[28a - 33 lines; 28b - 46 lines]
1)[line 1]והרי אברים...V'HARI EVARIM...- RASHI and the VILNA GA'ON maintain that the part of the Gemara beginning with these words through the words "Ela Kashya" are written in error and should be removed from the text. See RABEINU CHANANEL for a different understanding of the Gemara which does include the Girsa as we have it.
2)[line 7]עבודה תמהAVODAH TAMAH- a "finished" service; one that requires no other component in order to be complete
3)[line 11]כדאמרינןKED'AMRINAN- as we have already explained [that it was moved to the first Payis in order to encourage Kohanim to arise early enough to attend (22a)]
4)[line 14]למימרא...L'MEIMRA...- This part of the Gemara through the words "Ela Kashya" are not part of the Girsa of RASHI and the VILNA GA'ON.
5)[line 19]אף אנן נמי תנינאAF ANAN NAMI TENINA- what we learned in a Beraisa supports this idea [that the arrangement of the Shnei Gezirei Etzim atop the Mizbe'ach is the completion of an Avodah]
6)[line 20]ואילו זמן סידור גזירי עצים לא קתניV'ILU ZMAN SIDUR GEZIREI ETZIM LO KETANI- and "the time to arrange the Shnei Gezirei Etzim" was not stated! [Clearly, the placement of the Shnei Gezirei Etzim is the conclusion of the nighttime Avodah, and the next Avodah — that of the day — begins with the slaughter of the Tamid.]
PEREK #3 AMAR LAHEM HA'MENUNEH
7)[line 24]צאוTZE'U- go [up to the roof]
8)[line 26]ברקאי!BARKAI!- "Day has broken!"
9)[line 26]מתיא בן שמואל אומרMASYA BEN SHMUEL OMER- a) a Tana named Masya ben Shmuel states in contention with the Tana Kama; b) alternatively, our Mishnah is quoting he who was appointed to be in charge of the Peyasos in the Beis ha'Mikdash, identified as Matisya ben Shmuel (Shekalim 5:1). He was the one who climbed to the roof in order to determine that the sun had risen before starting the second Payis (TOSFOS YESHANIM, TOSFOS HA'ROSH; see Beraisa quoted on 28b).
10)[line 28]עלה מאור הלבנהALAH ME'OR HA'LEVANAH- the light of the moon shone from below the horizon
11)[line 29]דימוDIMU- it appeared as if
12)[line 30]בית השריפהBEIS HA'SEREIFAH- the place in the Azarah where Kodshim that became invalidated are burned
13a)[line 32]מיסך את רגליוMEISACH ES RAGLAV- defecates
b)[line 32]מטיל מיםMATIL MAYIM- urinates
14a)[line 1]ברק ברקאיBARAK BARKAI- the light of morning has shone (this is the equivalent of "Barkai" in our Mishnah)
b)[line 2]עלה ברקאיALAH BARKAI- the light of morning has risen (this is a later stage than Barak Barkai)
15)[line 7]נגה ליה טובא!NAGAH LEI TUVA!- it is quite bright [already, and there is no need to send a lookout to the roof]!
16)[line 8]לשכור פועליםLI'SCHOR PO'ALIM- [one who arises especially early in order] to hire workers [before the start of the workday]
17)[line 9]צלותיה דאברהםTZELOSEI D'AVRAHAM- the [Minchah] prayer of Avraham Avinu (see Insights]
18)[line 9]מכי משחרי כותליMI'CHI MASHCHEREI KOSLEI- from when [the eastern side of] walls are in shadow (lit. become dark); i.e., past noon
19)[line 10]אנן מאברהם ניקום וניגמרANAN ME'AVRAHAM NEIKUM V'NIGMAR?- shall we learn a lesson from Avraham? (see Insights)
20)[line 14]זריזין מקדימין למצותZERIZIN MAKDIMIN L'MITZVOS- those who act with alacrity perform Mitzvos as soon as possible
21)[line 15]"ויחבוש""VA'YACHAVOSH"- "and he saddled" (Bereishis 22:3) - See, however, the emendation of BACH (a).
22)[line 18]נשחט בשש ומחצהNISHCHAT B'SHESH U'MECHTZAH- [the Korban Tamid, which must be slaughtered in the afternoon,] is slaughtered [as early as possible,] six and a half hours into the day [in order to leave time for all of Klal Yisrael to slaughter and roast their Korbenos Pesach before night falls]
23)[line 19]ונשחטיה מכי משחרי כותלי!V'NISHCHETEI MI'CHI MASHCHEREI KOSLEI!- [since the time when one may recite Minchah and the time when the Korban Tamid may be offered are identical,] we should slaughter it from when [the eastern side of] walls are in shadow (which is one half of an hour earlier)!
24)[line 21]לא מכווני טובאLO MECHAVNEI (TUVA)- they are not perfectly vertical. When Herod built new walls for the Beis ha'Mikdash, he slightly indented each layer of stones in relation to the one below it. This was both structurally sound as well as esthetically pleasing. The effect of such a method can be seen today at the Kosel; the upper part of the wall which was built by the Arabs is not indented, and it appears to one who stands at its base looking up as if it is about to fall over.
25)[line 22]איצטגנינות גדולהITZTAGNINUS GEDOLAH- a great [understanding of] astronomy
26)[line 23]זקן ויושב בישיבה הוהZAKEN V'YOSHEV B'YESHIVAH HAVAH- a) the Shechinah dwelled with Avraham; [therefore he was aware of when Chatzos was. We, however, must wait an extra half-hour in order to ensure that we do not err in our reckoning] (RABEINU CHANANEL); b) Avraham was a Talmid Chacham of such stature that he would not err in a Halachic matter; [he was therefore permitted to recite Minchah immediately after Chatzos] (RITVA); c) [Avraham would not have erred in his reckoning of Chatzos, but not due to his expertise in astronomy. Rather,] this was due to his knowledge of Torah, [the source of all wisdom] (TOSFOS RID); d) Avraham was settled in one place. [It was therefore easier for him to calculate the exact hour of Chatzos based upon the position of the sun than the Kohanim in the Beis ha'Mikdash, who were not where they spent most of their time] (RABEINU ELYAKIM)
27)[line 26]זקני ישראלZIKNEI YISRAEL- This does not refer to elders, per se. The Gemara in Kidushin (32b) explains that a Zaken is "Zeh she'Kanah Chochmah" — he who has acquired the knowledge [of Torah] (MAHARSHA).
28)[line 33]"... הוּא דַּמֶּשֶׂק אֱלִיעֶזֶר""... HU DAMESEK ELIEZER"- "... he is Eliezer from Damesek" (Bereishis 15:2).
29)[line 34]דולהDOLEH- draws (as water from a well)
30)[line 35]"עֵקֶב אֲשֶׁר שָׁמַע אַבְרָהָם בְּקֹלִי; וַיִּשְׁמֹר מִשְׁמַרְתִּי, מִצְו?ֹתַי חֻקּוֹתַי וְתוֹרֹתָי""EKEV ASHER SHAMA AVRAHAM B'KOLI; VA'YISHMOR MISHMARTI — MITZVOSAI, CHUKOSAI, V'SOROSAI"- "Since Avraham has listened to My voice, and guarded my charge — My commandments, My edicts, and My teachings" (Bereishis 26:5).
31)[line 35]שבע מצותSHEVA MITZVOS (SHEVA MITZVOS BNEI NOACH)
(a)The people of the world are categorized as "Bnei Noach," since all of mankind is descended from Noach. From the inception of the human race — long before the acceptance of the Torah or the existence of the Jewish people — mankind was instructed to fulfill seven basic categories of Mitzvos. Klal Yisrael, from the time that they accepted the Torah, follow the guidelines of the Torah; the rest of humanity, however, remains bound by the original seven Mitzvos.
(b)The seven categories of Mitzvos are:
1.The prohibition against worshiping idols (Avodah Zarah).
2.The prohibition against cursing HaSh-m (Birkas HaSh-m).
3.The prohibition against committing murder (Shefichus Damim).
4.The prohibition against committing adultery or engaging in incestuous relationships (Giluy Arayos).
5.The prohibition against stealing (Gezel).
6.The prohibition against consuming a limb detached from an animal while it is still alive (Ever Min ha'Chai).
7.The positive commandment to establish courts of law (Dinim).
(c)Some of these categories include numerous actions which are prohibited under the general heading of the Mitzvah. If a Ben Noach commits any transgression that falls under these classifications, it is a severe enough offense to warrant the death penalty, even without a prior warning. Since such actions disrupt the natural order of the world, "Ben Noach — Azharaso Zo Hi Misaso" — "Any action that is prohibited to a Ben Noach carries with it the death penalty" (RAMBAM Hilchos Melachim 9:14).
32)[line 7]עירובי תבשיליןERUVEI TAVSHILIN
(a)Although the Torah prohibits cooking or performing Melachah on Yom Tov in preparation for a weekday, it is permitted mid'Oraisa to cook or perform Melachah on Yom Tov in preparation for Shabbos when Yom Tov falls on Erev Shabbos (Pesachim 46b). The Rabanan, however, prohibited these Melachos unless an Eruv Tavshilin is made on Erev Yom Tov.
(b)The Amora'im disagree as to the reason why the Rabanan require an Eruv Tavshilin (Beitzah 16b). Some maintain that the Rabanan wished to ensure the honor of Shabbos; the Eruv Tavshilin serves as a reminder that one should save food for the Shabbos meals. Others are of the opinion that this enactment honors Yom Tov, as one realizes that, "If it is prohibited to cook on Yom Tov even in preparation for Shabbos (without an Eruv Tavshilin), all the more so it is prohibited to do so in preparation for a weekday."
(c)The Eruv Tavshilin is made as follows: a k'Zayis of cooked food (Beitzah ibid.) is set aside on Erev Yom Tov with the intention to eat it on Shabbos. When setting it aside, one recites the appropriate blessing and then states, "Through this Eruv, we shall be able to bake, cook, and carry out any other necessary preparations for Shabbos on Yom Tov."
33)[line 38]דקאי אאיגראD'KA'I A'IGRA- who is standing on the roof
34)[line 38]הוא חלים והוא מפשר?HU CHALIM, V'HU MEFASHER?- does he dream and then interpret [his own dream]?; i.e., does he both pose and then answer his own question?
35)[line 39]אארעאA'AR'A- on the ground
36)[line 40]עד שבחברון?AD SHEB'CHEVRON?- [is the sky lit up all the way] until Chevron? The reason why the city of Chevron is mentioned in this symbolic exchange is to honor the patriarchs and matriarchs who are buried there (RASHI).
37a)[line 41]האיר פני כל המזרחHE'IR PNEI KOL HA'MIZRACH?- is the entire eastern sky lit up?
b)[line 41]עד שבחברון?AD SHEB'CHEVRON?- [do you mean to ask if the sky is lit up all the way] until Chevron?
38)[line 42]ומי מיחליף?U'MI MICHLIF?- is it possible to confuse [the glow from the light of the moon when it is below the horizon with that of the sun]?
39)[line 42]תימורTIMUR- the glow that rises from a source of light when the source itself is hidden
40)[line 43]מתמר ועולה כמקלMETAMER V'OLEH K'MAKEL- rises in a column
41)[line 43]מפציעMAFTZI'A- spreads
42a)[line 44]המעונןHA'ME'UNAN- cloudy
b)[line 44]מפציע לכאן ולכאןU'MAFTZI'A L'KAN UL'MAN- and [the light of the moon] spreads out to the sides [since it must burst through the holes in between the clouds]
43)[line 44]יומא דעיבא כוליה שמשאYOMA D'EIVAH KULEI SHIMSHA- [on] a cloudy day it is sunny everywhere [even in the shade]
44)[line 45]לשטוחי עורותLI'SHTUCHEI OROS- to spread out animal hides [in order to cure them in the sun]
45)[line 45]אשה לא תלושISHA LO SALUSH- a woman should not knead [dough on Pesach]
46a)[line 45]חמהB'CHAMAH- in direct sunlight
b)[line 45]חמי חמהB'CHAMEI CHAMAH- with water heated by the sun
47a)[last line]זוהמא דשימשאZUHAMA D'SHIMSHA- a) the heat of the sun on a cloudy day (RASHI); b) the absorbed heat of an object that the sun is no longer shining upon (RABEINU CHANANEL)
b)[last line]קשי משימשאKASHI MI'SHIMSHA- a) is greater than the heat of the sun [on a clear day] (RASHI); b) is greater than the heat of direct sunlight (RABEINU CHANANEL)
48a)[last line]סימניךSIMANECH- the way to remember this is
b)[last line]דנא דחלאDANA D'CHALA- a) a [sealed] barrel of vinegar [that, if punctured, releases a concentrated vinegary smell] (RASHI); b) an [emptied] barrel of vinegar [which smells of vinegar more strongly than the vinegar itself] (RABEINU CHANANEL)
49)[last line]שברירי דשימשאSHAVRIREI D'SHIMSHA- a) [the degree of] blindness caused by [gazing at] the sun [as it bursts through the clouds] (RASHI); b) [the degree of] blindness caused by [gazing at the light of] the sun [as it shines through a hole] (RABEINU CHANANEL)
50)[last line]דילפאDILFA- water that drips on a person [which is more uncomfortable than when one's entire body is wet]