The reference numbers below that appear in parentheses (e.g., TY #43) represent vessels or parts of the structure of the Beis ha'Mikdash. The labeling follows that of the diagram of the Tiferes Yisrael. This diagram, which has been included in a separate mailing and can also be found on our site (at http://www.dafyomi.co.il/midos/mids-charts.htm), is printed both in the Tiferes Yisrael Mishnayos (Midos Chapter 2 or following Midos) and in Rav P. Kahati's Mishnayos (page 290, at the beginning of Midos).
[19a - 40 lines; 19b - 52 lines]
(a)Chafinah, performed once a year on Yom ha'Kipurim by the Kohen Gadol, is one of the most difficult Avodos performed in the Beis ha'Mikdash (Yoma 47b, Menachos 11a). The Kohen Gadol enters the Kodesh ha'Kodashim for the first time in order to place Ketores (incense) over burning coals there. He takes with him a Kaf (a bowl with a handle) of Ketores in his left hand and a pan of burning coals in his right. He then places the pan of coals on the floor, empties the double-handful of Ketores in the Kaf into his hands, and covers the coals with Ketores (Vayikra 16:12-13).
(b)The Kohen Gadol holds the Kaf in his hands and uses his thumbs to slide the handle of the Kaf back toward his body until it was positioned between his elbows, with the edge of the bowl in his fingertips (and the bottom of it resting on the fleshy part of his palm). Then, with the help of his elbows, he rotates the bowl above his hands and empties the Ketores into his palms, all the while being careful not to spill any of it (RASHI, as explained by the ME'IRI on the Mishnah on 49b).
(c)According to the RAMBAM (Hilchos Avodas Yom ha'Kipurim 4:1), who has a slightly different text on 49b, the Kohen Gadol tilts the Kaf at an angle such that he is able to sweep the Ketores into his palms with his thumbs. He accomplishes this using his fingertips or by holding the handle of the Kaf in his teeth. (See Insights to 49b for other possible ways in which the Kohen Gadol performed Chafinah.)
2)[line 2]היו לו לכ"גHAYU LO L'KOHEN GADOL- the Kohan Gadol had [for his use during the seven days prior to Yom Kipur when he lived in the Beis ha'Mikdash]
3)[line 5]לשכת המלחLISHKAS HA'MELACH
(a)The Torah states, "Al Kol Korbancha Takriv Melach" - "Offer salt upon all of your sacrifices" (Vayikra 2:13). Any part of a Korban that is to be offered upon the Mizbe'ach is first salted, and only then placed upon the fire.
(b)The room used to store the salt for this purpose is called the Lishkas ha'Melach (TY #30)
4)[line 6]לשכת הפרוהLISHKAS HA'PARVAH
(a)The Kohanim receive the hides of Korbenos Olah. They are allowed to use salt belonging to Hekdesh in order to preserve these hides. The room in the Azarah in which the tanning was accomplished is named the Lishkas ha'Parvah (TY #31).
(b)On the roof of this Lishkah was a Mikvah. This Mikvah was in the Azarah itself, and therefore had the status of Kodesh. This was the Mikvah used by the Kohen Gadol on Yom ha'Kipurim, since he was required to immerse in the Azarah (Vayikra 16:24, Mishnah Yoma 34b).
(c)The Rishonim suggest various reasons for how this room received its name:
1.According to the RASH (Midos 5:3), the word "Parvah" is related to "Parim" (cows), the hides of which were tanned there.
2.Alternatively, this name references that which the Kohen Gadol uses the Mikvah located on the roof on Yom ha'Kipurim; Parvah is related to the word "Kipur" (RASH ibid.).
3.The Gemara (Yoma 35a) says that Parvah was the name of a sorcerer. Some explain this to mean that a Jewish sorcerer named Parvah built the room (ROSH Midos 5:3 based on Rashi in Yoma), or that a non-Jew by that name designed the ingenious system that was used to bring water to its roof, as if through sorcery (ibid., as explained by TIFERES YISRAEL based on the RASH ibid.).
4.Others explain the Gemara in Yoma to mean that a non-Jewish sorcerer named Parvah built a tunnel from Yerushalayim which emerged within the walls of this Lishkah, for the purpose of observing the Kohen Gadol while he performed the Avodah on Yom Kipur. He was caught and put to death on the spot, and the event was memorialized through the name of the Lishkah. (RAMBAM in Peirush ha'Mishnayos and ROSH, Midos 5:3; TOSFOS DH Parvah and RABEINU CHANANEL Yoma 35a based on ARUCH)
5)[line 6]לשכת המדיחיןLISHKAS HA'MADICHIN- the Rinsing Chamber, in which the intestines of the Korbanos were rinsed out (TY #32)
6)[line 8]מולחיןMOLCHIN- salted (preserved)
7)[line 10]קרביKARVEI- innards
8)[line 11]מסיבהMESIBAH- a spiral staircase
9)[line 12]לשכת העץLISHKAS HA'ETZ- the Lishkas ha'Etz (TY #28) is the Lishkas Parhedrin, the chamber in which the Kohen Gadol slept for the seven days prior to Yom Kipur (according to the conclusion of the Gemara). It was called the Lishkas ha'Etz since either a) there were wooden cabinets for the Kohen to store his clothing in, or b) since it was next to the Sha'ar ha'Deleikah (see below, entry #17), through which firewood for the Mizbe'ach was brought.
10)[line 12]לשכת הגולהLISHKAS HA'GOLAH- This chamber (TY #29) contains a well that filled with fresh water every day. It was named for those who dug the well when they arrived from the Golah (exile) (RASHI; BARTENURA). According to RABEINU YEHONASAN (at the end of Eruvin), the name of this Lishkah is the Lishkas ha'Gulah, due to the large bowl (Gulah) that set next to the well and was used to transport water.
11)[line 12]לשכת הגזיתLISHKAS HA'GAZIS- TY #27; The Chamber of Hewn Stone, where the Great Sanhedrin (see below, entry #15) sat in judgement. Alternatively, The Chamber Of Pruning, as the Sanhedrin weeded out those Kohanim whose lineage was found to be lacking (RITVA).
12)[line 14][והיא] היתה אחורי שתיהן[V'HI] HAYESAH ACHAREI SHTEIHEN- and it was nestled to the west of the Lishkas ha'Gazis and to the north of the Lishkas ha'Golah, in the corner where they meet (TY #28).
13)[line 15]גלגלGALGAL- a water wheel
14)[line 16]מספיקיןMASPIKIN- supply
15)[line 16]סנהדריןSANHEDRIN (SANHEDRIN HA'GEDOLAH)
(a)The Great Sanhedrin is the highest Halachic authority; as such, the most difficult cases are brought to this body. (Devarim 17;8). Seventy-one judges sitting in the Lishkas ha'Gazis make up the Sanhedrin ha'Gedolah.
(b)The name Sanhedrin is a contraction of "Sonei Hadras Panim b'Din" - "those who hate favoritism in judgement" (BARTENURA to Sotah 9:11).
16)[line 17]דנה את הכהניםDANAH ES HA'KOHANIM- look into the lineage of the Kohanim [in order to determine if they are fit to serve in the Beis ha'Mikdash]
17)[line 20]שער הדלקהSHA'AR HA'DELEIKAH- The Gate of Kindling (TY #36), through which wood for the Mizbe'ach is brought.
18)[line 20]שער (הקרבן) הבכורותSHA'AR (HA'KORBAN) [HA'BECHOROS]- The Gate of the Firstborn (TY #35), through which first-born kosher animals (see Background to Shekalim 22:16) are brought to be sacrificed (Shemos 13:15, Bamidbar 18:17).
19)[line 21]שער המיםSHA'AR HA'MAYIM
(a)The Water Gate (TY #33; in the diagram, #33 should be in place of #34 on top of the gate), opposite the Mizbe'ach to the south, is opened once during the year. The procession carrying the water for the Nisuch ha'Mayim (see Background to Pesachim 34:25) passes through this gate on Sukos.
(b)The Amah-high, Amah-wide channel of water (the Amah) that runs through the Azarah flows out through the Sha'ar ha'Mayim. When the floor of the Azarah needed to be cleaned, the Amah is blocked up at this gate, causing it to overflow.
20)[line 21]שער נקנורSHA'AR NIKANOR- the eastern gate of the Azarah (TY #18), named for he who commissioned the brass doors which closed upon it (see Yoma 38a)
21)[line 22]לשכת פנחס המלבשLISHKAS PINCHAS HA'MALBISH- The Room of Pinchas the Dresser (TY #20) was named for he who first distributed and collected the garments of the Kohanim. This chamber contains 96 closets to store the sets of Bigdei Kehunah, four for each of the 24 families of Kohanim (see Background to 18:1).
22)[line 22]לשכת עושי חביתיןLISHKAS OSEI CHAVITIN- the Chamber of those who prepared the Chavitin (TY #21). This Korban, offered by the Kohen Gadol every day, consists of twelve Chalos, half of which are burned upon the Mizbe'ach in the morning and half in the afternoon (see Background to Shekalim 19:14).
23)[line 23]שער ניצוץSHA'AR NITZOTZ- The Gate of the Spark (TY #40), a roofed area in which coals are kept burning for the purpose of rekindling fires that have gone out. On its roof was a watchtower. It was formerly called Sha'ar Yechanyah, for it was through this gate that King Yechanyah (the king of Yehudah at the time of the destruction of the first Beis ha'Mikdash) passed on his way to the Babylonian exile.
24)[line 23]אכסדרהACHSADRAH- a roofed area that is not completely walled in
25)[line 25]החילHA'CHEIL- see Background to 16:21
26)[line 25]שער הקרבןSHA'AR HA'KORBAN- The Gate of the Sacrifice (TY #41), through which offerings with the status of Kodshei Kodashim entered the Azarah.
27)[line 25]שער בית המוקדSHA'AR BEIS HA'MOKED- The Gate of the Chamber of the Hearth (TY #43). This is a large, domed room wherein Kohanim can warm themselves at any time. They were often chilly due to that which the Avodah must be performed barefoot upon the marble floors of the Beis ha'Mikdash, which are open to the elements.
28)[line 26]קדושיןKIDUSHIN- washing of the hands and feet from the Kiyor, the twelve-spouted fountain in the Azarah
29)[line 26]בו ביוםBO BA'YOM- that day [of Yom ha'Kipurim]
30)[line 26]וכולןV'CHULAN- and all of the [immersions]
31)[line 27]מזוMI'ZU- the first immersion
32)[line 27]ובצד לשכתו היתהUV'TZAD LISHKASO HAYAH- and [the Sha'ar ha'Mayim] was next to the room of the Kohen Gadol. This proves that the Kohen Gadol had a room in the south of the Azarah.
33a)[line 30]מקדים קאיMAKDIM KA'I- he would arise
b)[line 30]ומיסך את רגליוU'MEISACH ES RAGLAV- and defecate
34)[line 30]וטבילV'TAVIL- and immerse in the Mikvah. This is because a Kohen is required to immerse in a Mikvah prior to entering the Azarah both after awakening as well as after relieving himself (see Insights).
35a)[line 31]לבהדי פניאLEV'HADI PANYA- toward evening
b)[line 32]מדו עליהMADU ALEI- they sprinkle [the Mei Chatas] on him (This follows the opinion of Rebbi Akiva on 14a)
36)[line 32]ונייחV'NAYICH- and he rests [for the night]
37)[line 35]והדרMEHADER- return
38)[line 36]אלמה לאALAMAH LO?- why not?
39)[line 36]צדוקיTZEDUKI (TZEDUKI/BAITUSI)
(a)The Tzedukim were students of Tzadok, and the Beitusim were students of Beitus. Both of these individuals rejected the Oral Torah (Avos d'Rebbi Nasan 5:2).
40)[line 36]ליפרושLIFROSH- he will abstain
41)[line 37]שלא תזוח דעתו עליוSHE'LO TAZU'ACH DA'ATO ALAV- [in order] that he not think highly of himself
42)[line 38]תסגיTASGI- enough
43)[line 38]לימאLEIMA- let us say [that from that which the elders of the Kehunah notified the Kohen Gadol that he was their messenger]
44)[last line]הני כהני שלוחי דרחמנא נינהו ... שלוחי דידן נינהוKAHANI SHELUCHEI D'RACHMANA NINHU ... SHELUCHI DIDAN NINHU
(a)The Gemara in a number of places wonders if Kohanim performing the service of the sacrifices are the agents of HaSh-m, so to speak, or the agents of the owner of the Korban. There is a practical difference between these two possibilities in the case of one who has foresworn any benefit from a certain Kohen. If a Kohen functions as the emissary of he who offers the Korban, then he may not utilize him when offering a sacrifice.
(b)TOSFOS (DH Mi, and in other places) maintain that it is clear that there must be some element of Heavenly appointment in the service of the Kohanim. This is because it is impossible for one to appoint a Shali'ach to do that which he himself is unable, as Rav Huna brei d'Rav Yehoshua contends. The question is whether or not there is an element of human appointment as well.
45)[line 1]למעבדL'ME'EVAD- to do
46)[line 3]על דעתינוAL DATENU- according to our intention [and not what you, should you be a Tzeduki, maintain is correct]
47)[line 7]לוקה בגופוLOKEH B'GUFO- is physically afflicted
48)[line 8]שלא יתקן מבחוץ ויכניסSHE'LO YESAKEN MIBA'CHUTZ V'YACHNIS- so that he should not place [the Ketores upon the coals] outside [of the Kodesh Kodashim, in the Heichal] and [only then] enter
49)[line 13]"... כִּי בֶּעָנָן, אֵרָאֶה עַל-הַכַּפֹּרֶת.""... KI BE'ANAN ERA'EH AL HA'KAPORES"- "... for in a cloud I shall appear on the Kapores (the covering of the Aron, in the Kodesh Kodashim)" (Vayikra 16:2). This refers to either the Clouds of Glory which signify the presence of HaSh-m, or the clouds of incense which the Kohen Gadol ignites inside the Kodesh Kodashim as part of the Yom Kipur service. The Tzedukim misinterpreted it to mean that the Ketores must be placed upon the coals before entering the Kodesh ha'Kodashim.
50a)[line 16]והוטל באשפהV'HUTAL B'ASHPA- and [his body] was thrown onto a heap of garbage
b)[line 17]והיו תולעין יוצאין מחוטמוV'HAYU TOLA'IN YOTZ'IN ME'CHOTMO- and maggots were coming out of his nostrils [since his nose was the first part of his body to enter the Kodesh ha'Kodashim (RASHI)]
51)[line 18]ניגףNIGAF- he was struck [dead]
52)[line 19]וחבטו על פניוV'CHAVTO AL PANAV- and threw him face down [with a kick to his back]
53a)[line 20]ככף רגל עגלK'CHAF REGEL EGEL- [an imprint] resembling the hoofprint of a calf
b)[line 21]בין כתפיוBEIN KESEFAV- between his shoulders
54)[line 21]"וְרַגְלֵיהֶם ...""V'RAGLEIHEM ..."- "And their feet (of the angels) ..."
55)[line 25]ומחוי ליה רב בידיה קבוטלU'MACHVEI LEI RAV B'YADAEI KEVUTAL- and Rav demonstrated to him with his hand [the form of a Veis, to convey that his name was] Kevutal [and not Kefutal]
56)[line 25]ונימא ליה מימרNEIMA LEI MEIMAR!- let him say so out loud!
57)[line 28]ירמוז ... יקרוץ ... יורהYIRMOZ ... YIKROTZ ... YOREH- to motion in a hinting manner
58)[line 32]"וְלֹא-אֹתִי קָרָאתָ, יַעֲקֹב; [כִּי-יָגַעְתָּ בִּי, יִשְׂרָאֵל.]""V'LO OSI KARASA YAKOV ... "- "And it is not I whom you have called, Yakov; [for you have grown tired of me, Yisrael]" (Yeshayah 43:22).
59)[line 33]הא בפרק ראשוןHA B'PEREK RISHON- that [which one may not even hint] is in the first chapter of Shema [in which the verse states, "And these things shall be on your heart" (Devarim 6:6)]
60)[line 34]"בם" ולא בתפלה"BAM", V'LO B'TEFILAH- [the verse which states "... and you should speak in them" may be interpreted as] a) "in them" (the words of Keri'as Shema) [one may speak loudly], but not during Shemoneh Esrei [which must be recited silently] (RASHI; SHE'ILTOS); b) "in them" (the words of Keri'as Shema) [one may interrupt to greet his Rebbi from whom he learned most of his Torah or return the greeting of a Talmid Chacham (Orach Chayim 66:1)], but not during Shemoneh Esrei (TOSFOS)
61)[line 35]בםBAM- the words of Torah
62a)[line 36]עשה אותן קבעASEH OSAN KEVA- make Torah learning into an integral, fixed part of your life
b)[line 37]עראיARAI- transitory
63)[line 37]השח שיחת חוליןHA'SACH SICHAS CHULIN- one who engages in idle chatter
64)[line 39]"כָּל-הַדְּבָרִים יְגֵעִים, לֹא-יוּכַל אִישׁ לְדַבֵּר ...""KOL HA'DEVARIM YEGE'IM, LO YUCHAL ISH L'DABER ..."- "All words are tiresome; one is unable to speak ..." (Koheles 1:8). Our Gemara interprets this as, "One may not speak tiresome words."
65)[line 40]בקש להתנמנםBIKESH L'HISNAMNEM- if he began to doze off
66a)[line 40]פרחי כהונהPIRCHEI KEHUNAH- young Kohanim
b)[line 41]מכין לפניו באצבע צרדאMAKIN LEFANAV B'ETZBA TZERADA- would snap their fingers in front of him
67)[line 41]והפגV'HAFEG- and cause [your tiredness] to dissipate
68)[line 42]מעסיקיןMA'ASIKIN- occupy
69)[line 42]זמן השחיטהZMAN HA'SHECHITAH- the time to slaughter [the morning Tamid]
70)[line 43]צרתה דדאTZARTA D'DA- the companion of this (i.e., the index finger)
71)[line 43]גודלGODEL- the thumb
72)[line 43]בי רבBEI RAV- the Beis ha'Midrash
73)[line 44]על חדתAL CHADAS- a) something novel (RASHI); b) one more thing (RITVA)
74)[line 45]קידהKIDAH- a method of bowing wherein one stands on his head, and subsequently returns to an upright position, using only his thumbs for support (RASHI Sukah 53a DH v'Zo and DH Itla)
75a)[line 46]נבלNEVEL- lute
b)[line 46]כנורCHINOR- harp
76)[line 47]"... אִם-ה' לֹא-יִבְנֶה בַיִת, שָׁוְא עָמְלוּ בוֹנָיו בּו ...""... IM HASH-M LO YIVNEH BAYIS, SHAV AMLU VONAV VO ..."- "If HaSh-m will not build a house, its builders have toiled for naught" (Tehilim 127:1). The implied message to the Kohan Gadol is, "Take care to perform the Avodah for the sake of Heaven, for without HaSh-m's protection the Beis ha'Mikdash will not last."
77)[line 47]מיקרי ירושליםME'YEKIREI YERUSHALAYIM- some of the distinguished residents of Yerushalayim
78)[line 48]קול הברהKOL HAV'ARAH- the echoing sound [of people awake]
79)[line 48]חוטפתוCHOTFASO- grab him
80)[line 49]בגבוליןB'GEVULIN- in the outlying areas
81)[line 49]שהיו חוטאיןSHE'HAYU CHOT'IN- they sinned [due to the intermingling of men and women]
82)[line 50]תרגומא נהרדעאTARGUMA NEHARDE'A- explain [the statement of Aba Sha'ul as a reference] to Neharde'a
83)[line 51]אמריתוAMRISU- you (plural) say