THE TEXT OF VIDUY [Viduy:Nusach]
Beraisa - R. Meir: One confesses by saying 'Avisi, Poshati, Chotasi';
Similarly, regarding Se'ir ha'Mishtale'ach it says "V'Hisvadah...Avonos...Pish'eihem l'Chol Chatosam". In the 13 Midos of Rachamim it says "Nosei Avon va'Fesha v'Chata'ah".
Chachamim say, Avonos are intentional sins - "(Asher Ta'aseh b'Yad Ramah...) Hikares Tikares...Avonah Vah". Pesha'im are sins of rebellion - "Melech Mo'av Posha Bi". Chatosam are Shogeg sins - "Nefesh Ki Secheta vi'Shgagah".
It is unreasonable to confess for Shogeg after having confessed for Mezid and sins of rebellion!
Rather, he says 'Chotasi, Avisi, Poshati, I and my household.'
This is the order used by David ("Chotonu Im Avoseinu He'evinu Hirshanu"), Shlomo ("Chotonu v'He'evinu Hirshanu") and Daniel ("Chotonu v'Avinu Hirshanu").
Question: If so, why does it say "Nosei Avon va'Fesha v'Chata'ah"?
Answer: Moshe required that when Yisrael do Teshuvah after sinning, Hash-m should consider their Mezid sins as if they were Shogeg.
Rav: The Halachah follows Chachamim.
Objection: Obviously, the Halachah follows the Rabim against an individual!
Answer: One might have thought that the Halachah follows R. Meir because the verse ("Nosei Avon va'Fesha v'Chata'ah") supports him.
A Shali'ach Tzibur did like R. Meir in front of Rava. Rava asked why he abandoned Chachamim and followed an individual. He said that he follows R. Meir because the verse in the Torah supports him.
37a - Question: What is the source that in the Viduy (of the Kohen Gadol said over Par Yom Kipur) he says 'Ana'?
Answer: We learn from a Gezerah Shavah "Kaparah-Kaparah" from Moshe's Tefilah after the Egel.
Question: What is the source that he says Hash-m's name in the Viduy?
Answer: We learn "Kaparah-Kaparah" from Eglah Arufah.
Rif (6a): The Halachah follows Chachamim.
Source (Ran DH Tanu Rabanan): The Gemara asked 'This is obvious; the Halachah follows the Rabim against an individual!' Also, the Gemara (87b) concludes that the essential Viduy is 'Aval Anachnu Chotonu...'
Rambam (Hilchos Teshuvah 1:1): When confessing one says 'Ana Hash-m Chotasi, Avisi, Poshati...'
Minchas Chinuch (364 DH u'Mah she'Chosav ha'Nusach): This refers to one who transgressed many sins. Surely, if one transgressed only one thing he confesses only for how he transgressed. The Gemara learned that Ana and Hash-m's name are said in the Viduy over Par Yom Kipur. Perhaps the Rambam learns from a Giluy Milsa to every Viduy. However, the Gemara (87b) concludes that the essential Viduy is 'Aval Anachnu Chotonu...'; it does not mention 'Ana Hashem'. The Rambam himself does not mention 'Ana Hashem' in the Viduy we say on Yom Kipur.
Rambam (ibid. 2:8): The Viduy Yisraelim are accustomed to on Yom Kipur is 'Aval Chotonu...'
Minchas Chinuch (ibid.): The Gemara learned that Ana and Hash-m's name are said in the Viduy over Par Yom Kipur. The Gemara (87b) concludes that the essential Viduy is 'Aval Anachnu Chotonu...'; it does not mention 'Ana Hashem', and here the Rambam does not mention them. However, the Rambam mentioned them above (1:1).
Rambam (Hilchos Avodas Yom Kipur 2:6): The Kohen Gadol confesses '...Chotasi, Avisi, Poshati...please atone for Chata'im, Avonos and Pesha'im...'
Rambam (Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 3:15): One who brings a Korban confesses 'Chotasi, Avisi, Poshati; I did so and so...please atone for Chata'im, Avonos and Pesha'im...'
Rosh (8:19): The Rif, BaHaG, R. Paltuya and R. Chananel rule like Chachamim. Rav Sadya Gaon, the Ritz Gei'us and Ba'al ha'Itur rule like R. Meir, because Rava accepted the words of the Shali'ach Tzibur and he is Basra.
Question: How do Chachamim explain R. Meir's other source, "'V'Hisvadah...Avonos...Pish'eihem l'Chol Chatosam"?
Answer (Korban Nesan'el 1): We find that 'Avon' also includes Shogeg ("Tis'u Avon Kehunaschem" (Bamidbar 18:1), and 'Chet' also includes Mezid (the Egel is called "Chato'oh Gedolah"). Shegagos of Chachamim are called Mezid, and intentional sins of Amei ha'Aretz are considered Shogeg - "Haged l'Ami Pish'am ul'Beis Yakov Chatasam" (Bava Metzi'a 33b).
Rosh (ibid.): In the Yerushalmi, R. Chagai says that in the first Viduy the Kohen Gadol says 'Ana Hashem', and in the second 'Ana ba'Shem'. R. Chananel says that we follow our Mishnah (which says 'Hashem' both times). The Piyut of R. (Shlomo) ha'Bavli says 'Hashem' both times. Avi ha'Ezri says that we follow R. Chagai, for the Amora'im knew the text better than we do.
Korban Nesan'el (7): Our custom (in Musaf of Yom Kipur) is to say the Piyut of R. Klunimus, which is like R. Chagai.
Rosh (ibid.): Rav Hai Gaon says that Hash-m's 42-letter name was used. This is unreasonable, for we learn from a Gezerah Shavah from Eglah Arufah! Rather, it is the four-letter name, but it is pronounced the way it is written.
Shulchan Aruch (OC 621:5): The order of Viduy is Chotasi, Avisi, Poshati.
Source (Gra DH Seder): Even though the Stam Mishnah (35b) is like R. Meir, Rav ruled like Chachamim. Even though Rava did not make the Shali'ach Tzibur retract, Rava also holds like Chachamim.
Darchei Moshe (4): We request 'Kaparah' for Chet, 'Selichah' for Avon and 'Mechilah' for Pesha.
Note: We also request 'Selichah' for Chet (weekday Shemoneh Esre) and Pesha (in Selichos, Kel Melech Yoshev Al Kisei Rachamim...), 'Kaparah' for Pesha and 'Mechilah' for Avon (Viduy of Yom Kipur before 'Al Chet she'Chotonu...').