[80a - 47 lines; 80b - 37 lines]
1)[line 1]מטומאת אוכליןTUM'AS OCHLIN
(a)All foods become Tamei if they touch a source of Tum'ah, but only after they first become wet. From then on, even after they dry, they can still become Tamei.
(b)Seven liquids can enable foods to become Tamei: water, dew, oil, wine, milk, blood, and honey.
(c)The minimum amount of food that can become Tamei is a k'Beitzah.
2)[line 3]מאי שינה הכתוב במשמעוMAI SHINAH HA'KASUV B'MASHMA'O- what does the Beraisa mean when it states that the terminology of the verse (Vayikra 23:29) is changed; that an abnormal formulation is used?
3)[line 11]בן פקועהBEN PEKU'AH- an animal that is taken out alive from its slaughtered mother's womb
4)[line 11]טעון קריעהTA'UN KERI'AH- it needs to be killed (lit. it needs tearing) [and its blood needs to be extracted]
5)[line 12]ביצת בר יוכניBEITZAS BAR YUCHNI- the egg of a bar Yuchni (the name of a very large bird)
6)[line 12]תפסת מרובה לא תפסת תפסת מועט תפסתTAFASTA MERUBAH LO TAFASTA, TAFASTA MU'AT TAFASTA
(a)This principle states that if you rule according to (lit. take hold of) the larger amount you will not be able to retain that ruling (lit. to grasp it). If you rule according to (lit. take hold of) the smaller amount you will be able to retain that ruling (lit. to grasp it). That is, where the verse is teaching a number (quantity) but it is unclear what that number is, we assume that it is referring to the smaller number.
(b)The logic behind this principle is that if one is faced with a choice of two numbers and is in doubt which to choose, choosing the smaller number is always preferable, regardless of which of the two numbers is actually the correct one (because included in the larger number is the smaller one). On the other hand, if the larger number is chosen, and the smaller one is the correct one, then an error will be made because the smaller number does not include the larger one. (RASHI and TOSFOS to Chagigah 17a)
7)[line 13]ביעתא דציפורתאBEI'ASA D'TZIPORTA- a small bird (possibly a humming bird), the egg of which is smaller than a chicken egg
8)[line 16]בית הבליעהBEIS HA'BELI'AH- the throat
9)[line 19]וירבה בשיעוריןV'YARBEH B'SHI'URIN- and they will increase the Torah measurements
10)[line 22]השב מידיעתוHA'SHAV M'YEDI'ASO- a person who would have refrained from transgressing had he known that it was forbidden (and, in the case of our Gemara, at the time that he transgressed it was not possible to know that the act was forbidden, because it was not forbidden. It was only forbidden because of Chatzi Shiur; it was not forbidden to the extent that he would have to bring a Korban.)
11)[line 33]יעבץYABETZ- this person is mentioned in Divrei ha'Yamim I 4:10. The Gemara in Temurah 16a identifies him as Osni'el ben Kenaz, the first Shofet, who was the half-brother and son-in-law of Kalev ben Yefuneh. The Gemara in Temurah relates that during the mourning period for Moshe Rabeinu, many Halachos and teachings of the Torah were forgotten. Osni'el ben Kenaz reinstated them with his keen reasoning.
12)[line 43]כדי גמיעהKEDEI GEMI'AH- the amount of liquid in one swallow
13)[line 45]מלא לוגמיוMELO LUGMAV DACHUK- the amount of liquid that fits into one cheek when it is restricted to its normal size (and not stretched out)
14)[line 1]כי אתשילKI ITSHIL- when the question (of the minimum Shi'ur for liquids) was asked [in the Beis ha'Midrash]
15)[line 13]בשר שמןBASAR SHAMEN- (tasty) fatty meat
16)[line 13]ולולבי גפניםV'LULEVEI GEFANIM- (O.F. vedile) and tendrils; thin, edible branches of the grapevine (RASHI Shabbos 81a)
17)[line 17]בכדי אכילת פרסBI'CHDEI ACHILAS PERAS
(a)The Torah specifies a Shi'ur for which a person who eats this amount of a prohibited food item is liable to be punished (a k'Zayis). Similarly, the Torah also specifies the amount of time in which the Isur must be eaten in order to be liable. This amount of time is called "Kedei Achilas Peras," and is defined as the amount of time that it takes to eat three (or four) Beitzim of bread with relish, while reclining. A person who eats a k'Zayis of Isur in more than this amount of time is exempt from punishment, exactly as if he ate a Chatzi Shi'ur (Kerisus 12b).
(b)This amount of time applies not only to when the Isur is eaten all by itself, but also when it is eaten in a mixture. If a person eats a k'Zayis of the Isur within the amount of time that it takes to eat a Peras of the entire mixture, he is punished (Pesachim 44a, Avodah Zarah 67a).
(c)The Rishonim argue about the law when an item of Isur became mixed with items of Heter such that one will not eat a k'Zayis during the time of Kedei Achilas Peras. Some rule that eating a k'Zayis of this mixture also incurs a punishment. Others rule that it does not, but it is nevertheless a Lav of the Torah, or an Aseh (TOSFOS, beginning of Chulin 99a). RASHI (Pesachim 45a DH v'Rebbi Akiva) rules that such a mixture is prohibited only mid'Rabanan, according to many Tana'im.
18)[line 22]לטומאת גוויהL'TUM'AS GEVIYAH
The Chachamim decreed that a person who eats a half-Pras (2 k'Beitzim) of food that is Tamei may not eat Terumah. He makes Terumah Pesulah if he touches it.
19)[line 27]אומצא ומילחאUMTZA U'MILCHA- roast meat with salt for taste (See Rashi to Kidushin 30a DH Lo Ta'im Umtza and Rambam Hilchos Shevisas Asor 2:7. Accordingly, the question of the Bi'ur Halachah 612 DH Achal Ochlim is answered.)
20)[line 29]צירTZIR- brine
21)[line 31]כל אכשורי אוכלאKOL ACHSHUREI UCHLA- anything that flavors a food
22)[line 34]זר שאכל תרומהZAR SHE'ACHAL TERUMAH (TASHLUMEI TERUMAH)
(a)After a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, the owner must separate Terumah from the crop, which he gives to a Kohen. Kohanim and members of their households are allowed to eat Terumah, as long as they are Tehorim.
(b)If a non-Kohen eats Terumah without knowing that it is Terumah, he must replace what he ate in the form of a food that becomes Terumah (Tashlumei Terumah). He returns the amount of Terumah that he ate to the Kohen who owned the Terumah (see Insights to the Daf, Pesachim 32:1). In addition, he is fined another Chomesh (fifth) of the ensuing total (i.e. a quarter of the value of what he ate). This Chomesh may be paid to any Kohen (Terumos 6:2) and is not necessarily given to the Kohen who owned the Terumah that was eaten.
(c)If the person ate Terumah in an abnormal fashion, such as by drinking olive oil, he pays only the value of the Terumah that was destroyed (i.e. the normal Halachah of damages applies to him, and not the laws of Tashlumei Terumah).
(d)A non-Kohen who eats or benefits from Terumah b'Mezid (intentionally) pays the value of the Terumah destroyed (i.e. the normal Halachah of damages applies to him, and not Tashlumei Terumah) and incurs the punishment of Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (Sanhedrin 83a).