THE RIGHTEOUS STRUGGLE TO MAINTAIN HUMILITY
When Rava saw the people following him in reverence, he worried that it might go to his head, he quoted a Pasuk in Iyov, which warns a person who becomes conceited that in the end, he will become insignificant.
Mar Zutra Chasid reacted similarly when, in his old age, they carried him on their shoulders (in a sedan-chair).
It is not good for the Resha'im when they are favored in this world (i.e. they do not receive their punishment here), and it is good for the Tzadikim when they are not (Ach'av was favored, while Moshe, on the other hand, was not).
The benefits due Tzadikim are enjoyed by their descendants (for example, Aharon's two remaining sons [Elazar and Isamar] did not die at the same time as their brothers due to the merits of Aharon).
Many Cana'anites would have reached the level of Tavi (worthy of being judges), but they did not, due to the wickedness of their grandfather, Canaan.
Someone who causes the community to do good will not be tempted to sin, while one who causes the community to sin will not be given the opportunity to do Teshuvah.
Hash-m will protect the Mezakeh in order that he will not sit in Gehinom while his disciples sit in Gan Eden.
Hash-m makes it difficult for the Machti to do Teshuvah in order not to sit in Gan Eden, whilst his disciples sit in Gehinom (proof text).
ONE WHO SINS AND PRESUMES TESHUVAH WILL ATONE
Question: Why does the Tana repeat the words 'Echta ve'Ashuv'?
Answer: He learns from this the teaching of Rav Huna citing Rav, that one who repeats a sin views the matter as permitted.
Question: Our Mishnah (that Yom Kipur will not atone for someone who deliberately sins, while relying on Yom Kipur to atone for it) appears incompatible with Rebbi (who taught that Yom Kipur atones even without Teshuvah)?
Answer: Rebbi will agree in this case, since he is using Yom Kipur as an excuse to sin.
Question: The Pasuk (Shmuel I, 2:25) "Im Yecheta Ish le'Ish u'Filelo Elokim" seems to mean that Hash-m (Elokim) will appease (Filel) even for Aveiros between man and man!?
Answer: It means that he will be forgiven only if the judges (Elokim) find him guilty (Filel) and make him pay.
Question: Then how are we to understand the end of the Pasuk "ve'Im Lashem Yecheta Ish, Mi Yispalel Lo" (it cannot mean 'Who will judge (Filel) him'?, since Hash-m is not short of ways by which to punish someone who has sinned against Him)?
Answer: 'Filel' is an expression of appeasement, meaning If someone sins against his friend and appeases him, Hash-m will forgive him, whereas if he sins against Hash-m, who will appease Hash-m (other than Teshuvah and good deeds)?
One who wronged another verbally or monetarily must make it up to him by appeasing him or paying him back (proof text as expounded).
(R. Chisda): The sinner must attempt to appease the victim three times, with three lines of three representatives (proof text).
(R. Yosi b. Chanina): However, not more than three times (proof text).
If the victim of verbal anguish has died, the offender takes ten men to his grave and begs his forgiveness.
INCIDENTS OF REQUESTING MECHILAH
R. Yirmiyah went to R. Aba to appease him for some wrong that he had done him, and while he was waiting for R. Aba to exit, R. Aba's maidservant inadvertently poured some sewage on his head.
R. Yirmiyah quoted the Pasuk in Tehilim, "me'Ashpos Yarim (a play on his name, Yirmiyah) Evyon".
When R. Aba heard R. Yirmiyah quoting the Pasuk, he went out to see him, and easily forgave him for what he had done (and begged his forgiveness for the slight).
When someone wronged R. Zeira verbally, he would go and stand in front of him, to make it easy for him to ask him for forgiveness.
R. Huna told his Rebbe, Rav, that he was on his way to kill someone, because he knew that the butcher who had wronged Rav, would not respond in a positive way, thereby making his situation in Heaven worse.
His prediction came true when the butcher, looking up and seeing Rav standing in front of him, slighted Rav.
The butcher was killed right away (by a bone chip).
Rav was learning a chapter of Tanach in front of Rebbi. He started again from the beginning when R. Chiya arrived, and a third time for Bar Kapara.
When R. Chanina b'R. Chama joined the group, Rav declined to start all over again, and he continued, slighting R. Chanina.
Rav went to ask him for forgiveness on thirteen consecutive Arvei Yom Kipur.
Question: But we learned earlier that it is forbidden to ask for forgiveness more than three times?
Answer: Rav took a strict line and went beyond the letter of the law. (see Rabeinu Chananel).
Someone who readily forgives those who have sinned against him will find that Hash-m will give him the same treatment and all his sins will be forgiven.
Question: Why did R. Chanina not forgive Rav?
Answer: Because he had a dream, in which they suspended Rav on a date-palm (a sign that he was destined to rise to greatness).
Since he (R.Chanina) was due to become Rebbi's successor, he understood that if Rav were to remain in Eretz Yisrael, and R. Chanina would become the Rosh Yeshivah, it would have meant that he would have to die (in order to make room for Rav).
Consequently, his refusal to accept appeasement was meant to force Rav to leave Eretz Yisrael, and to become the Rosh Yeshivah in Bavel (which he subsequently did).
THE MITZVAH OF VIDUY
The first recital of Viduy is due on Erev Yom Kipur, immediately after the Se'udah ha'Mafsekes, as soon as one has brought in the fast (still before nightfall).
Chazal instituted the recital of Viduy before the Seudah ha'Mafsekes, in case he becomes unable to recite Viduy after the Se'udah.
One nevertheless needs to recite it again after the Seudah in case one sinned in some way during the Seudah.
Again, Viduy is recited at Shacharis, Musaf, Minchah and Ne'ilah (ten times, twice during each of the Tefilos).
It is recited by the community at the end of each Tefilah and by the Chazan in the middle.
Question: What Tefilos should accompany the Viduy?
Answer: (Rav): 'Atah Yode'a'; (Shmuel): 'mi'Ma'amakei ha'Lev [unknown sins]'; (Levi): 'Ki Va'Yom ha'Zeh Yechaper Aleichem'; (R. Yochanan): 'Ki Lo Al Tzidkoseinu'; (R. Yehudah): Ki Avonoseinu; (R. Hamnuna): 'Elokai Ad she'Lo Notzarti'... (which was the Viduy of Rava all year round).
(Mar Zutra): 'Aval Anachnu Chatanu' alone will suffice.
Bar Hamduri reported that when the Shatz arrived at 'Aval Anachnu Chatanu', Shmuel stood up.
We learn from this that 'Aval Anachnu Chatanu' is the main Viduy.
On three occasions the Kohanim would Duchan four times (Shachris, Musaf, Minchah and Ne'ilas ha'She'arim); on a Ta'anis Tzibur, on the Ma'amados and on Yom Kipur.
Question: What is 'Ne'ilas ha'She'arim'?
Answer (Rav): An extra Tefilah of seven Berachos.
Answer (Shmuel): The Tefilah of 'Mah Anu, Mah Chayeinu ...'.
Question: But the Beraisa (discussing the Chasimah of the middle B'rachah) clearly indicates that Ne'ilah is a full Tefilah of seven Berachos!?
Answer: This is a Tiyuvta on Shmuel.
Rava praised Ula b'R. Nachis who began Ne'ilah with 'Ata Vechartanu' and concluded it with 'Mah Anu, Meh Chayeinu'.
R. Nasan the father of R. Huna b'R. Nasan said that an individual should say 'Mah Anu ... ' after his Tefilah.
Rav said that Ne'ilah exempts one from Ma'ariv.
This is consistent with Rav's position that Ne'ilah is an extra Tefilah (unlike Shmuel whose 'Mah Anu' could not replace Ma'ariv).
Question: But Rav holds that Ma'ariv is voluntary (and may therefore be omitted anyway)!?
Answer: Rav's statement above is according to those who hold that Ma'ariv is obligatory.
Question: But the Beraisa (discussing the details of Ma'ariv and the Havdalah in it) teaches that we do recite Ma'ariv after Ne'ilah!?
Answer: It is a Machlokes Tana'im (the Beraisa begins the next Daf).