[47a - 38 lines; 47b - 18 lines]
(a)Mis'asek refers to the performance of an action completely different from that which the person intended to perform. For example, a person must bring a Korban Chatas for desecrating Shabbos only when he does a Melachah b'Shogeg, that is, for mistakenly not knowing that the day is Shabbos or for not knowing that the action that he did is a Melachah that is prohibited on Shabbos. However, a person who is Mis'asek, i.e. who does a completely different action from that which he intended to do, incurs no punishment whatsoever. (See Shabbos Chart #14, where the differences between Shogeg and Mis'asek are explained.)
(b)Mis'asek with regard to Kodshim refers to performing an act of the Divine service when the person had no intention of performing that action. Such an action is invalid, as our Gemara proves from the verse, "v'Shachat Es Ben ha'Bakar Lifnei HaSh-m" - "and he shall slaughter the young bull before HaSh-m." The words "Es Ben ha'Bakar" are superfluous, showing that the person must have specific intention for the action that he performs. RASHI (Chulin 13a DH Minayin, Menachos 110a DH li'Retzonchem) brings the example of lifting or throwing a knife which results in the Shechitah of an animal of Kodshim. TOSFOS (here DH Minayin) argues, stating that this type of action would even invalidate the Shechitah of Chulin. An example of Mis'asek that only applies to Kodshim is intending to slaughter an animal of Kodshim thinking that it is Chulin.
2)[line 4]"[וְכִי תִזְבְּחוּ זֶבַח שְׁלָמִים לה',] לִרְצֹנְכֶם תִּזְבָּחֻהוּ""[V'CHI SIZBECHU ZEVACH SHELAMIM LA'SH-M,] LI'RTZONCHEM TIZBACHU'HU"- "[And when you offer a Shelamim sacrifice to HaSh-m,] offer it with the intention of it being acceptable [to HaSh-m] on your behalf" (Vayikra 19:5).
3)[line 4]לדעתכם זביחוL'DA'ATCHEM ZEVICHU- with the intention of it being acceptable [to HaSh-m] on your behalf
4a)[line 16]שאין כשר להצניעSHE'EIN KASHER L'HATZNI'A- that is not fit to put away for safekeeping, such as the blood of a Nidah or an object that is Asur b'Hana'ah (an object from which it is prohibited to benefit)
b)[line 16]ואין מצניעין כמוהוV'EIN MATZNI'IN KAMOHU- and [another object, that is fit to be put away for safekeeping, however, there is such an insignificant amount] which no one would put away for safekeeping
5)[line 17]הוכשר לזה והצניעוHUCHSHAR LA'ZEH V'HITZNI'O- it was seen fit by one person [to actually put away this type of object (see above, entry #4a) or this amount (see above, entry #4b) of an object] and he put it away for safekeeping
6)[line 17]הוציאוHOTZI'O (SHABBOS: HOTZA'AH)
(a)HOTZA'AH - Hotza'ah is the general term for the last of the thirty-nine Avos Melachos of Shabbos. It involves either:
1.Hotza'ah, transferring objects from a Reshus ha'Yachid (private domain) to a Reshus ha'Rabim (public domain),
2.Hachnasah, transferring objects from a Reshus ha'Rabim to a Reshus ha'Yachid,
3.Ma'avir Arba Amos b'Reshus ha'Rabim, carrying an object from one place in Reshus ha'Rabim to another over a distance of at least four Amos,
4.Moshit, passing an object from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another through Reshus ha'Rabim (as described in the Mishnah in Shabbos 96a, see Background to Shabbos 96:3). These are all biblical prohibitions.
(b)AKIRAH & HANACHAH - In order to transgress the biblical prohibition of Hotza'ah, certain conditions must be met. An Akirah (initiation of movement) and a Hanachah (putting the object to rest) must be performed on the object by the same person. If one person does the Akirah and another does the Hanachah, only a Rabbinic prohibition is involved, as the Gemara states in Shabbos 3a. It is possible to move an object without ever performing an Akira, such as when the object is dragged.
7)[line 19]השתא בחוץ אמרינן, בפנים מיבעיא?HASHTA BA'CHUTZ AMRINAN, BIFNIM MIBA'YA?- Now that Rebbi Eliezer and Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar state their Halachah (that the thoughts of one person can create a Halachic status for which another person may become liable) with regard to Avodah Zarah and Shabbos (which are considered "ba'Chutz," "outside," when compared with Divine service), need we be concerned that they rule likewise with regard to the Divine service (which is done "Bifnim," "inside" of the Beis ha'Mikdash compound)? As such, we may conclude that Rebbi Eliezer and Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar agree to the ruling of Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Yosi.
8)[line 26]כעין (בפנים) [פנים]K'EIN (BIFNIM) [PENIM]- which is comparable to the Divine service since it involves similar actions. As such, it is comparable to the Divine service with regard to the intentions of the people involved.
9)[line 27]מלאכת מחשבת אסרה תורהMELECHES MACHSHEVES ASRAH TORAH
The Torah only forbids actions performed on Shabbos with intent, and not actions that were performed accidentally.
PEREK #5 EIZEHU MEKOMAN
10)[line 29]קדשי קדשיםKODSHEI KODASHIM
The term Kodshei Kodashim refers to the Korbenos Olah, Chatas and Asham (and Menachos), which have a greater degree of sanctity. They may only be slaughtered in the northern part of the Azarah and those parts that may be eaten may only be eaten in the Azarah by male Kohanim.
11a)[line 30]פר ושעיר של יום הכיפוריםPAR V'SA'IR SHEL YOM HA'KIPURIM (PAR SHEL YOM HA'KIPURIM)
(a)In Parshas Acharei Mos (Vayikra 16:3-6), Aharon is commanded to offer on Yom ha'Kipurim a bull as a Chatas and a ram as an Olah from his own money. From the money of the Tzibur (the populace, the people of Yisrael), he is commanded to offer two goats as Korbenos Chatas (one goat was sacrificed and one was sent to Azazel) and one ram as an Olah. The offering of these Korbanos form the major part of the Yom ha'Kipurim service that the Kohen Gadol must perform every year.
(b)The Kohen Gadol performs Semichah (pressing one's hands with all of his might on the head of his animal sacrifice) on his bull while reciting Viduy (the confession of his sins) before he slaughters his bull. He then collects its blood and sprinkles it in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim (Vayikra 16:14), on the Paroches (ibid. 16:16) and on the Mizbach ha'Ketores (ibid. 16:18). Its flesh is entirely burned in the place outside of Yerushalayim where the ashes from the Mizbe'ach are deposited. The remainder of its blood is poured on the western Yesod of the Mizbach ha'Chitzon, but omitting this last procedure does not prevent atonement, because during the rest of the year, pouring the blood on the Yesod is not a requirement for atonement.
(c)The Mishnah (Shevuos 2a) states that the Paro Shel Kohen Gadol provides atonement for sins of the Kohanim. There is an argument among the Tana'aim with regard to the atonement that it provides:
1.According to Rebbi Yehudah, it provides atonement for sins of Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav (eating Kodshim or entering the Azarah while in a state of Tum'ah — see Background to Shevuos 2:2).
2.According to Rebbi Shimon, the sprinkling of its blood provides atonement for sins of Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav. The Viduy of the Kohen Gadol provides atonement for all sins besides Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav.
b)[line 30]פר ושעיר של יום הכיפוריםPAR V'SA'IR SHEL YOM HA'KIPURIM (SA'IR SHEL YOM HA'KIPURIM)
(a)On Yom ha'Kipurim, a Goral (lot) is performed by the Kohen Gadol to choose between two identical goats (Vayikra 16:7-10). One (the Sa'ir la'Sh-m) is offered as a Korban Chatas ha'Nisraf and its blood is sprinkled in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim (Vayikra 16:15); the other (the Sa'ir la'Azazel) is dispatched (Mishtale'ach) to Azazel (a hard rocky cliff), from which it is pushed off to its death (Vayikra 16:21-22).
(b)The blood of the Sa'ir la'Sh-m is also sprinkled on the Paroches and on the Mizbach ha'Ketores (Vayikra 16:16, 18-19). Its flesh is entirely burned in the place outside of the city where the ashes from the Mizbe'ach are deposited (Vayikra 16:27).
(c)The Mishnah (Shevuos 2a) states that the Sa'ir la'Sh-m works along with the actual day of Yom ha'Kipurim to Toleh (hold back) the impending punishment of a person who sinned with Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav (eating Kodshim or entering the Azarah while in a state of Tum'ah — see Background to Shevuos 2:2), when he initially knew about his Tum'ah (or the Kodshim or Mikdash) and subsequently forgot about it. (When he does find out about it, he brings a Korban Oleh v'Yored, as mentioned in Background to Shevuos ibid.) In addition, it works along with the actual day of Yom ha'Kipurim to provide atonement for people who sin b'Mezid (intentionally) with Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav (Shevuos 2b).
12)[line 31]כלי שרתKELI SHARES- a sanctified utensil used in the Divine Service
13)[line 32]בין הבדיםBEIN HA'BADIM- "between the poles" [of the Aron Kodesh] (the blood was sprinkled towards the Aron Kodesh, landing on the floor in front of it)
14)[line 34]שירי הדםSHEYAREI HA'DAM- the remainder of the blood
15)[line 34]יסוד מערביYESOD MA'ARAVI- the western foundation of the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon (see Background to Zevachim 4:30)
16)[line 36]פרים הנשרפיםPARIM HA'NISRAFIM
(a)Aside from Yom Kippur, the Torah requires that on certain occasions a bull be brought as a Korban Chatas, the blood of which is brought into the Heichal and is sprinkled on the Paroches and on the Mizbach ha'Ketores. The Sheyarei ha'Dam (the remainder of the blood) was poured on the Western Yesod (foundation) of the Mizbe'ach. The remains of these bulls are entirely burned in the place outside of Yerushalayim where the ashes from the Mizbe'ach are deposited.
(b)These bulls are:
1.the bull brought by the Kohen Gadol if he sinned b'Shogeg (Par Kohen Gadol) (Vayikra 4:12, see Background to Shevuos 14:13:b-d);
2.the bull brought by the Sanhedrin if they erred in a Halachic ruling and caused the people to sin b'Shogeg (Par He'elem Davar) (Vayikra 4:21, see Background to Horayos 2:1).
17)[line 36]שעירים הנשרפיםSE'IRIM HA'NISRAFIM
(a)The Sanhedrin (the Jewish Supreme Court) must bring a Korban if they issued a mistaken ruling permitting an act of idolatry that carries a Chiyuv Kares and the Jewish people in Eretz Yisrael (the majority of the people or the majority of the tribes) conducted themselves based on this ruling. The sages bring a young bull as an Olah and a male goat as a Chatas on behalf of each of the tribes. The people are exempt, since they relied on the Beis Din ha'Gadol. The goats are called Se'irei Avodas Kochavim or Se'irim ha'Nisrafim (RAMBAM Hilchos Shegagos 12:1).
(b)The blood of the goats is sprinkled in the Heichal on the Paroches and the Mizbach ha'Ketores. The Sheyarei ha'Dam (the remainder of the blood) was poured on the Western Yesod (foundation) of the Mizbe'ach. The remains of the goats are burned outside of the city of Yerushalayim where the ashes from the Mizbe'ach are deposited (Bamidbar 15:22-26).
18)[line 3]בית הדשןBEIS HA'DESHEN
(a)There are four places associated with the Beis ha'Mikdash that are called "Beis ha'Deshen" (ash-pile) (Zevachim 104b):
1.The first Beis ha'Deshen, also known as Mekom ha'Deshen, was located southeast of the outer Mizbe'ach alongside the ramp, at a distance of three Tefachim (approx. 10.5 inches) from the ramp and 10 Amos north of the foot of the ramp. The Terumas ha'Deshen (a shovel-full of ashes lifted from the bonfire of the outer Mizbe'ach) and ashes from the Menorah and the inner Mizbe'ach were put there every morning. Additionally, when a bird was brought as an Olas ha'Of, the Kohen cut out the crop and surrounding feathers of the bird (or, according to some Tana'im, the crop and the intestines — Zevachim 65a) and threw them onto this Beis ha'Deshen.
2.The second Beis ha'Deshen was located immediately to the east of the outer Mizbe'ach. It was used for burning the parts of certain Korbanos that became Pesulim, where the Pesul occurred before the Zerikas ha'Dam. These parts were the meat and the Eimurim of Kodshei ha'Kodashim, the Eimurim of the Kodshim Kalim, and the Parim and Se'irim ha'Nisrafim (the bulls and goats, the remains of which were burned) (Pesachim 24a, Zevachim 104b).
3.The third Beis ha'Deshen was located on Har ha'Bayis and was used for burning the Parim and Se'irim ha'Nisrafim that became Pesulim, where the Pesul occurred after the Zerikas ha'Dam (according to Rav Nachman Amar Rabah bar Avuha) or after they were taken out of the Azarah (according to Tani Levi).
4.The fourth Beis ha'Deshen was also called the Shefech ha'Deshen. Most of the ashes from the sacrifices burned on the outer Mizb'ach were cleared away to the Tapu'ach, a large pile of ashes in the middle of the Mizbe'ach. The Torah states that when this pile becomes excessively large, the ashes must be cleared away to the Shefech ha'Deshen, the ritually clean place outside the camp in the desert or outside of Yerushalayim where the ashes from the Mizbe'ach are deposited (Vayikra 4:12, 6:4). The Parim and Se'irim ha'Nisrafim that did not become Pesulim during their Avodah were also burned in this Beis ha'Deshen.
(b)The Beis ha'Deshen mentioned in our Gemara is the one called the Shefech ha'Deshen (see above, a:4).
19)[line 5]אשם מצורעASHAM METZORA
The Torah specifies five cases where the Korban Asham Vadai is brought (see Background to Zevachim 2:6). One of them is the Asham Metzora (a sheep within its first year), which is one of the Korbanos brought by a Metzora upon the completion of his Taharah process (Vayikra 14:12, see Background to Zevachim 32:20:c-e).
20)[line 7]אשם נזירASHAM NAZIR
The Torah specifies five cases where the Korban Asham Vadai is brought (see Background to Zevachim 2:6). One of them is the Asham Nazir (a sheep within its first year), which is one of the Korbanos brought by a Nazir Tamei upon the renewal of his Nezirus period (Bamidbar 6:12, see Background to Zevachim 23:6).
21)[line 9]כיון דלא סגי ליה אלא בכלי...KEIVAN D'LO SAGI LEI ELA BI'CHELI...- since [in actuality, the Kohen who performs the offering of the Asham] must use a utensil...