[49a - 48 lines; 49b - 22 lines]
1)[line 1]אונןONEN (ANINUS)
(a)On the day of death of one of a person's seven closest relatives for whom he is required to arrange burial (father, mother, brother, sister, son, daughter, wife), he has the status of an Onen according to Torah law. An Onen who is a Kohen may not perform the Avodah in the Beis ha'Mikdash unless he is the Kohen Gadol (Vayikra 10:7, 21:1-4). Moreover, no Onen - even a Kohen Gadol - may partake of Kodshim, Bikurim, or Ma'aser Sheni.
(b)For a further discussion of Aninus and the difference between Aninus mid'Oraisa and Aninus mid'Rabanan, see Background to Yoma 13:23.
2)[line 1]שיכורSHIKOR- one who has imbibed a Revi'is of wine
3)[line 1]בעל מוםBA'AL MUM
(a)A Kohen who has a Mum (physical blemish) is forbidden to perform Avodah in the Beis ha'Mikdash, whether he has a Mum Kavu'a (a permanent blemish; e.g. an amputated hand or foot) or a Mum Over (a temporary blemish; e.g. boils). The RAMBAM in SEFER HA'MITZVOS maintains that these are counted as two separate negative commandments (#'s 70 and 71), while the RAMBAN rules that they are included in one Lav.
(b)There are three categories of blemishes (Bechoros 43a):
1.those that invalidate both a Kohen from performing the Avodah as well as an animal from being offered as a sacrifice upon the Mizbe'ach;
2.those that invalidate a Kohen but not an animal;
3.those that invalidate both a Kohen and an animal, but only due to Mar'is ha'Ayin - since they appear to be invalidating blemishes.
(c)The status of a Kohen, and the Avodah he performed, while he was a Ba'al Mum depends on the severity of the Mum:
1.If his Mum is one that invalidates both Kohanim and animals, then he is liable to receive Malkus (lashes) if he performed the Avodah b'Mezid according to the Rabanan, and Misah b'Yedei Shamayim according to Rebbi. His Avodah is Pesulah whether he performed it b'Shogeg or b'Mezid;
2.If his Mum is one that invalidates only Kohanim, then his Avodah is Kesheirah (RAMBAM Hilchos Bi'as Mikdash 6:6);
3.If his Mum is one that prevents him from performing the Avodah only due to Mar'is ha'Ayin, then he does not receive Malkos, and his Avodah is Kesheirah (SEFER HA'CHINUCH #275, 276).
4)[line 3]תיובתאTIYUVTA- This serves as proof that the left hand is disqualified for use in the Avodah when the right hand is available. It the case of the Kaf of Ketores on Yom ha'Kipurim or a Kohen who must carry multiple Evarim, one item may be transported in the left hand since there is no other way to carry two objects (TOSFOS YESHANIM).
5)[line 3]והא רב ששת הוא דאותבה?V'HA RAV SHESHES HU D'OSVAH?- but [how could] Rav Sheshes [not have realized that this Beraisa contradicts his premise? He] himself posed a question from it!
6)[line 4]לאמוריה דרב חסדאAMOREI D'RAV CHISDA- the Meturgeman of Rav Chisda [whose job was to (a) repeat the lesson of Rav Chisda in a louder voice (RASHI to Berachos 56a); (b) translate the lesson of Rav Chisda from Hebrew into the vernacular (RASHI 20b)]
7)[line 6]"וַיִּשְׁחֲטוּ הַפָּסַח, וַיִּזְרְקוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים מִיָּדָם, וְהַלְוִיִּם מַפְשִׁיטִים""VA'YISHCHATU HA'PASACH, VA'YIZREKU HA'KOHANIM MI'YADAM, VEHA'LEVIYIM MAFSHITIM" - "And they slaughtered the Korban Pesach, and the Kohanim dashed its blood against the side of the Mizbe'ach from their hands, and the Leviyim skinned them" (Divrei ha'Yamim II 35:11) (YOSHIYAH'S KORBAN PESACH)
(a)As a result of Amon, Yoshiyah's father, continuing the practice of his father Menasheh before him and hiding all the Sifrei Torah, Torah was all but forgotten in Yisrael when the young eight-year old Yoshiyah came to the throne of Yehudah.
(b)It was eight years later, when Yoshiyah was a mere sixteen years old, that he began to go in the ways of his great ancestor, David. Four years after that, at the age of twenty, he cleared Yehudah and Yerushalayim of idolatry, and took the initiative to cleanse and prepare the Beis ha'Mikdash for the Avodah.
(c)After a Sefer Torah that Moshe Rabeinu had written was found in the Beis ha'Mikdash, Yoshiyah increased his efforts to serve HaSh-m with all his heart. He arranged for the whole of Yisrael to bring a Korban Pesach on Erev Pesach, entirely according to the Halachic requirements. Moreover, he personally donated tens of thousands of animals for the occasion, lambs and kid-goats for the Pesach, and bulls for the Chagigah (as the verse goes on to explain).
(d)This verse implies that those who slaughtered the Korbenos Pesach were the owners of the animals. These non-Kohanim then brought the blood of their Pesachim to the Kohanim in order for them to perform Zerikah.
8)[line 11]דעבוד מעשה איצטבאD'AVUD MA'ASEH ITZTEVA- they performed the action of a platform; that is, they held it while standing in place [and it was a Kohen who subsequently brought it to the Mizbe'ach]
9)[line 16]בא וראה שאלת הראשוניםBO U'RE'EH SHE'ELAS HA'RISHONIM- come and see that [I merited to ask] a question [that had been posed by a sage] from an earlier generation [as I, too, asked the question of Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi]
10)[line 18]קשישKASHISH- was older [than Rebbi Chanina]
11)[line 19]שחלייםSHICHLAYIM- (O.F. cresson) a type of cress with curative properties
12)[line 22]לשחוקLISHCHOK- to grind
13)[line 23]סכנתאSAKANTA- life-threatening danger
14)[line 23]משרא שריMISHRA SHARI- it is certainly permitted [and what then was the question of Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi?]
15)[line 25]מי מסיא?MI MASYA?- does this cure [my ailment]?
16)[line 27]ומאי שנא רבי חנינא?U'MAI SHENA REBBI CHANINA?- and why did he ask this question of Rebbi Chanina?
17)[line 29]מכת פרדה לבנהMAKAS PEREIDAH LEVANAH- a wound delivered by a white mule
18)[line 30]וחייתV'CHAYAS- and [the wound] healed
19)[line 31]בסומקן אינהו וחיורן ריש כרעיהו קאמרינןB'SUMKAN INHU V'CHIVRAN REISH KERA'AIHU KA'AMRINAN- [the mules] we mentioned [that deliver incurable wounds] are reddish in color with white at the ends of their feet
20)[line 32]שמע מינה דרבי חנינא קשישSHEMA MINAH D'REBBI CHANINA KASHISH- we see [from this story] that Rebbi Chanina was older [since Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi referred to him as Rebbi]
21)[line 33]שאלתן כשאילה של ראשוניםSHE'ELASAN K'SHE'EILAH SHEL RISHONIM- the question of [Rebbi Yehoshua Ben Levi] was the same as that posed by [a sage] from an earlier generation [as I, too, asked the question]
22)[line 35]הכיHACHI- such [that he was unsure of whether or not a substitute Kohen Gadol may reuse the double handful of the first Kohen Gadol]
23a)[line 35]"[בְּזֹאת יָבֹא אַהֲרֹן אֶל הַקֹּדֶשׁ,] בְּפַר [בֶּן בָּקָר לְחַטָּאת...]""[B'ZOS YAVO AHARON EL HA'KODESH,] B'FAR [BEN BAKAR L'CHATAS...]"- "[With this shall Aharon approach the Kodesh (ha'Kodashim),] with a [yearling] bull [as a Chatas...]" (Vayikra 16:3).
b)[line 35]ולא בדמו של פרV'LO B'DAMO SHEL PAR- and not with blood of a bull [only] (i.e., a Kohen Gadol may not sprinkle the blood of a bull that he did not slaughter)
24)[line 38]מדקא מיבעיא ליה האMIDE'KAMIBA'I LEI HA- from that which [Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi] asked such [a question]
25)[line 40]הראשוניםHA'RISHONIM- those colleagues of mine [who disagree with me and maintain that b'Far va'Afilu b'Damo Shel Par, who wondered the same thing]
26)[line 41]חוזר וחופןCHOZER V'CHOFEN - he performs Chafinah again (CHAFINAH)
(a)Chafinah, performed once a year on Yom ha'Kipurim by the Kohen Gadol, is one of the most difficult Avodos performed in the Beis ha'Mikdash (Yoma 47b, Menachos 11a). The Kohen Gadol enters the Kodesh ha'Kodashim for the first time in order to place Ketores (incense) over burning coals there. He takes with him a Kaf (a bowl with a handle) of Ketores in his left hand and a pan of burning coals in his right. He then places the pan of coals on the floor, empties the double-handful (Melo Chafnav) of Ketores in the Kaf into his hands, and covers the coals with Ketores (Vayikra 16:12-13).
(b)The Kohen Gadol holds the Kaf in his hands and uses his thumbs to slide the handle of the Kaf back toward his body until it is positioned between his elbows, with the edge of the bowl in his fingertips (and the bottom of it resting on the fleshy part of his palm). Then, with the help of his elbows, he rotates the bowl above his hands and empties the Ketores into his palms, all the while being careful not to spill any of it (RASHI, as explained by the ME'IRI on the Mishnah on 49b).
(c)According to the RAMBAM (Hilchos Avodas Yom ha'Kipurim 4:1), who has a slightly different text on 49b, the Kohen Gadol tilts the Kaf at an angle such that he is able to sweep the Ketores into his palms with his thumbs. He accomplishes this using his fingertips or by holding the handle of the Kaf in his teeth. (See Insights to 49b for other possible ways in which the Kohen Gadol performs Chafinah.)
27)[line 45]שלא יחסר ושלא יותירSHE'LO YECHSAR VESHE'LO YOSIR- that [the Ketores] will be less or more [than the amount of Ketores that fits exactly into the second Kohen Gadol's cupped hands]
28)[line 47]שאם רצה לעשות מדה עושהSHE'IM ROTZEH LA'ASOS MIDAH OSEH- that if he wishes to fashion a vessel [that holds precisely the amount of the Kometz of that Kohen], he may
29)[line 1]הבזךHA'BAZACH- the Kaf (long-handled bowl in which the Ketores is placed)
30)[line 3]בגודלוB'GODLO- with his thumb(s)
31)[line 3]אצילי ידיוATZILEI YADAV- his elbows
32)[line 4]צוברהTZOVRAH- he piles it thickly [upon the coals]
33)[line 5]מפזרהMEFAZRAH- he spreads it thinly [upon the coals]
34)[line 8]מליקהMELIKAH- see Background to 47:37
35)[line 8]קמיצהKEMITZAH- see Background to 47:27
36)[line 17]נמנין ומושכין ידיהן ממנוNIMNIN U'MOSHCHIN YEDEIHEN MI'MENU (KORBAN PESACH)
(a)In the times of the Beis ha'Mikdash, every adult Jew is obligated to offer a Korban Pesach on the fourteenth of Nisan in the afternoon, as the Torah commands, "And the whole assembly of the congregation of Yisrael shall slaughter it towards evening" (Shemos 12:6). A Korban Pesach must be an unblemished male lamb or goat within its first year. The Korban may be slaughtered in any part of the Azarah (see Zevachim 56b).
(b)The body of the Korban is roasted in its entirety, and is eaten after nightfall together with Matzah and Maror. The Korban must be eaten within the walls of Yerushalayim (Zevachim 56b).
(c)In order to eat from the Korban Pesach, one must be "appointed" to the Korban before it is slaughtered, as the Torah states, "And if the household is too small to be [appointed to] a [whole] sheep, then he and a neighbor who lives nearby should purchase a lamb together according to the number of people. Each individual shall be appointed to the lamb according to how much he can consume" (Shemos 12:4). This appointment is called "Minuy." A person may be granted or may withdraw his share from a Korban Pesach as long as it has not been slaughtered (Pesachim 89a).
37a)[line 18]"וְאִם יִמְעַט הַבַּיִת מִהְיוֹת מִשֶּׂה...""[V'IM YIM'AT HA'BAYIS] MI'HEYOS MI'SEH..."- "[And if the household is too small] to be appointed to a [whole] sheep..." (Shemos 12:4) - Our Gemara interprets this phrase as, "And if members of a household wish to remove themselves from their appointment to the sheep...."
b)[line 18]מחיותה דשהMI'CHIYUSAH D'SEH- [they must do so] while the lamb is still alive
38)[line 19]פודיןPODIN (PIDYON PETER CHAMOR)
There is a positive Mitzvah to redeem a firstborn male donkey, as the verse states, "v'Chol Peter Chamor Tifdeh b'Seh, v'Im Lo Sifdeh va'Arafto" - "And you should redeem every firstborn donkey with a sheep; if it is not redeemed, you should decapitate it" (Shemos 13:13). This Mitzvah is fulfilled by giving a sheep to a Kohen in order to redeem the firstborn donkey.
39a)[line 19]חיהCHAYAH- a non-domesticated animal
b)[line 19]טריפהTEREIFAH- an animal with a malady that will cause it to die within the year
c)[line 19]כלאיםKIL'AYIM- lit. a mixture; the offspring of a goat and a sheep
d)[line 20]כויKOY- The Tana'im disagree as to whether this animal is (a) a wild species of ram; (b) a certain species of animal that exhibits characteristics of both domesticated and non-domesticated animals; (c) the offspring of a ram and a female deer (Chulin 80a)
40)[line 21]תפדה תפדה ריבהTIFDEH TIFDEH RIBAH- the Torah repeats the word "Tifdeh " many times in the Parshah of Pidyon Peter Chamor (Shemos 13:13).