IDENTIFYING THE NATIONS IN THE PESUKIM
R. Yochanan told Resh Lakish that the Nimshal of the Pasuk is not as he said (there would not be Shechinah in the second Mikdash in any case because it was built by the Persians [from Yefes]).
Question: How do we know that the Persians are descended of Yefes?
Answer: It is a Beraisa identifying Tiras as Persia.
Savta and Savtecha (inner and outer regions).
Bavel, Erech, Akad, Chalneh.
Ashur, Nineveh, Rechovos, Kalach, Resen.
The large city...is Nineveh (based on Yonah).
Achiman, Sheishai, Talmei, Yelidei ha'Anak.
(cited in the name of Rebbi): Rome is destined to fall before Persia (proof text).
Question: How do you know that Tze'irei ha'Tzon is Persia (the proof text could also refer to Greece)?
The sage of Eretz Yisrael clarified how it refers to Persia.
(cited in the name of R. Yochanan): Rome is destined to fall before Persia.
This is logically derived from the builders/destroyers of the first Mikdash.
(Rav): Persia is destined to fall before Rome.
Question: Can the builders fall before the destroyers?
Answer: If the King so decrees.
Alternate answer: The Persians also destroyed synagogues, and the King has so decreed.
Rome must ultimately prevail over the world for nine months prior to Israel's redemption (proof text).
MEZUZAH IN THE MIKDASH
Only the Lishkas Parhadrin (the residence of the Kohen Gadol) must have a Mezuzah.
Question: But other Lishkos (also residences) did not?
Answer: It is a Gezeirah (lest the Kohen Gadol be considered incarcerated).
Question: Why isn't residence enough to obligate?
Answer (Rava): R. Yehudah holds that only year-round residences are obligated in a Mezuzah.
Question (Abaye): But we find winter/summer homes called Bayis?
Answer: They are called winter-homes, not simply homes.
Question: But R. Yehudah obligates a Mezuzah in a Sukah?
There could hardly be a more seasonal dwelling.
And if you'll suggest that the obligation is only de'Rabanan...
But he also makes the produce brought directly into the Sukah subject to Ma'aser (and this we would not do unless the obligation was d'Oraisa, for fear of errors).
Answer (Abaye): They agree that Sukah is obligated in Mezuzah during the week of Sukos; they argue about whether (Chachamim) or not (R. Yehudah) to extend that obligation to the rest of the year.
Question (Rava): But the Mishnah teaches that the Chachamim argue about Mezuzah during Sukos!?
Answer (Rava): Rather, there is no argument during the year (exempt) and they only argue during Sukos.
Sukah and Lishkah have separate bases for the argument.
(Sukah): R. Yehudah holds that Sukah must be of a permanent nature; Rabanan hold it must be a temporary dwelling.
(Lishkah): Chachamim hold that an imposed dwelling is called a dwelling; R. Yehudah holds it is not (and the obligation for a Mezuzah, as mentioned, is a Gezeirah).