[62a - 55 lines; 62b - 49 lines]

1)[line 13]פסחPESACH (KORBAN PESACH)

(a)It is a Mitzvah for all Jews to offer a Korban Pesach on the fourteenth of Nisan in the afternoon, as it states in the Torah (Shemos 12:6), "and the whole assembly of the congregation of Yisrael shall slaughter it towards evening." The Pesach is an unblemished male lamb or goat within its first year that is roasted in its entirety.

(b)An adult (who was Tahor and was not far from the Beis ha'Mikdash on the fourteenth of Nisan) who willfully did not offer the Korban Pesach is liable to the Kares punishment.

(c)In order to eat from the Korban Pesach, a person must be "appointed" to the Korban before it is slaughtered. This appointment is called "Minuy." Each Pesach must have appointed to it people who are able to eat at least a k'Zayis of the meat on the night of the fifteenth of Nisan. The Korban is sacrificed in the name of all the people who were appointed for that specific Pesach animal. The people appointed to the Pesach then eat at least a k'Zayis of the Pesach together in a "Chaburah." (Some Tana'im maintain that a single Pesach may be split into many Chaburos eating in different places - Pesachim 86a.) No bones of the Pesach are allowed to be broken (Shemos 12:46).

(d)The verses limit the people who are permitted to eat the Korban Pesach. Nochrim, people who are Teme'im and men who are uncircumcised are prohibited from eating the Korban Pesach (Shemos 12:43-44).

2)[line 15]בן נכרBEN NECHAR- (lit. a stranger) a Nochri or a Jew who does not fulfill the Mitzvos

3)[line 19]יישר כחך ששברתYEYASHER KOCHACHA SHE'SHIBARTA- well-done (a phrase of approval and thanks) that you broke them!

4)[line 22]ולילה דהאידנא נפק ליהV'LAILAH DEHA'IDNA NAFAK LEI- this day's night has already passed (the night precedes the day)

5)[line 24]דלא שריא שכינהD'LO SHARYA SHECHINAH- the Shechinah did not dwell on Mount Sinai

6)[line 39]בכור לנחלהBECHOR L'NACHALAH

The first male born to a father inherits a double portion of his father's estate. This is only true if the son was the first viable child to be born (Bechoros 46a)

7)[line 44]"בעת ההוא שלח בראדך בלאדן מלך בבל [ספרים ומנחה אל חזקיהו; כי שמע כי חלה חזקיהו]""BA'ES HA'HI SHALACH BERODACH BALADAN BEN BALADAN MELECH BAVEL, [SEFARIM U'MINCHAH EL CHIZKIYAHU; KI SHAMA KI CHALAH CHIZKIYAHU]" - "At that time, Berodach Baladan the son of Baladan, King of Bavel, sent [letters and a gift to Chizkiyahu; for he had heard that Chizkiyahu had fallen ill]" (Melachim II 20:12) (THE DAY THE SUN MOVED BACK)

(a)Following Chizkiyahu's intense Tefilah, HaSh-m rescinded the decree that he was destined to die, for not getting married and having children, and he recovered (see Background to Yevamos 49:33).

(b)What actually happened was that the sun moved backwards in the sky (from west to east), the number of degrees that it had hurried to set early on the day that Chizkiyahu's wicked father Achaz died to prevent the people from eulogizing him. Berodach Baladan ben Baladan generally woke up three hours into the day, ate, and went back to sleep until nine hours into the day. On that day, however, he woke up the second time to discover that it was morning. Thinking that his servants had allowed him to sleep a day and a night, he threatened to have them killed until they related to him the great miracle that had occurred. When he queried them further, they told them that the miracle had been wrought by the G-d of Chizkiyah ha'Melech. That was when he sent him the gift.

8)[line 46]חייסCHAYIS- [slaves have no] Halachically recognized lineage

9)[line 47]"[ועבדת לו את האדמה, אתה ובניך ועבדיך והבאת, והיה לבן אדניך לחם ואכלו, ומפבשת בן אדניך יאכל תמיד לחם על שלחני;] ולציבא חמישה עשר בנים ועשרים עבדים""... UL'TZIVA CHAMISHAH ASAR BANIM V'ESRIM AVADIM" - "[And you shall work the land on his behalf, you and your sons and your servants, and you shall bring in the crops; and it shall be for your master's son food and he shall eat it. And Mefivoshes the son of your master shall eat bread at my table.] And Tziva had five sons and twenty slaves" (Shmuel II 9:10) (PERFORMING KINDNESS WITH MEFIVOSHES, YEHONASAN'S SON)

(a)The Metzudas David explains that, initially, David believed that when Shaul and his three sons died in battle, they left no sons, and thus he took all the property belonging to Shaul's family and gave it to his wife, Michal (who was Shaul's daughter). Now that Tziva (a slave of the house of Shaul) informed David that Shaul's son, Yehonasan (David's close friend), left behind a son (Mefivoshes), who was lame in both legs, David called for him and transferred all of that property to him. In addition, out of the love he bore for Mefivoshes' father, Yehonasan, he invited Mefivoshes to eat regularly at his table. He now ordered Tziva to serve his new master Mefivoshes faithfully, and to ensure that his family would be well-fed (even though Mefivoshes himself did not need it).

(b)See also Background Yevamos 48:4.

10)[line 48]כפר בן בקרK'FAR BEN BAKAR- like the word "Ben" ("son of") is used in the phrase "Par Ben Bakar" ("an ox, the son of cattle"), i.e. it does not indicate any Halachically recognized lineage

11)[line 50]"[ויקח אסא את כל הכסף והזהב הנותרים באוצרות בית ה' ואת אוצרות בית מלך ויתנם ביד עבדיו] וישלחם המלך אסא אל בן הדד בן טברמן בן חזיון מלך ארם הישב בדמשק לאמר. [ברית ביני ובינך בין אבי ובין אביך הנה שלחתי לך שחד כסף וזהב לך הפרה את בריתך את בעשא מלך ישראל ויעלה מעלי]""... VA'YISHLACHEM HA'MELECH ASA EL BEN HADAD BEN TAVRIMON BEN CHEZYON MELECH ARAM HA'YOSHEV B'DAMESEK LEIMOR..." - "[And Asa took all the silver and gold that remained in the treasury of the Beis ha'Mikdash and in the royal treasury, and handing it to his servants, King Asa sent them to Ben-Hadad... king of Syria, who dwelt in Damascus, saying, ['A treaty exists between the two of us. I am therefore sending you a bribe of silver and gold, to abrogate the treaty that you made with Basha, king of Yisrael (and attack him) so that he will leave me be']" (Melachim I 15:18-19) (KING ASA AND HIS TREATY WITH BEN-HADAD, KING OF SYRIA)

(a)Basha, king of Yisrael, built a gigantic tower at a strategic point close to Yehudah's major cities, effectively preventing its citizens from leaving their towns. It was in answer to this threat that Asa (one of the better kings of Yehudah) sent to Ben-Hadad for help. Ben-Hadad responded favorably to Asa's call, and after he had ransacked a number of cities belonging to Yisrael, Basha was forced to withdraw his forces.

(b)Once Basha departed and Asa mobilized the men of Yehudah, they demolished the tower and with its stones they rebuilt Geva in Binyamin and Mitzpah.

12)[line 54]עד שיכלו כל נשמות שבגוףAD SHE'YICHLU KOL NESHAMOS SHEB'GUF- until all the souls that are in "Guf" will be born (lit. finished). Guf is the chamber in which the souls of all future Jews are kept; alt., Guf refers to the Pargod (Heavenly Curtain) that divides between the Shechinah and the angels (RASHI Yevamos 63b; see also Insights to 63b)

13)[line 54]"כי רוח מלפני יעטוף""KI RU'ACH MIL'FANAI YA'ATOF"- "... because the spirit that is before Me, and the souls that I have made, [hold back the redemption]" (Yeshayah 57:16).

14)[last line]לָשֶׁבֶת יְצָרָהּ בעינןLA'SHEVES YETZARAH BA'INAN- it is necessary that he fulfill the verse "la'Sheves Yetzarah" - "[For so says HaSh-m, Creator of the Heavens - He is G-d, Who fashioned the earth and made it, He prepares it; He did not create it for desolation,] he fashioned it for settlement; [I am HaSh-m, there is no other]" (Yeshayah 45:18).

62b----------------------------------------62b

15)[line 2]להשליםL'HASHLIM- to complete [the grandfather's Mitzvah of Piryah v'Rivyah. For example, when he had only a son and no daughter, and his son has a daughter, this completes the grandfather's Mitzvah.]

16)[line 12]איעקר מפירקיה דרב הונאI'AKAR MI'PIRKEI D'RAV HUNA- became sterile from the [long] Derashos of Rav Huna (because he would not leave the Derashah to use the bathroom)

17)[line 16]דקנית מינאיD'KANIS MINAI- that you acquired through me

18)[line 18]"ואחר בא חצרון אל בת מכיר אבי גלעד והוא לקחה והוא בן ששים שנה ותלד לו את שגוב""V'ACHAR BA CHETZRON EL BAS MACHIR AVI GIL'AD, V'HU LEKACHAH, V'HU BEN SHISHIM SHANAH, VA'TELED LO ES SEGUV" - "And afterwards, Chetzron came to the daughter of Machir the father of Gil'ad, and he married her at the age of sixty, and she bore him Seguv" (Divrei ha'Yamim I 2:21) (CHETZRON, THE FATHER OF KALEV, AND THE FAMILY OF MACHIR BEN MENASHEH)

(a)The verse has just informed us that Kalev was the son of Chetzron (Yefuneh was his stepfather), and that Efrat (i.e. Miriam) bore him Chur, who fathered Uri, who fathered Betzalel. Chetzron originally took the daughter of Machir as a concubine (RASHI). However, at the age of sixty he married her, and she bore him Seguv, who later fathered Ya'ir.

(b)Bearing in mind that Kalev was forty at the time the Meraglim were sent (as Kalev himself attests in Sefer Yehoshua), and Betzalel was thirteen (since the Torah refers to him as "Ish"), it emerges that each of the above fathers was eight years old, on average, when he fathered his son. This fact is based on the mere twenty-seven-year difference in age between Kalev and his great-grandson.

(c)Another interesting point that we learn from here is that although the Torah refers to both Machir and Ya'ir as sons of Menasheh, the latter was in fact a member of the tribe of Yehudah, and it was his mother who was initially part of the tribe of Menasheh. The commentaries explain that what happened was that on account of the particularly close relationship Ya'ir enjoyed with his mother's branch of the family, he went to live with them, and subsequently became known as a member of their tribe.

(d)Rashi explains that because Chetzron was from the royal family (an ancestor of David ha'Melech), Machir ben Menasheh wanted him as a son-in-law, so he encouraged him to take his daughter as a concubine. Later, when Ya'ir was born, he gave him twenty-three cities to encourage him to marry one of his daughters.

19)[line 25]יכשרYICHSHAR- will prosper, will succeed

20a)[line 31]מגבתMI'GABAS- from Gabath, a later name for Biblical Gibethon, in the territory of Dan (the area surrounding Tel Aviv)

b)[line 31]אנטיפרסANTIPRAS- Antipatris, a strategic city built by Herod and named for his father, Antipater, situated at the source of the Yarkon River (located near Kefar Saba)

21)[line 31]בפרק אחדB'FEREK ECHAD- during one short period of time

22)[line 34]ושנאה להםV'SHENA'AH LAHEM- and he taught them the Torah

23)[line 38]אסכרהASKERAH- (O.F. bon malant) quinsy, a severe development of heat, pain, redness and swelling in the throat; choking

24)[line 42]"האם אין עזרתי בי ותושיה נדחה ממני""HA'IM EIN EZRASI VI; V'SUSHIYAH NIDECHAH MIMENI?"- "Is not my help in me? And is wisdom driven quite from me?" (Iyov 6:13) - The word "Tushiyah" (wisdom) refers to the Torah.

25)[line 43]"נקבה תסובב גבר""NEKEIVAH TESOVEV GAVER"- "[How long will you go about, O you faithless daughter? HaSh-m has created a new thing in the earth:] A woman shall court a man" (Yirmeyahu 31:21).

26)[line 43]"וידעת כי שלום אהלך ופקדת נָוְךָ ולא תחטא""V'YADATA KI SHALOM OHALECHA; U'FAKADTA NAVECHA V'LO SECHETA"- "And you shall know that your tent is at peace; and you shall visit your residence and shall miss nothing" (Iyov 5:24) - The "residence" refers to one's wife.

27)[line 46]משתוקקתMISHTOKEKES- desires

28)[line 47]סמוך לווסתהSAMUCH L'VESTAH- the day or night that is adjacent to the time that she regularly has her period

29)[line 47]וכמה? עונהV'CHAMAH? ONAH- how much [time is termed "Samuch"]? One 12-hour period of time (RASHI) (RASHI to Pesachim 113b DH Onah writes one night and one day; however see RASHBAM there)

30)[line 48]והמדריךV'HA'MADRICH- one who leads, teaches

31)[line 48]והמשיאן סמוך לפירקןHA'MASI'AN SAMUCH L'FIRKAN- one who marries off his children close to their age of maturation (just before they reach Halachic adulthood)

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