e) A case occurred in which R. Gamliel's sons came home from a wedding after midnight. (They had not said Shema.)
1. R. Gamliel: You are obligated to say it now;
2. In fact, wherever Chachamim said "until midnight," the (Torah) Mitzvah is until dawn
i. Chelev (of Korbanos) and limbs (of an Olah) may be burned on the Mizbe'ach until dawn;
ii. Any Korban that may be eaten for one day and a night is permitted until dawn.
3. Question: If so, why did Chachamim say "until midnight"?
4. Answer: This is to distance people from transgression (lest dawn arrive before one performs the Mitzvah).
(f) (Gemara) Question #1: It is unreasonable to ask about the time of Keri'as Shema before teaching that it is a Mitzvah! What is the Tana's source for the obligation to recite Shema?
(g) Question #2: Why does the Tana first ask about the time for the nighttime Shema? He should first ask about the time for the morning Shema! (We find that the Torah teaches about the morning Tamid before the afternoon Tamid.)
(h) Answer #1 (to both questions): The Tana expounds "uv'Shachbecha uv'Kumecha." Therefore, he first asks about the time of Shechivah (going to sleep).
(i) Answer #2 (to Question #2): He learns from creation of the world that night comes first, like it says "va'Yhi Erev va'Yhi Voker Yom Echad."
(j) Question (Mishnah): In the morning, there are two Berachos before Shema and one after; at night, there are two Berachos before and two after.
1. According to both answers, the Tana should teach about the Berachos of the nighttime Shema first!
(k) Answer: The Tana begins our Mishnah with the nighttime Shema and concludes with the morning Shema. Once he discusses the morning Shema, he teaches all its laws, and then returns to discuss the nighttime Shema.
2) WHEN KOHANIM MAY EAT TERUMAH
(a) (Mishnah - R. Eliezer): The Mitzvah is from when Kohanim may eat Terumah... (The time Kohanim may eat Terumah always refers to a Kohen who was Tamei and immersed. He is a Tevul Yom. He may not even touch Terumah until night.)
(b) Question: Kohanim may eat at Tzeis ha'Kochavim (when stars become visible at night). The Mishnah should say this explicitly!
(c) Answer: The Tana taught the time of Shema indirectly, in order to teach as well that Kohanim may eat Terumah at Tzeis ha'Kochavim;
1. One might have thought that the Heter for a Mechusar Kipurim (one who must bring Korbanos to finish his Taharah, e.g. a Zav) to eat Terumah comes [during the day], when he brings the Korbanos. The Mishnah teaches that this is not so; the Heter is the night after he immerses, before bringing the Korbanos.
2. (Beraisa): "U'Va ha'Shemesh v'Taher" teaches that he may not eat Terumah until the setting of the sun. The Korban is not required.
3. Version #1 (Rashi) Question: How does the Tana know that "u'Va ha'Shemesh" refers to the setting of the sun, and "v'Taher" refers to completion of the day?
i. Perhaps "u'Va ha'Shemesh" refers to the rising of the sun (the day after immersion), and "v'Taher" refers to the person (who completes his Taharah by bringing Korbanos)!
(d) Version #2 (Tosfos) Question: What is the source that "u'Va ha'Shemesh" refers to Tzeis ha'Kochavim, and "v'Taher" refers to completion of the day?
1. Perhaps "u'Va ha'Shemesh" refers to sundown, and "v'Taher" refers to the person! (His Taharah is complete, even though it is still day.) (end of Version #2)
2. Answer (Rabah bar Rav Shila): If so, the Torah would have said "va'Yetaher" (to show clearly that it refers to the person);
i. Rather, it says "v'Taher" to refer to the day; this is like people say, "The sun went down and the day is finished."
(e) In Eretz Yisrael, they did not hear Rabah's teaching, therefore they had a question;
1. Question: Does "u'Va ha'Shemesh" refer to Tzeis ha'Kochavim, and "v'Taher" to the completion of the day? Or, does "u'Va ha'Shemesh" refer to sunset (Tosfos; Rashi - sunrise), and "v'Taher" to the person?
(f) Answer (Beraisa): A sign [of when Kohanim may eat] is Tzeis ha'Kochavim.
1. This shows that the verse refers to Tzeis ha'Kochavim and the completion of the day.
3) THE EARLIEST TIME FOR THE NIGHTTIME SHEMA
(a) (Mishnah - R. Eliezer): The Mitzvah [of Shema] is from the time at which Kohanim may eat Terumah.
(b) Contradiction (Beraisa #1) Question: When do we say Keri'as Shema at night?
1. Answer: The Mitzvah is from when an Oni (a poor person, who eats without the light of a lamp) begins to eat bread with salt, until he finishes his meal.
2. Surely, the Beraisa argues [with all opinions in our Mishnah] about the latest time for Shema (an Oni's meal does not last four hours);
i. Must we say that it argues also about the earliest time for Shema?
(c) Answer: No, the times of an Oni (when he eats) and Kohen (when he may eat Terumah) are the same.
(d) Contradiction (Beraisa #2) Question: From when may we say Shema at night?
1. Answer #1 (R. Meir): The Mitzvah begins when people begin to eat bread on Shabbos night. (This is early, since everything is already prepared);
2. Answer #2 (Chachamim): It is from when Kohanim may eat Terumah; a sign for this time is Tzeis ha'Kochavim;
i. A support for this, but not a proof, is "va'Anachnu Osim ba'Melachah... me'Alos ha'Shachar Ad Tzeis ha'Kochavim." (People work from dawn until nightfall);
ii. It says also "v'Hayu Lanu ha'Lailah Mishmar veha'Yom Melachah."
iii. Question: Why do we need the second verse?
iv. Answer: One might have thought that night begins before Tzeis ha'Kochavim (and day begins after dawn), and they were working more than usual (to build the Beis ha'Mikdash). The second verse shows that this is not so.
3. We are thinking that an Oni eats at the same time as regular people [eat on Shabbos].
4. Summation of question: If the times of Oni and Kohen are the same, then Chachamim agree with R. Meir!
i. Rather, we must say that they are different.
(e) Answer: Really, they are the same. The times of Oni and regular people are different.
(f) Question: The times of Oni and Kohen are not the same!
1. (Beraisa #3) Question: From when may we say Shema at night?
2. Answer #1 (R. Eliezer): The Mitzvah begins at Kidush ha'Yom (when the Isurim of Shabbos take effect on Shabbos night, i.e. at Bein ha'Shemashos, which is Safek day, Safek night).
3. Answer #2 (R. Yehoshua): It begins when Kohanim may eat Terumah;
4. Answer #3 (R. Meir): It begins at the [latest] time [during the day] that Kohanim may immerse to eat Terumah [that night];
5. Objection (R. Yehudah): They must immerse during the day [while Shema must be said at night]!
6. Answer #4 (R. Chanina): It begins when an Oni enters (his house) to eat bread with salt.
7. Answer #5 (Rav Achai): It begins when most people enter to eat.
8. Summation of question: If the times of Oni and Kohen are the same, then R. Yehoshua and R. Chanina say the same thing!
i. Conclusion: The times are different.
(g) Question: Which of them is later?
(h) Answer: Presumably, Oni is later, for if not, then R. Eliezer and R. Chanina say the same thing! (Surely, an Oni does not stop working before Bein ha'Shemashos. Bein ha'Shemashos is shortly before Tzeis ha'Kochavim. It is unreasonable that three Tana'im would argue about times that are so close together!)
(i) (Beraisa - R. Yehudah) Objection: They must immerse during the day! (Bein ha'Shemashos extends for nine minutes. Kohanim must immerse before it starts. Shema is said when people go to sleep when it is definitely night, at least nine minutes later!)
(j) Question: This is a proper objection! (How can R. Meir answer it?)
(k) Answer: R. Meir disagrees with R. Yehudah's opinion about Bein ha'Shemashos. He holds like R. Yosi:
1. (R. Yosi): Bein ha'Shemashos is like an eye's wink. The new day enters immediately after the previous day ends. (Therefore, Kohanim can immerse until nightfall, when people go to sleep.)
(l) Question: R. Meir (in Beraisos #2 and #3) contradicts himself!
(m) Answer: Tana'im argue about R. Meir's opinion.
(n) Question: R. Eliezer (in our Mishnah and Beraisa #3) contradicts himself!
(o) Answer #1: Tana'im argue about R. Eliezer's opinion.
(p) Answer #2: In our Mishnah, R. Eliezer teaches only about the latest time for Shema. The earliest time is according to the [anonymous] first Tana.