Question: Why don't Beis Hillel learn from Moshe?
Answer: Moshe himself decided to cease having children.
(Beraisa): Moshe made three decisions on his own, and Hash-m agreed with him: he separated from his wife, he broke the Luchos, and he added a day (to the days of preparation for Matan Torah).
Question: Why did he separate from his wife?
Answer: He made a Kal va'Chomer. Yisrael spoke with Hash-m once, and they were commanded to refrain from Bi'ah beforehand. Hash-m speaks with me at all times, all the more so I should refrain!
Hash-m agreed to this - "Tell them to return to their tents, and you (Moshe) remain here with Me".
Question: Why did he break the Luchos?
Answer: He made a Kal va'Chomer. Korban Pesach is one of 613 Mitzvos, and "Any apostate may not eat from it". All the more so, the entire Torah may not be given to Yisrael, who are serving idolatry!
Hash-m agreed to this;
(Reish Lakish): "ASHeR Shibarta" - YiSHaR Kochacha (you should be strengthened) for breaking them.
Question: Why did Moshe add a day to the preparation for Matan Torah?
Answer: He expounded - "Sanctify today and tomorrow" - today should be like tomorrow;
Just like tomorrow is a full day of separation including the night, also today (the first day of separation) includes the night. Since the night had already passed when Hash-m said this (Yom Revi'i), "today" (the first day of separation) must refer to Yom Chamishi.
Hash-m agreed to this. He did not put His presence on Mount Sinai until Shabbos.
THE MITZVAH OF HAVING CHILDREN
(Beraisa #1 - R. Noson): Beis Shamai say that one must have two sons and two daughters. Beis Hillel require one of each.
(Rav Huna): According to R. Noson, Beis Shamai learn from "Va'Tosef Laledes Es Achiv Es Hevel" (each "Es" alludes to a sister) - Hevel and his sister and Kayin and his sister;
It says "Hash-m gave to me other seed in place of Hevel" (to fulfill the obligation).
Chachamim say that Adam merely thanked Hash-m.
(Beraisa #2 - R. Noson): Beis Shamai require one male and one female. Beis Hillel require a male or a female.
(Rava): According to R. Noson, Beis Hillel learn from "Lo Sohu Vera'ah Lasheves Yetzarah" - one child fulfills Sheves (populates the world).
(R. Yochanan): If a Nochri had children and then converted, he fulfilled Peru u'Rvu (the Mitzvah to have children);
Reish Lakish says, he has not fulfilled it.
R. Yochanan says that he fulfilled Peru u'Rvu because he had children;
Reish Lakish says that he did not fulfill it, because a convert is like a newborn.
They argued similarly elsewhere:
(R. Yochanan): If a Nochri had children and then converted, his first son born after conversion is not considered a Bechor, for he has previous sons;
Reish Lakish says, he is a Bechor, since a firstborn Nochri has no special law of inheritance.
It was necessary for R. Yochanan and Reish Lakish to argue in both cases.
Had they argued only in the first case, one might have thought that R. Yochanan argues only there, because Piryah v'Rivyah also applies to Nochrim, but regarding inheritance, he would admit to Reish Lakish;
Had they argued only in the second case, one would say that Reish Lakish argues only there, but regarding Piryah v'Rivyah, he would admit to R. Yochanan.
Question (R. Yochanan): "Bradach Bladan ben Bladan..." (this shows that they have lineage)!
Answer (Reish Lakish): While they are Nochrim they have lineage. When they convert, they lose it.
(Rav): All agree that a slave has no lineage. "Shevu Lachem Po Im ha'Chamor" - ("Im" connotes equality, and it can be read 'Am', suggesting) a nation similar to a donkey. (This verse was said to Eliezer (a slave) and Yishmael, the son of a Shifchah.)
Question: "To Tziva (the slave of Mefivoshes) were 15 Banim and 20 slaves".
Answer (Rav Acha bar Yakov): This does not connote lineage any more than "Par Ben Bakar" (a bull born to cattle).
Question: If so, the same applies to Nochrim!
Answer #1: Regarding Nochrim, it specifies the names of the son and the father. Regarding slaves, it does not.
Answer #2: Elsewhere, a Nochri is traced to his father and grandfather - "Ben Hadad ben Tavrimum ben Chaziyon."
WHICH DESCENDANTS COUNT FOR THE MITZVAH
(Rav Huna): If a man had children and they died, he fulfilled Peru u'Rvu;
R. Yochanan says, he did not.
Rav Huna holds like Rav Asi:
(Rav Asi): "Ki Ru'ach mi'Lefanai Ya'atof (souls in front of Me delay)" - (Mashi'ach) the son of David will not come until all Neshamos in 'Guf' (a treasury) are completed.
R. Yochanan says that he was not Yotzei, for he did not fulfil "Lasheves Yetzarah" (he did not help populate the world).
Question (Beraisa): Grandchildren are like children (a living grandchild substitutes in place of his deceased parent).
Answer: No. No substitute is needed for a deceased child. The Beraisa teaches that grandchildren join with children to fulfill the required number of boys and girls.
Question (Beraisa): Grandchildren are like children. If a child died, or was found to be a Seris, his father did not fulfill Peru u'Rvu.
This refutes Rav Huna.
(Beraisa): Grandchildren are like children.
(Abaye): This refers to a son of a son, or a daughter of a daughter, and all the more so a son of a daughter (if the grandchild is alive, it is as if his parent is alive), but not a daughter of a son.
Objection (Rava): Also a daughter of a son fulfils "Lasheves Yetzarah"!
Both agree that we cannot count two grandchildren from one child (if the other child died without children).
Question: This is not so! Rabanan told Rav Sheshes to remarry and have children, and he answered, 'The sons of my daughter are (like) sons'!
Answer: He rejected them (with a false answer. He didn't remarry because) he became sterile from Rav Huna's class (it was very long, and Rav Sheshes did not leave to urinate when he needed to.)
Question (Rabah): What is the source that grandchildren are like children? (Rashi - he asks about sons of daughters. It is clear that sons of sons are like sons.)
Suggestion: We learn from "The daughters are my daughters, the sons are my sons".
Rejection - Question: How will we explain "The flock is my flock"? (They are not considered Lavan's children!)
Answer: Rather, it "is my flock", i.e. that you acquired from me. Similarly, 'they are my children', i.e. that you acquired from me!
Answer: Rather, we learn from "Chetzron fathered Seguv from Machir's daughter", "Rulers came from Machir" and "Yehudah is my ruler". (Even though the paternal lineage of all rulers is from Yehudah, some are attributed to Machir, because his daughter's son is like his son.)
SHOULD ONE REMARRY IN HIS OLD AGE?
Our Mishnah is unlike R. Yehoshua.
(Beraisa - R. Yehoshua): If a man married in his youth, he should marry in his old age. If he had children in his youth, he should have children in his old age - "Seed your seed in the morning, and do not withhold in the evening, for you do not know which will be better."
R. Akiva says, if a man learned Torah in his youth, he should learn in his old age. If he had Talmidim in his youth, he should have Talmidim in his old age - "Seed your seed..."
R. Akiva had 12,000 pairs of Talmidim, from Gavas to Antiferus. They all died in one period, because they did not act with honor to each other. The world was desolate until R. Akiva went to our teachers in the south, R. Meir, R. Yehudah, R. Yosi, R. Shimon and R. Elazar ben Shamu'a, and taught them. They stood up the Torah at that time.
(Beraisa): All 24,000 Talmidim died between Pesach and Shavuos.
(Rav Chama bar Aba): They all died an evil death.
Question: What is that?
Answer (Rav Nachman): It is croup.
(Rav Masnah): The Halachah follows R. Yehoshua.
(R. Tanchum): A single man dwells without joy, Berachah or good;
He lacks joy, for it says "You will rejoice, you and your household."
He lacks Berachah, for it says "To put Berachah on your household."
He lacks good, for it says "It is not good that man be alone."
In Eretz Yisrael, they say that he lacks Torah and a wall;
He lacks Torah, for it says "If my helpmate is not with me, Torah is cast from me".
He lacks a wall, for it says "A female will surround a man."
(Rava bar Ula): He lacks Shalom, for it says "... Shalom is your tent..."
ONE MUST BE INTIMATE WITH HIS WIFE AT THE PROPER TIMES
(R. Yehoshua ben Levi): If one knows that his wife fears Heaven but does not fulfill Onah (Bi'ah in the proper time), he is called a sinner - "v'Yadata Ki Shalom Ohalecha u'Fakadta Navcha v'Lo Secheta".
(R. Yehoshua ben Levi): A man must be with his wife before he goes on a trip - "V'Yadata Ki Shalom Ohalecha (u'Fakadta Navcha)".
Question: We know this from "Your desire is to your husband", that a woman desires her husband when he goes away (therefore he must be with her)!
Answer (Rav Yosef): R. Yehoshua teaching is needed for Samuch l'Vestah (shortly before she is due to become Nidah. Rashi - Bi'ah is forbidden mid'Rabanan Samuch l'Vestah, except for one who is going away. Tosfos - Samuch l'Vestah is always forbidden, mid'Oraisa! R. Yehoshua obligates intimacy, but not necessarily Bi'ah.)
Question: How long before is forbidden?
Answer (Rava): It is the entire night or daytime in which her Veses falls.
This only applies to an optional trip. If he is leaving to do a Mitzvah he need not be with her, lest this distract him from the Mitzvah.
(Beraisa): "V'Yadata Ki Shalom Ohalecha" applies to one who loves his wife as himself and honors her more than himself, guides his sons and daughters in the straight path, and marries them off shortly before adulthood.
"Then you will call and Hash-m will answer; you will call, and He will say 'I am here'" applies to one who loves his neighbors, draws his relatives close, marries his sister's daughter, and lends to a poor man when he needs it.