1)

WHEN MUST A WIDOW BE CONCERNED LEST A CHILD WAS BORN? (Yerushalmi Perek 16 Halachah 1 Daf 81b)

מתני' האשה שהלך בעלה וצרתה למדינת הים באו ואמרה לה מת בעליך לא תינשא ולא תתייבם עד שתדע שמא מעוברת צרתה

(a)

(Mishnah): If a (childless) man went overseas with a wife and left a wife (Leah) home and they told Leah that he died, she may not remarry nor do Yibum until she hears whether or not her Tzarah is pregnant;

היה לה חמות אינה חוששת

(b)

If she has no Yavam but has a mother-in-law [overseas], she need not be concerned [lest a Yavam was born];

יצאת מליאה חוששת

(c)

If [her mother-in-law] was pregnant and went overseas, Leah must be concerned lest a Yavam was born (she may not remarry);

רבי יהושע אמר אינה חוששת:

(d)

R. Yehoshua says, she need not be concerned.

[דף פב עמוד א] גמ' רב שאיל לרבי חייה רובה (ותמתין שלשה ותחלוץ מיד) [צ"ל ותחלוץ מיד ותמתין שלשה ותנשא - חשק שלמה] מה נפשך

(e)

(Gemara) Question (Rav, to R. Chiyah Rubah): [Leah] should do Chalitzah immediately, wait three months and remarry! No matter what you will say [she will be permitted! Why must she wait until she hears about her Tzarah? We explained this like CHESHEK SHLOMO.]

1.

Note: Presumably, she waits three months for Havchanah, to avoid any doubt about who is the father (PF).

אם בן קיימה הוא לא נגעה בה חליצה

2.

If [her Tzarah is pregnant with] a viable fetus, Chalitzah had no effect on her (Leah is permitted due to the fetus);

אם אינו בן קיימה הרי חליצתה בידה.

3.

If [she is pregnant with] a fetus that is not viable (or she is not pregnant at all, Leah) has Chalitzah (it permitted her)!

אמר ליה לא (שני) [צ"ל שנו - קרבן העדה] שלשה חדשים אלא אצלה.

(f)

Answer (R. Chiyah Rubah): [Waiting] three months was taught when the only concern is for herself [but not if her Tzarah could be pregnant].

הא אצל צרתה כמה תמתין

(g)

Question: For her Tzarah, how much must she wait?

ט' חדשים.

(h)

Answer: [She must wait] nine months (because a fetus does not permit until it is born).

ותחלוץ מיד. מה נפשך

(i)

Question: She can do Chalitzah immediately [and marry after nine months,] no matter what you will say!

אם בן קיימה הוא לא נגעה בה חליצה

1.

If [the fetus] is viable, Chalitzah had no effect on her (Leah is permitted due to the fetus);

אם אינו בן קיימה הרי חליצתה בידה.

2.

If [the fetus] is not viable, she has Chalitzah (it permitted her)!

אתא רבי יהודה בשם רבי אלעזר בשם רבי חייא רובא שלא תהא צריכה כרוז לכהונה.

(j)

Answer (R. Yehudah citing R. Elazar citing R. Chiyah Ruba): [We do not let her do Chalitzah immediately,] lest [it be clarified later the Chalitzah was nothing, and] she will need an announcement [that she is Kosher] for Kehunah.

חבריא בשם רבי יוחנן טעמון דרבנן כי ישבו בודאי ולא בספק.

(k)

(Talmidim citing R. Yochanan): Rabanan's reason is "Ki Yeshvu" (the brothers Vadai dwelled together", and not a Safek. (ERECH SHAI - the verse permits a Sefek-Sefeka even when it might be clarified later that it is forbidden.)

יצאת מליאה חוששת שהוא ספק אחד ספק זכר ספק נקיבה מדבר תורה להחמיר.

(l)

If [her mother-in-law] left pregnant, [Leah] is concerned [mid'Rabanan], for it is [only] one Safek - perhaps [the fetus] is a male, and perhaps a female. Mid'Oraisa, one must be stringent [about a single Safek].

רבי יהושע אומר אינה חוששת שהן שני ספיקות ספק זכר ספק נקיבה ספק בן קיימא ספק אינו בן קיימא שתי ספיקות מדברי תורה להקל:

(m)

R. Yehoshua says, she is not concerned, for there are two Sefekos - perhaps [the fetus] is a male, and perhaps a female. Perhaps [the fetus] is viable, and perhaps not viable. Mid'Oraisa, we are lenient about two Sefekos. (ME'IRI 119a - Rabanan hold that most miscarriages are within the first three months, so from when the fetus was recognized, Nefel is a Mi'ut d'Mi'uta, for which we are not concerned.)

2)

WOULD ONE RUIN HERSELF IN ORDER TO RUIN HER TZARAH? (Yerushalmi Perek 16 Halachah 2 Daf 82a)

מתני' שתי יבמות זו אומרת מת בעלי וזו אומרת מת בעלי זו אסורה מפני בעלה של זו וזו אסורה מפני בעלה של זו

(a)

(Mishnah): Sarah and Leah were married to two brothers. Each said 'my husband died (without children)'. Leah cannot remarry, lest Sarah's husband (her Yavam) is alive. Likewise, Sarah cannot remarry.

לזו עדים ולזו אין עדים את שיש לה עדים אסורה ואת שאין לה עדים מותרת

(b)

If Sarah has witnesses that her husband died, and Leah has no witnesses that her husband died, Sarah may not remarry, but Leah may;

לזו בנים ולזו אין בנים את שיש לה בנים מותרת ואת שאין לה בנים אסורה

(c)

If one man died with children and the other without children, the widow with children may marry. The one without children may not;

נתייבמו מתו יבמין אסורו' להינשא

(d)

If Sarah and Leah did Yibum (to other brothers), and the Yevamim died, the women may not remarry (each is forbidden, lest the other's first husband is still alive);

רבי לעזר אמר הואיל והותרו ליבמין הותרו לכל אדם:

(e)

R. Elazar says, since they were permitted to the Yevamim, they are permitted to all men.

גמ' שתי יבמות לזו בנים ועדים ולזו אין כלום זו ניתרת בבניה וזו ניתרת בעדיה.

(f)

(Gemara): If Sarah and Leah were Yevamos - Sarah has children and witnesses [that her husband died], and Leah has nothing (and each says 'my husband died') - Sarah is permitted [l'Shuk] through her children, and Leah is permitted through [Sarah's] witnesses.

מה טעמא דרבי לעזר משום שאינה חשודה לקלקל צרתה כל עיקר.

(g)

Question: What is R. Lazar's reason? Is it because she is not suspected [to ruin herself in order] to ruin her Tzarah at all? (Or, perhaps she is not suspected to ruin her Tzarah only in a case like here, that ruin to her Tzarah is possible only after future events, i.e. both Yevamim who were here will die, and the Tzarah did not do Chalitzah!)

נישמעינה מן הדא האשה שהלכה היא ובעלה למדינת הים ובאתה ואמרה מת בעלי תינשא ותיטול כתובה וצרתה אסורה.

(h)

Answer: We learn from the following [Mishnah]. If Leah went overseas with her husband, and came and said 'my husband died', she may remarry and she receives her Kesuvah. Her Tzarah is forbidden;

וסברין מימר חשודה היא לקלקל את עצמה כדי שתקלקל צרתה ולית ר' לעזר פליג

1.

Assumption: She is suspected to ruin herself in order to ruin her Tzarah, and R. Lazar does not argue!

הוי לית טעמא (אלא דלא מקלקלא נפשה ולא - קרבן העדה מוחקו) משום שאינה חשודה לקלקל צרתה כל עיקר.

2.

Conclusion: This shows that the reason is not because she is not suspected [to ruin herself in order] to ruin her Tzarah at all.

וחש לומר שמא שילח לה גיטא ממדינת הים.

(i)

Rejection: (Perhaps she does not ruin herself.) We are concerned lest her husband sent to her a Get from overseas.

[דף פב עמוד ב] הגע עצמך שהיה כהן.

(j)

Question: Exert yourself [and you will find the answer! Is this a proper rejection? The Mishnah forbids the Tzarah in every case, even if she remarried] a Kohen! (If she received a Get, she ruins herself!)

אמר ר' בא בר זימנא חשודה היא לעשות כמה חללים כדי לעשות בני צרתה ממזרין:

(k)

Answer (R. Ba bar Ziman): She is suspected to [transgress a Lav, and] make several Chalalim (her children from the Kohen), in order to make her Tzarah's children Mamzerim (and her Tzarah will transgress Eshes Ish, which has Misah and Kares for one who is Mezid. We explained this based on SEFER NIR.)

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